Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
In cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the ball with a bat to score runs or prevent the loss of one's wicket. Any player, batting is denoted as a batsman, batswoman, or batter, regardless of whether batting is their particular area of expertise. Batsmen have to adapt to various conditions when playing on different cricket pitches in different countries - therefore, as well as having outstanding physical batting skills, top-level batsmen will have lightning reflexes, excellent decision-making and be good strategists. During an innings two members of the batting side are on the pitch at any time: the one facing the current delivery from the bowler is denoted the striker, while the other is the non-striker; when a batsman is out, they are replaced by a teammate. This continues until the end of the innings, when 10 of the team members are out, where upon the other team gets a turn to bat. Batting tactics and strategy vary depending on the type of match being played as well as the current state of play.
The main concerns for the batsmen are not to lose their wicket and to score as many runs as as possible. These objectives conflict – to score risky shots must be played, increasing the chance that the batsman will be dismissed, while the batsman's safest choice with a careful wicket-guarding stroke may be not to attempt any runs at all. Depending on the situation, batsmen may forget attempts at run-scoring in an effort to preserve their wicket, or may attempt to score runs as as possible with scant concern for the possibility of being dismissed; as with all other cricket statistics, batting statistics and records are given much attention and provide a measure of a player's effectiveness. The main statistic for batting is a player's batting average; this is calculated by dividing the number of runs he has scored, not by the innings he has played, but by the number of times he has been dismissed. Sir Donald Bradman set many batting records, some as far back as the 1930s and still unbeaten, he is regarded as the greatest batsman of all time.
Any player, regardless of their area of special skill, is referred to as a batsman while they are batting. However, a player, in the team principally because of their batting skill is referred to as a specialist batsman, or batsman, regardless of whether they are batting. In women's cricket, the term bats woman is sometimes encountered, as is batter, but'batsman' is used in both men's and women's cricket; the batsman's act of hitting the ball is called a stroke. Over time a standard batting technique has been developed, used by most batsmen. Technique refers to the batsman's stance before the ball is bowled as well as the movement of the hands, feet and body in the execution of a cricket stroke. Good technique is characterized by getting into the correct position to play the shot getting one's head and body in line with the ball, one's feet placed next to where the ball would bounce and swinging the bat at the ball to make contact at the precise moment required for the particular stroke being played.
The movement of the batsman for a particular delivery depends on the shot being attempted. Front-foot shots are played with the weight on the front foot and are played when the ball is pitched up to the batsman, while back-foot shots are played putting the weight onto the back foot to bowling, pitched short. Shots may be described as vertical bat shots, in which the bat is swung vertically at the ball, or horizontal or cross-bat shots, in which the bat is swung horizontally at the ball. While a batsman is not limited in where or how he may hit the ball, the development of good technique has gone hand in hand with the development of a standard or orthodox cricket shots played to specific types of deliveries; these "textbook" shots are standard material found in many coaching manuals. The advent of limited overs cricket, with its emphasis on rapid run-scoring, has led to increasing use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders. Unorthodox shots are typical – but not always – more high-risk than orthodox shots due to some aspects of good batting technique being abandoned.
The stance is the position. An ideal stance is "comfortable and balanced", with the feet 40 centimetres apart and astride the crease. Additionally, the front shoulder should be pointing down the wicket, the head facing the bowler, the weight balanced and the bat near the back toe; as the ball is about to be released, the batsman will lift his bat up behind in anticipation of playing a stroke and will shift his weight onto the balls of his feet. By doing this he is ready to move swiftly into position to address the ball once he sees its path out of the bowler's hand. Although this textbook, the side-on stance is the most common, a few international batsmen, such as Shivnarine Chanderpaul, use an "open" or "square on" stance; the term used to describe. While the bat should be raised as vertically as possible, coaching manuals suggest that correct technique is for the bat to be angled from the perpendicular; some players have employed an exaggerated backlift. Others, who have employed the more unorthodox open stanc
Dennis Leslie Amiss MBE is a former English cricketer and cricket administrator. He played for both England. A right-handed batsman, Amiss was a stroke maker through extra cover and midwicket – his two favourite areas to score runs, he was an accomplished batsman in all forms of the game. He averaged 42.86 in first-class, 35.06 in List-A, 46.30 in Tests and 47.72 in One Day Internationals. In first-class cricket he scored 102 centuries, his England record amassed over 50 Tests ranks him with the best England has produced. After retiring as a player in 1987, he served Warwickshire as Chairman of the Cricket Committee, he followed David Heath as chief executive from 1994 until 2006. In 1992 he was selected as an England selector. In November 2007 he became the deputy chairman of the Wales Cricket Board. Amiss suffered a serious back injury whilst playing football in his teenage years, which entailed him starting each day of his sporting life undergoing stretching routines to loosen up. Amiss made his Test debut for England in the fifth Test of the 1966 series with West Indies, he proved an accomplished Test match batsman.
He was one of the first batsmen to use a protective helmet. In scoring 3,612 Test runs, Amiss made eleven half-centuries and eleven centuries, including two double centuries against the West Indies, his highest Test match score his highest first-class score, was 262 not out against the West Indies in the 1973–74 Kingston Test, an innings that saved the Test match for England after they conceded a first innings lead of 230. The next highest score in England's innings was 38. After being dropped by England in 1975, he made a successful return against the West Indies at the Oval in the final Test of 1976, although his 203 in the first innings did not prevent England losing the match. Amiss's last Test came in 1977 when he was left out to make way for Geoff Boycott's return from self-imposed exile, his former Warwickshire teammate, Jack Bannister, stated "Dennis was always tinkering with his game, he was a bigger perfectionist than Colin Cowdrey". Amiss was a handy One Day International batsman scoring 859 runs, including four centuries and one half-century, with a top score of 137 against India, still England's second highest individual score in the Cricket World Cup, behind the 158 scored by Andrew Strauss in 2011.
He has the distinction of scoring the first One Day International century, the first instance of a debutant scoring a century in ODI. Amiss along with Keith Fletcher is credited to have shared the first partnership of hundred runs in the same match, he ended with an ODI batting average of 47.72, which excepting those players to have played fewer than five times, remains the highest of any England batsman who has completed his career. The still-active Kevin Pietersen averaged over 50 throughout the first 60 matches of his ODI career up until September 2007, but that figure had fallen to under 41 by June 2011. Amiss played World Series Cricket in the late 1970s in Australia. Amiss was banned from Test cricket for three years for taking part in the first'rebel' tour of South Africa in 1982. Amiss was selected as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1975. Amiss was awarded an MBE in 1988. Dennis Amiss is the first player in ODI cricket to have scored a century on both his debut and in his last match, the only other being Desmond Haynes.
On 7 June 1975 at Lord's in the first match of the Prudential World Cup Amiss smashed 137 runs in just 147 balls against India powered by 18 boundaries. His innings provided enough leverage for England to post a imposing and improbable target of 335 for India to be chased down within a span of 60 overs, it was the first time that a team would score 300 or more runs in an ODI match. The match featured the infamous and notorious ODI innings of Sunil Gavaskar who in reply to the nearly unreachable target set by England scored an unbeaten 36 in 174 balls with just one boundary to adorn his innings. Dennis Amiss MBE at LinkedIn Dennis Amiss at Cricinfo Dennis Amiss at CricketArchive
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
Tasmania cricket team
The Tasmanian cricket team, nicknamed the Tigers, represents the Australian state of Tasmania in cricket. They compete annually in the Australian domestic senior men's cricket season, which consists of the first-class Sheffield Shield and the limited overs Matador BBQs One-Day Cup. Tasmania played in the first first-class cricket match in Australia against Victoria in 1851, which they won by three wickets. Despite winning their first match, producing many fine cricketers in the late 19th century, Tasmania was overlooked when the participants in Australian first-class tournament known as the Sheffield Shield were chosen in 1892. For nearly eighty years the Tasmanian side played an average of only two or three first-class matches per year against one of the mainland Australian teams, or warm-up matches against a touring international test team. Tasmania were admitted to regular competitions when they became a founding member of the Gillette Cup domestic one day cricket tournament upon its inception in 1969.
They have performed well in it, winning it four times, having been runners-up twice. It took a further eight seasons before Tasmania were admitted into the Sheffield Shield in 1977–78, it was on a reduced fixtures list, but by the 1979–80 season, they had become full participants, progressed towards competitiveness within the tournament, first winning in the 2006–07 season—after 30 years in the competition. In the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash the Tigers have yet to win, but were runners-up in 2006–07. Tasmania play their limited overs cricket in a predominantly green uniform, with red and gold as their secondary colours, have a Tasmanian tiger as their team logo, they play home matches at Bellerive Oval, Clarence on Hobart's Eastern Shore, though matches are played at venues in Devonport and Launceston. Cricket certainly has been played in Tasmania since the time of European settlement in 1803, it was a popular pastime among marines. The first recorded match is known to have taken place in 1806, although it is most that unrecorded matches were being played at this time.
According to the colony's chaplain, famed diarist, Robert Knopwood by 1814 the game had become popular around the festive season at Christmas. By the 1820s there had still not been any official club organisation, but matches were being played on a regular basis. Cricket is recorded as having been played in the settlements at Richmond, Clarence Plains, Sorell, in the Macquarie Valley west of Campbell Town, Evandale and Hadspen. Many of these matches seem to have been organised between hotel licensees, in order to create profits through the sale of food and beverages, through betting on the outcome. One such match, arranged in March 1826 by Joseph Bowden, the hotelier of the Lamb Inn on Brisbane Street was played for a winner's purse of 50 guineas between "Eleven Gentlemen from the Counties of Sussex and Kent against the choice of the whole Island of Van Diemen’s Land". There is no evidence to suggest an "official cricket season" during the first two decades of the colony, many of these games seem to have been played around June and July, to coincide with the traditional English cricket season, rather than the Tasmanian summer.
Accounts of such matches suggest games were played in atrocious conditions due to winter rains and cold conditions. But by the 1830s, logic had prevailed and cricket seems to have reverted to the southern summer months. Club cricket had become well-established by the 1830s. One of the earliest men responsible for organising cricket within the colony was John Marshall, established the Hobart Town Club soon after his arrival from England. Soon after in 1835 the Derwent Cricket Club was formed making it the oldest surviving cricket club in Tasmania, in 1841, the Launceston Cricket Club was formed, making it the second oldest surviving cricket club in Tasmania, third oldest in Australia. Cricket had soon spread into many regional settlements throughout the Colony of Tasmania, making it one of the most popular pastimes there; some matches were played with large banquets following play. By the late 1840s organised cricket was doing well in both Hobart and Launceston, was spreading throughout the colony.
In 1850 the first "North" versus "South" match was held in Oatlands, midway between Hobart and Launceston, won by the South. The success of the match prompted promoters to organise an inter-colonial match, the inaugural first-class cricket match played in Tasmania, the first first-class cricket match in Australia, was played in 1851 between Victoria and Tasmania in Launceston at the Launceston Racecourse; the game was billed as "The Gentlemen of Port Phillip versus the Gentlemen of Van Diemen's Land". The game featured four-ball overs and no boundaries, attracted a crowd of about 2500 spectators, it was a timeless match, but only lasted for two days. Tasmania emerged victorious by three wickets. Despite winning the first first-class match in the Australian colonies, Tasmania felt its geographic isolation in the form of a lack of competition. Few touring sides wished to undertake the long sea journey to the island in the late 19th century; the game developed more with Tasmanian clubs maintaining a belief in amateurism at a time when mainland clubs were turning to professionals to further their development.
A lack of innovation stymied progress. The Victorian side that visited in 1858 had adopted the new round arm form of bowling, it demolished the Tasmanian batting order unused to the technique; the population decline of the 1850s as Tasmanians moved to the Vict
Guyana national cricket team
The Guyana cricket team is the representative first class cricket team of Guyana. It does not take part in any international competitions, but rather in inter-regional competitions in the Caribbean, such as the West Indies' Professional Cricket League, the best players may be selected for the West Indies team, which plays international cricket; the team competes in the Professional Cricket League under the franchise name Guyana Jaguars. Guyana has won the domestic first class title seven times since its inception in 1965–66, the third highest number of wins, behind Barbados and Jamaica. In one-day cricket, Guyana reached the final of the domestic competition four times in the early 2000s, but the last victory was in 2005–06, they have won the KFC Cup a total of nine times – including two shared titles –, the most by any competing team and Tobago coming closest with seven. The cricket team has been known under two other names – they were first known as Demerara when they played in the first first-class cricket game of the West Indies, against Barbados in 1865, they retained that name until 1899, when it was changed to British Guiana.
The name of British Guiana stuck until 1965–66, when the nation and thus the team changed to its current name. From 1971 until the mid-1980s two regional sides competed in an annual first class match for the Jones Cup and the Guystac Trophy; the list of prominent cricketers who have played for Guyana includes Basil Butcher, Shivnarine Chanderpaul, Colin Croft, Roy Fredericks, Lance Gibbs, Roger Harper, Carl Hooper, Alvin Kallicharran, Rohan Kanhai, Clive Lloyd and Ramnaresh Sarwan. In June 2018, Guyana was named the Best First-Class Team of the Year at the annual Cricket West Indies' Awards. Guyana's main home ground used to be the Bourda ground in Georgetown, where they have played 131 of their 181 first class home games, which has hosted 30 Test matches with the West Indies. Other grounds include the Albion Sports Complex in the Berbice region, which has hosted 24 Guyana matches and five ODIs, from 1997–98 Guyana began to use the Enmore Recreation Ground, East Coast Demerara, where they have played five games.
In the last few years, Guyana have played nearly all their home matches at the Guyana National Stadium at Providence, East Bank Demerara. Listed below are players who have represented Guyana in either the 2018–19 Regional Four Day Competition or the 2018–19 Regional Super50. Players with international caps are listed in bold. Source: Regional Four Day Competition, Regional Super50 Regional Four Day Competition: 1972–73, 1974–75, 1982–83, 1986–87, 1992–93, 1997–98, 2014-15, 2015-16 Domestic one-day competition: 1979–80, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1992–93, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2001–02, 2003–04, 2005–06 Caribbean Twenty20: 2010 Inter-Colonial Tournament: 1895–96, 1929–30, 1934–35, 1935–36, 1937–38 Stanford 20/20: 2008 List of international cricketers from Guyana Cricinfo CricketArchive 2005–06 KFC Cup Squad from Cricinfo