Neustadt International Prize for Literature
The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and its international literary publication, World Literature Today. It is considered one of the more prestigious international literary prizes compared with the Nobel Prize in Literature, it is sometimes referred to as the "American Nobel". Since it was founded in 1970, some 30 of its laureates, candidates, or jurors have been awarded Nobel Prizes. Like the Nobel, it is awarded to individuals for their entire body of work, not for a single one; the Neustadt International Prize for Literature was established as the Books Abroad International Prize for Literature in 1969 by Ivar Ivask, editor of Books Abroad. It was subsequently renamed the Books Abroad/Neustadt Prize, the award assumed its present name in 1976, it is the first international literary award of this scope to originate in the United States and is one of the few international prizes for which poets and playwrights are eligible.
The Prize is a silver eagle feather, a certificate, $50,000 USD. The award was endowed by Walter and Doris Neustadt of Ardmore, Oklahoma to ensure the award in perpetuity; the charter of the Neustadt Prize stipulates that the award be given in recognition of outstanding achievement in poetry, fiction, or drama and that it be conferred on the basis of literary merit. Any living author writing in any language is eligible, provided only that at least a representative portion of his or her work is available in English, the language used during the jury deliberations; the prize may serve to crown a lifetime's achievement or to direct attention to an important body of work, still developing. The prize is not open to application. Candidates are selected by a jury of at least seven members. Selection is not limited by geographic language or genre; the Neustadt International Prize for Literature is the only international literary award of this scope developed in the United States. It is one of few international prizes for which poets and playwrights alike are eligible.
Source: List of literary awards Neustadt International Prize for Literature, official website Neustadt International Prize for Literature winners listed by year
Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 recognized languages; the earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Sanskrit literature begins with the oral literature of the Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 BCE; the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata appeared towards the end of the 2nd millennium BCE. Classical Sanskrit literature developed during the first few centuries of the first millennium BCE, as did the Tamil Sangam literature, the Pāli Canon. In the medieval period, literature in Kannada and Telugu appeared in the 9th and 11th centuries respectively. Literature in Marathi and Bengali appeared. Thereafter literature in various dialects of Hindi and Urdu began to appear as well. Early in the 20th century, Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore became India's first Nobel laureate. In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards.
Eight Jnanpith Awards each have been awarded in Hindi and Kannada, followed by five in Bengali and Malayalam, four in Odia, four in Gujarati, Marathi and Urdu, two each in Assamese and Tamil, one in Sanskrit. Examples of early works written in Vedic Sanskrit include the holy Hindu texts, such as the core Vedas. Other examples include the Sulba Sutras, which are some of the earliest texts on geometry.. Ved Vyasa's Mahabharata and Valmiki's Ramayana, written in Epic Sanskrit, are regarded as the greatest Sanskrit epics; the famous poet and playwright Kālidāsa wrote one epic: Raghuvamsha. Other examples of works written in Classical Sanskrit include the Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi which standardized the grammar and phonetics of Classical Sanskrit; the Laws of Manu is a controversial text in Hinduism. Kālidāsa is considered to be the greatest playwright in Sanskrit literature, one of the greatest poets in Sanskrit literature, whose Recognition of Shakuntala and Meghaduuta are the most famous Sanskrit plays.
Some other famous plays were Mricchakatika by Shudraka, Svapna Vasavadattam by Bhasa, Ratnavali by Sri Harsha. Poetic works include Geeta Govinda by Jayadeva; some other famous works are Vatsyayana's Kamasutra. The most notable Prakrit languages were the Jain Prakrit, Pali and Shauraseni. One of the earliest extant Prakrit works is Hāla's anthology of poems in Maharashtri, the Gāhā Sattasaī, dating to the 3rd to 5th century CE. Kālidāsa and Harsha used Maharashtri in some of their plays and poetry. In Jainism, many Svetambara works were written in Maharashtri. Many of Aśvaghoṣa's plays were written in Shauraseni as were a sizable number of Jain works and Rajasekhara's Karpuramanjari. Canto 13 of the Bhaṭṭikāvya is written in what is called "like the vernacular", that is, it can be read in two languages simultaneously: Prakrit and Sanskrit; the Pali Canon is of Indian origin. Pali literature however was produced outside of the mainland Indian subcontinent in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works and some grammatical works.
Major works in Pali are Jataka tales, Dhammapada and Mahavamsa. Some of the major Pali grammarians were Kaccayana and Vararuci; the Sangam literature is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of south India spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE. This collection contains 2381 poems in Tamil composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous. Most of the available Sangam literature is from the Third Sangam, this period is known as the Sangam period, which refers to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature; the Only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, governance and bereavement; some of the greatest Tamil scholars, like Thiruvalluvar, who wrote on ethics, on the various issues of life like virtue and love, or the Tamil poet Mamulanar, who explored historical incidents that happened in India, lived during the Sangam period.
The Charyapadas are cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. The Charyapadas are Buddhist songs composed in the 8th to 12th centuries; these writings bear similarities to Bengali languages as well. The phonological and morphological traits of these songs bear strong resemblance to Assamese some of which are extant. After the Charyapadas, the period may again be split into Pre-Vaishnavite and Vaishnavite sub-periods; the earliest known Assamese writer is Hema Saraswati, who wrote a small poem "Prahlada Charita". In the time of the King Indranarayana of Kamatapur the two poets Harihara Vipra and Kaviratna Saraswati composed Asvamedha Parva and Jayadratha Vadha respectively. Another poet named Rudra Kandali translated Drona Parva into Assamese, but the most well-known poet of the Pre-Vaishnavite sub period is Madhav Kandali, who rendered Valmiki's Ramayana into Assamese verse under the patronage of Mahamanikya, a Kachari king of Jayan
Such a Long Journey (novel)
Such a Long Journey is a 1991 novel by Rohinton Mistry. It won several other awards. In 2010 the book made headlines when it was withdrawn from the University of Mumbai's English syllabus after complaints from the family of the Shiv Sena politician Bal Thackeray; such a Long Journey takes place in Mumbai, Maharashtra, in the year 1971. The novel's protagonist is a hard-working bank clerk Gustad Noble, a member of the Parsi community and a devoted family man struggling to keep his wife Dilnavaz, three children out of poverty, but his family begins to fall apart as his eldest son Sohrab refuses to attend the prestigious Indian Institute of Technology to which he has gained admittance and his youngest daughter, falls ill. Other conflicts within the novel involve Gustad's ongoing interactions with his eccentric neighbours and his relationship with his close friend and co-worker, Dinshawji. Tehmul, a unimportant and mentally disabled character, is essential in Gustad's life, as he brings out the tender side of him and represents the innocence of life.
A letter that Gustad receives one day from an old friend, Major Bilimoria draws him into a government deception involving threats and large amounts of money. He begins the long journey, that sheds new light on all aspects of Gustad's personal and political life; the novel not only follows Gustad's life, but India's political turmoil under the leadership of Indira Gandhi. When it was published in 1991, it won the Governor General's Award, the Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best Book, the W. H. Smith/Books in Canada First Novel Award, it was shortlisted for the Trillium Award. It has been translated into German, Norwegian and Japanese, Korean and has been made into the 1998 film Such a Long Journey; such a Long Journey was withdrawn from the syllabus of Mumbai University since it contained, in the perspective of some character in the book and derogatory remarks about Maharashtrians and abusive languages about Bal Thackeray, leader of Shiv Sena, a political party from Maharashtra. In the book, the character Dinshawji angrily recounts an incident with a dabbawala who's rude to him, stating "What to do with such low-class people?
No manners, no sense, nothing. And you know, responsible for this attitude — that bastard Shiv Sena leader who worships Hitler and Mussolini, he and his'Maharashtra for Maharashtrians' nonsense. They won’t stop till they have complete Maratha Raj.... Wait till the Marathas take over we will have real Gandoo Raj."Aditya Thackeray, grandson of Bal Thackeray, a final-year Arts student at St. Xavier's College, complained to the vice chancellor that the book contains abusive language about his grandfather and the Maharashtrian community and demanded its withdrawal from the syllabus; the book was prescribed for the second year Bachelor of Arts in 2007–08 as an optional text, according to University sources. It was confirmed that Dr. Rajan Welukar, University of Mumbai's Vice-Chancellor used the emergency powers under Section 14 of the Maharashtra Universities Act, 1994, to withdraw the book from the syllabus. Based on a complaint, the Board of Studies, which had recommended the book earlier, resolved that it must be withdrawn with effect from September 15.
Following this incidence the book entered public debate. The teachers' union wanted the Vice Chancellor to defend academic freedom, claiming that the book was selected for literary reasons, their point of view was that the author, Rohinton Mistry, did not think poorly of Marathi-speakers, that the passages were perspectives of a character in the book, namely Kapur. The Chief Minister of Maharashtra Ashok Chavan stated that the book is "highly abusive and objectionable". Former Vice-Chancellor of Mumbai University and Member of the Planning Commission of India Bhalchandra Mungekar stated that "I'm convinced giving the benefit of the doubt to the book being a piece of fiction, that some sentences are objectionable...there is a difference between dissenting with the political and social philosophy of an individual or organisation, abusing the individual by name". Faculty have complained of pressure tactics being used to coerce their support of the vice chancellor's decision; the book is unlikely to be reintroduced in the short term on account of possibility of law and order problems.
Mistry has expressed disappointment in a statement regarding the withdrawal. Gustad Noble Dilnavaz Noble Sohrab Noble Darius Noble Roshan Noble Major Jimmy "Billiboy" Billimoria Dinshawji Malcom Saldanha Miss Kutpitia Tehmul "Lungraa" Mr. Rabadi Inspector Bamji Mrs. Pastakia Mr. Pastakia Ghulam Mohammed Dr. Paymaster Sidewalk Artist Laurie Coutino Mr. Madon Peerbhoy Paanwalla Alamai "Domestic Vulture" Nusli – Indira Gandhi Such a Long Journey, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart ISBN 0-7710-6058-0 Such a Long Journey, London: Faber ISBN 0-571-16147-2 Such a Long Journey, New York: Knopf ISBN 0-679-40258-6 Such a Long Journey, London: Faber ISBN 0-571-16525-7 Such a Long Journey, New York: Vintage ISBN 0-679-73871-1 Such a Long Journey, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart ISBN 0-7710-6057-2 Such a Long Journey, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart ISBN 0-7710-6104-8 Review
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was co-founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane, his brothers Richard and John, as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, only becoming a separate company the following year. Penguin revolutionised publishing in the 1930s through its inexpensive paperbacks, sold through Woolworths and other high street stores for sixpence, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market. Penguin's success demonstrated. Penguin had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, the arts, science. Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House, an emerging conglomerate, formed in 2013 by the merger with American publisher Random House. Penguin Group was wholly owned by British Pearson PLC, the global media company which owned the Financial Times, but in the new umbrella company it retains only a minority holding of 25% of the stock against Random House owner, German media company Bertelsmann, which controls the majority stake.
It is one of the largest English-language publishers known as the "Big Six", now the "Big Five", along with Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of The Bodley Head with the books distributed from the crypt of Holy Trinity Church Marylebone. Only paperback editions were published until the "King Penguin" series debuted in 1939, latterly the Pelican History of Art was undertaken: these were unsuitable as paperbacks because of the length and copious illustrations on art paper so cloth bindings were chosen instead. Penguin Books has its registered office in the City of Westminster, England. Anecdotally, Lane recounted how it was his experience with the poor quality of reading material on offer at Exeter train station that inspired him to create cheap, well designed quality books for the mass market; however the question of how publishers could reach a larger public had been the subject of a conference at Rippon Hall, Oxford in 1934 which Lane had attended.
Though the publication of literature in paperback was associated with poor quality lurid fiction, the Penguin brand owed something to the short-lived Albatross imprint of British and American reprints that traded in 1932. Inexpensive paperbacks did not appear viable to Bodley Head, since the deliberately low price of 6d. Made profitability seem unlikely; this helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights for some works more cheaply than he otherwise might have done since other publishers were convinced of the short term prospects of the business. In the face of resistance from the traditional book trade it was the purchase of 63,000 books by Woolworths Group that paid for the project outright, confirmed its worth and allowed Lane to establish Penguin as a separate business in 1936. By March 1936, ten months after the company's launch on 30 July 1935, one million Penguin books had been printed; this early flush of success brought expansion and the appointment of Eunice Frost, first as a secretary as editor and as a director, to have a pivotal influence in shaping the company.
It was Frost who in 1945 was entrusted with the reconstruction of Penguin Inc after the departure of its first managing director Ian Ballantine. Penguin Inc had been incorporated in 1939 in order to satisfy US copyright law, had enjoyed some success under its vice president Kurt Enoch with such titles as What Plane Is That and The New Soldier Handbook despite being a late entrant into an well established paperback market. From the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. Avoiding the illustrated gaudiness of other paperback publishers, Penguin opted for the simple appearance of three horizontal bands, the upper and lower of which were colour-coded according to which series the title belonged to. In the central white panel, the author and title were printed in Gill Sans and in the upper band was a cartouche with the legend "Penguin Books"; the initial design was created by the 21-year-old office junior Edward Young, who drew the first version of the Penguin logo. Series such as Penguin Specials and The Penguin Shakespeare had individual designs.
The colour schemes included: orange and white for general fiction and white for crime fiction and white for travel and adventure, dark blue and white for biographies and white for miscellaneous and white for drama. Lane resisted the introduction of cover images for several years; some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look. From 1937 and on, the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the 1990s when a merge with Viking involved the head office moving to London; the Second World War saw the company established as a national institution, though it had no formal role, Penguin was integral to the war effort thanks in no small part to the publication of such bestselling manuals as Keeping Poultry and Rabbits on Scraps and Aircraft Recognition and supplying books for the services and British POWs. Penguin printed some 600 titles and started nineteen new series in the six years of the war and a time of enormous increase in the demand for books Penguin enjoyed a privileged place among its peers.
Paper rationing was the besetting problem of publishers during wartime, with the fall of France cutting off supp
A Fine Balance
A Fine Balance is the second novel by Rohinton Mistry. Set in "an unidentified city" in India in 1975 and in 1984 during the turmoil of The Emergency, the book concerns four characters from varied backgrounds – Dina Dalal, Ishvar Darji, his nephew Omprakash Darji and the young student Maneck Kohlah – who come together and develop a bond. First published by McClelland and Stewart in 1995, it won the 1995 Giller Prize, it was shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1996. It was one of the only two Canadian books selected for Oprah's Book Club, was one of the selected books in the 2002 edition of Canada Reads, championed by actress Megan Follows. An acclaimed stage adaptation of the novel by the Tamasha Theatre Company was produced at the Hampstead Theatre in London in 2006 and revived in 2007; the book exposes the changes in Indian society from independence in 1947 to the Emergency called by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Mistry was critical of Indira Gandhi in the book. She, however, is never referred to by name by any of the characters, is instead called "the Prime Minister".
The characters, from diverse backgrounds, are brought together by economic forces changing India. Ishvar and Omprakash's family is part of the Chamaar caste, who traditionally cured leather and were considered untouchable. In an attempt to break away from the restrictive caste system, Ishvar's father apprentices his sons Ishvar and Narayan to a Muslim tailor, Ashraf Chacha, in a nearby town, so they became tailors; as a result of their skills, which are passed on to Narayan's son Omprakash, Ishvar and Om move to Bombay to get work, by unavailable in the town near their village because a pre-made clothing shop has opened. A powerful upper-caste village thug, Thakur Dharamsi has his henchmen murder Narayan and his family for having the temerity to ask for a ballot. Ishvar and Omprakash are the only two who escape the killing as they lodged with Ashraf in the nearby town. At the beginning of the book, the two tailors and Omprakash, are on their way to the flat of widow Dina Dalal via a train. While on the train, they meet a college student named Maneck Kohlah, who coincidentally is on his way to the flat of Dina Dalal to be a boarder.
Maneck, from a small mountain village in northern India, moves to the city to acquire a college certificate "as a back-up" in case his father's soft drink business is no longer able to compete after the building of a highway near their village. Maneck and the two tailors go to Dina's flat together. Dina hires Ishvar and Om for piecework, is happy to let Maneck stay with her. Dina, from a traditionally wealthy Parsi family, maintains tenuous independence from her brother by living in the flat of her deceased husband, a chemist. Dina grew up in a wealthy family, her father was a medical doctor. Her mother was withdrawn and unable to take care of Dina after her father's death, so the job fell to Nusswan, Dina's elder brother. Nusswan was rather abusive to Dina, forcing her to do all the cooking and drop out of school, hitting her when she went against his wishes. Dina rebelled against Nusswan and his prospective suitors for her when she came of age, found her own husband, Rustom Dalal, a chemist, at a concert hall.
Nusswan and his wife Ruby were happy to let her move to his flat. Dina and Rustom lived for three years until Rustom died on their third wedding anniversary, after being hit by a car while on his bicycle. Dina became a tailor under the guidance of Rustom's surrogate parents to avoid having to move in with Nusswan. After twenty years her eyesight gave out from complicated embroidery and she was once again jobless, she met a lady from a company called Au Revoir Exports - Mrs Gupta - who would buy ready-made dresses in patterns. She agrees to let Dina sew the patterns, but since Dina has poor eyesight, she decides to hire tailors. She decides to have a paying guest to generate more income for her rent; the tailors rent their own sewing machines, come to Dina's flat each day for nearly two weeks before the first round of dresses is completed. The three get along well, but Dina and Omprakash do not see eye to eye all the time. Omprakash is angry. Maneck was born in a mountain town to Mr and Mrs Kohlah.
His father owned a grocery store, in the family for generations. The store manufactured the locally popular soda, Kohlah Cola. Maneck spent his days going to school, helping at the store, going on walks with his father; when he was in the fourth standard, Maneck was sent to boarding school to help his education, much to his dismay. After this, his relationship with his parents deteriorates because he does not wish to be separated from them and feels betrayed, his parents send him to a college and choose his major and air-conditioning. Maneck stays at the student hostel. Maneck becomes friends with his neighbor, the student president and who teaches him how to get rid of vermin in his room. Avinash teaches Maneck chess and they play together often. Avinash becomes involved in political events, for which Maneck has little interest, their friendship is no longer a priority for Avinash, they start seeing each other quite infrequently. But when the Emergency is declared in India, political activists had to go into hiding in order to be safe, Avinash included.
Maneck, after a humiliating ragging session by fellow hostel students, has his mother arrange a different living situation for him, he moves in with Dina Dalal. Dina and the tailors' b
University of Mumbai
The University of Mumbai, informally known as, is one of the earliest state universities in India and the oldest in Maharashtra. It offers Bachelors and Doctoral courses, as well as diplomas and certificates in many disciplines like the Arts, Science and Engineering; the language of instruction for most courses is English. The University of Mumbai has one outside Mumbai; the Fort campus carries out administrative work only. Several institutes in Mumbai affiliated to the university are now autonomous institutes or universities; the University of Mumbai is one of the largest universities in the world. In 2011, the total number of enrolled students was 549,432; the University of Mumbai has 711 affiliated colleges. In accordance with "Wood's despatch", drafted by Sir Charles Wood in 1854, The University of Bombay was established in 1857 after presentation of a petition from the Bombay Association to the British colonial government in India; the University of Mumbai was modeled on similar universities in the United Kingdom the University of London.
The first departments established were the Faculty of Arts at Elphinstone College in 1835 and the Faculty of Medicine at Grant Medical College in 1845. Both colleges existed before the university was founded and surrendered their degree-granting privileges to the university; the first degrees awarded in 1862 were Bachelor of Licentiate in Medicine. The Town Hall in Mumbai was used as the university's offices; until 1904, the university only conducted examinations, awarded affiliations to colleges, developed curricula and produced guidelines for colleges developing curricula. Teaching departments, research disciplines and post-graduate courses were introduced from 1904 and several additional departments were established. After India achieved independence in 1947, the functions and powers of the university were re-organised under The Bombay University Act of 1953; the name of the University was changed from University of Bombay to University of Mumbai in 1996. In 1949, student enrollment was 42,272 with 80 affiliated colleges.
By 1975, these numbers had grown to 114 respectively. The Kalina campus in suburban Mumbai covers an area of 93 hectares and houses graduate training and research centres. Departments offering courses in the sciences, technology and humanities are located here. Most colleges of engineering and medicine affiliated to the University of Mumbai, are owned; the university does not have its own medicine departments. Centres and institutes located in the Kalina Campus include: Examination House known as Mahatma Jyotirao Phule Bhavan houses the office of the Controller of Examinations. Centralized assessment of answer books for various departments is carried out in a separate four-storey annex. Examination processes were made more efficient by the introduction of online delivery of question papers for examinations, assessment of answer books by scanning at remote examination centers; the academic depository of the university was started in collaboration with CDSL in 2015. The university is the first university in the country to start an academic depository.
National Centre for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology — a research facility Department of Biophysics — the only such department in western India Jawaharlal Nehru Library Garware Institute of Career Education and Development, whose courses include medical transcription and management courses such as agriculture business management, pharma management and tourism management MAST FM, the campus radio station of the university operating at 107.8 MHz frequency modulation Alkesh Dinesh Mody Numismatic Museum which houses displays of currency from around the world Alkesh Dinesh Mody Institute for Financial and Management Studies which offers BMS, MFSM and MMS programmes Department of Extra Mural Studies which conducts weekend courses in many disciples including astronomy, astrophysics and animal taxonomy, hobby robotics, hobby electronics The Institute of Distance and Open Learning which offers courses in humanities, commerce, computer science, information technology Western Regional Instrumentation Centre — a research and training facility for instrumentation engineering and science Centre for African Studies Centre for Eurasian Studies A rose garden where more than a hundred varieties of rose have been cultivated Marathi Bhasha Bhavan Centre which conducts academic and cultural activities associated with the Marathi language The Thane Campus, established in 2014, spans an area of 2.4 ha and is a modern, two-storey complex.
It houses administrative offices, the School of Law, University of Mumbai and undertakes management courses. The University of Bombay was established in 1857 at the Fort campus, located near the southern end of Mumbai island, it houses the administrative division of the university on a 5.3 ha site. It has 116,000 m2 of built-up area, 2,000 m2 of classrooms, 7,800 m2 of laboratory space. There are two post-graduate centres, 354 affiliated colleges, 36 departments, it is built in the Gothic style and the Rajabai Clock Tower stands on the lawns of the campus. One of Mumbai's landmarks, the Rajabai Clock Tower was completed in the 1870s and houses the University of Mumbai's library. Sir George Gilbert Scott modeled the Rajabai Clock Tower on the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster in London. Local businessman Premchand Roychand contributed to the cost of construction and named the tower in memory of his mother, Rajabai; the tower has five storeys. At a height
York University is a public research university in Toronto, Canada. It is Canada's third-largest university, it has 52,300 students, 7,000 faculty and staff, 295,000 alumni worldwide, it has eleven faculties, including the Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies, Faculty of Science, Lassonde School of Engineering, Schulich School of Business, Osgoode Hall Law School, Glendon College, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Health, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of the Arts, Media and Design, 28 research centres. The Keele campus is home to a satellite location of Seneca College. York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year, its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, within the neighbourhood community of York University Heights. Several of York's programs have gained notable recognition both nationally and internationally. York houses Canada's oldest film school, ranked one of the best in Canada, with an acceptance rate comparable to that of USC School of Cinematic Arts and Tisch School of the Arts. York's Osgoode Hall Law School was ranked second best in Canada, in Maclean's 2012 ranking of Canadian common law schools. In The Economist's 2011 full-time MBA rankings, York's Schulich School of Business ranked ninth in the world, first in Canada, in CNN Expansion's ranking of MBA programs, Schulich ranked 18th in the world, placing first in Canada. York's School of Kinesiology and Health Science ranked 1st in Canada and 16th best in the world by ShanghaiRanking in 2017. Over the last twenty years, York has become a centre for labour strife with several faculty and other strikes occurring, including the longest university strike in Canadian history in 2018.
York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year. Its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
It became independent in 1965, after an initial period of affiliation with the University of Toronto, under the York University Act, 1965. Its main campus on the northern outskirts of Toronto opened in 1965. Murray Ross, who continues to be honoured today at the University in several ways – including the Murray G. Ross Award – was still vice-president of U of T when he was approached to become York University's new president. At the time, York University was envisaged as a feeder campus to U of T, until Ross's powerful vision led it to become a separate institution. In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, in the Jane and Finch community; the Glendon campus became a bilingual liberal arts college led by Escott Reid, who envisaged it as a national institution to educate Canada's future leaders, a vision shared by Prime Minister Lester Pearson, who formally opened Glendon College in 1966. The first Canadian undergraduate program in dance opened at York University in 1970.
In 1972, Canada Post featured the nascent institution on 8¢ stamps, entitled York University Campus, North York, Ont. The first Canadian PhD. program in Women's Studies opened with five candidates in January 1992. Its bilingual mandate and focus on the liberal arts continue to shape Glendon's special status within York University; the new Keele Campus was regarded as somewhat isolated, in a industrialized part of the city. Petrol storage facilities are still across the street; some of the early architecture was unpopular with many, not only for the brutalist designs, but the vast expanses between buildings, not viewed as suitable for the climate. In the last two decades, the campus has been intensified with new buildings, including a dedicated student centre and new fine arts, computer science and business administration buildings, a small shopping mall, a hockey arena; the Aviva Centre tennis stadium, built in 2004, is a perennial host of the Canada Masters tennis tournament. As Toronto has spread further out, York has found itself in a central location within the built-up Greater Toronto Area, in particular, near the Jane and Finch neighbourhood.
Its master plan envisages a denser on-campus environment commensurate with that location. Students occupied the university's administration offices in March 1997, protesting escalating tuition hikes. York University has a history of teaching assistant strikes. In 1997, there w