Cessna O-1 Bird Dog
The Cessna L-19/O-1 Bird Dog was a liaison and observation aircraft. It was the first all-metal fixed-wing aircraft ordered for and by the United States Army following the Army Air Forces' separation from it in 1947; the Bird Dog had a lengthy career in the U. S. military, as well as in other countries. The U. S. Army was searching for an aircraft that could adjust artillery fire, as well as perform liaison duties, preferably be constructed of all metal, as the fabric-covered liaison aircraft used during World War II had short service lives; the U. S. Army issued the specification for a two-seat liaison and observation monoplane, the Cessna Aircraft Company submitted the Cessna Model 305A, a development of the Cessna 170; the Cessna 305A was a single-engined, strut-braced, high-wing monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear. The greatest difference from the Cessna 170 was that the 305A had only two seats, in tandem configuration, with angled side windows to improve ground observation. Other differences included a redesigned rear fuselage, providing a view directly to the rear, transparent panels in the wings' center-section over the cockpit, which allowed the pilot to look directly overhead.
A wider door was fitted to allow a stretcher to be loaded. The U. S. Army awarded a contract to Cessna for 418 of the aircraft, designated the L-19A Bird Dog; the prototype Cessna 305 first flew on 14 December 1949, it now resides in the Spirit of Flight Center in Erie, Colorado. Deliveries began in December 1950, the aircraft were soon in use fighting their first war in Korea from 1950 through 1953. An instrument trainer variant was developed in 1953 versions had constant speed propellers, the final version, the L-19E, had a larger gross weight. Cessna produced 3,431 aircraft; the L-19 received the name Bird Dog as a result of a contest held with Cessna employees to name the aircraft. The winning entry, submitted by Jack A. Swayze, an industrial photographer, was selected by a U. S. Army board; the name was chosen because the role of the army's new aircraft was to find the enemy and orbit overhead until artillery could be brought to bear on the enemy. While flying low and close to the battlefield, the pilot would observe the exploding shells and adjust the fire via his radios, in the manner of a bird dog used by game hunters.
The United States Department of Defense ordered 3,200 L-19s that were built between 1950 and 1959, entering both the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps inventories designated as OE-1s in the Marine Corps until all US military aircraft designations were standardized in 1962; the aircraft were used in various utility roles such as artillery spotting, front line communications and training. In 1962, the Army L-19 and Marine Corps OE-1 was redesignated the O-1 Bird Dog and entered the war in Vietnam. During the early 1960s, the Bird Dog was flown by South Vietnamese, U. S. Army, U. S. Marines in South Vietnam and by clandestine forward air controllers in Laos and Cambodia; because of its short takeoff and landing and low altitude/low airspeed capabilities, the O-1 later found its way into U. S. Air Force service as a Forward Air Controller aircraft for vectoring faster fighter and attack aircraft and supporting combat search-and-rescue operations recovering downed aircrews. During the Vietnam War the Bird Dog was used for reconnaissance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment, radio relay, convoy escort and the forward air control of tactical aircraft, to include bombers operating in a tactical role.
Supplementing the O-1 gradually replacing it, the USAF switched to the Cessna O-2 Skymaster and North American OV-10 Bronco, while the U. S. Marine Corps took delivery of the OV-10 to replace their aging O-1s. Both were faster twin-engined aircraft, with the OV-10 being a turboprop aircraft, but the U. S. Army retained the Bird Dog throughout the war with up to 11 Reconnaissance Airplane Companies deployed to cover all of South Vietnam, the DMZ and the southern edge of North Vietnam, its quieter noise footprint, lower speed, tighter maneuverability, short runway ability and better visibility kept it valued by the ground units it supported and feared by enemy units it flew over. The last U. S. Army O-1 Bird Dog was retired in 1974. During the course of the Vietnam War, 469 O-1 Bird Dogs were lost to all causes; the USAF lost 178, the USMC lost 7, 284 were lost from the U. S. Army, South Vietnamese Forces, clandestine operators. Three Bird Dogs were lost to enemy hand-held surface-to-air missiles.
Two O-1 Bird Dogs were loaned to the Australian Army's 161 Reconnaissance Flight operating out of Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province. One was lost to ground fire in May 1968. Another Bird Dog was built by this unit's maintenance crew, using aircraft sections salvaged from dumps around Vietnam, it was test-flown and smuggled back to Australia in pieces, contained in crates marked as "aircraft spares". This aircraft now resides in the Museum of Army Flying at the Army Aviation Center at Oakey, Queensland; as the USAF phased out the O-1 in favor of the O-2 and OV-10, many O-1s in the United States were sold as surplus. During the 1970s and 1980s, Ector Aircraft remanufactured many as the Ector Mountaineer with their original powerp
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure. The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing. Wing shape is maintained by the suspension lines, the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing, the aerodynamic forces of the air flowing over the outside. Despite not using an engine, paraglider flights can last many hours and cover many hundreds of kilometres, though flights of one to two hours and covering some tens of kilometres are more the norm. By skillful exploitation of sources of lift, the pilot may gain height climbing to altitudes of a few thousand metres. In 1952 Canadian Domina Jalbert patented a governable gliding parachute with multi-cells and controls for lateral glide. In 1954, Walter Neumark predicted a time when a glider pilot would be "able to launch himself by running over the edge of a cliff or down a slope... whether on a rock-climbing holiday in Skye or ski-ing in the Alps."In 1961, the French engineer Pierre Lemongine produced improved parachute designs that led to the Para-Commander.
The PC had cutouts at the rear and sides that enabled it to be towed into the air and steered, leading to parasailing/parascending. Domina Jalbert invented the Parafoil, he filed US Patent 3131894 on January 10, 1963. About that time, David Barish was developing the "sail wing" for recovery of NASA space capsules – "slope soaring was a way of testing out... the Sail Wing." After tests on Hunter Mountain, New York, in September 1965, he went on to promote slope soaring as a summer activity for ski resorts. Author Walter Neumark wrote Operating Procedures for Ascending Parachutes, in 1973 he and a group of enthusiasts with a passion for tow-launching PCs and ram-air parachutes broke away from the British Parachute Association to form the British Association of Parascending Clubs. In 1997, Neumark was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club of the UK. Authors Patrick Gilligan and Bertrand Dubuis wrote the first flight manual, The Paragliding Manual in 1985, coining the word paragliding; these developments were combined in June 1978 by three friends, Jean-Claude Bétemps, André Bohn and Gérard Bosson, from Mieussy, Haute-Savoie, France.
After inspiration from an article on slope soaring in the Parachute Manual magazine by parachutist and publisher Dan Poynter, they calculated that on a suitable slope, a "square" ram-air parachute could be inflated by running down the slope. Bohn glided down to the football pitch in the valley 1000 metres below. "Parapente" was born. From the 1980s, equipment has continued to improve, the number of paragliding pilots and established sites has continued to increase; the first Paragliding World Championship was held in Verbier, Switzerland, in 1987, though the first sanctioned FAI World Paragliding Championship was held in Kössen, Austria, in 1989. Europe has seen the greatest growth in paragliding, with France alone registering in 2011 over 25,000 active pilots; the paraglider wing or canopy is what is known in engineering as a "ram-air airfoil". Such wings comprise two layers of fabric that are connected to internal supporting material in such a way as to form a row of cells. By leaving most of the cells open only at the leading edge, incoming air keeps the wing inflated, thus maintaining its shape.
When inflated, the wing's cross-section has the typical teardrop aerofoil shape. Modern paraglider wings are made of high-performance non-porous materials such as ripstop polyester or nylon fabric. In some modern paragliders higher-performance wings, some of the cells of the leading edge are closed to form a cleaner aerodynamic profile. Holes in the internal ribs allow a free flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, to the wingtips, which are closed; the pilot is supported underneath the wing by a network of suspension lines. These start with two sets of risers made of short lengths of strong webbing; each set is attached to the harness by a carabiner, one on each side of the pilot, each riser of a set is attached to lines from only one row of its side of wing. At the end of each riser of the set, there is a small delta maillon with a number of lines attached, forming a fan; these are 4 – 5 metres long, with the end attached to 2 − 4 further lines of around 2 m, which are again joined to a group of smaller, thinner lines.
In some cases this is repeated for a fourth cascade. The top of each line is attached to small fabric loops sewn into the structure of the wing, which are arranged in rows running span-wise; the row of lines nearest the front are known as the A lines, the next row back the B lines, so on. A typical wing will have A, B, C and D lines, but there has been a tendency to reduce the rows of lines to three, or two, to reduce drag. Paraglider lines are made from Dyneema/Spectra or Kevlar/Aramid. Although they look rather slender, these materials are immensely strong. For example, a single 0.66 mm-diameter line can have a breaking strength of 56 kg. Paraglider wings have an area of 20–35 square metres with a span of 8–12 metres and weigh 3–7 kilograms
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider. Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing; the pilot is in a harness suspended from the airframe, controls the aircraft by shifting body weight in opposition to a control frame. Early hang gliders had a low lift-to-drag ratio, so pilots were restricted to gliding down small hills. By the 1980s this ratio improved, since pilots can soar for hours, gain thousands of feet of altitude in thermal updrafts, perform aerobatics, glide cross-country for hundreds of kilometers; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national airspace governing organisations control some regulatory aspects of hang gliding. Obtaining the safety benefits of being instructed is recommended. By the end of the sixth century A. D. the Chinese had managed to build kites large and aerodynamic enough to sustain the weight of an average-sized person.
It was only a matter of time before someone decided to remove the kite strings and see what happened. Most early glider designs did not ensure safe flight. Starting in the 1880s technical and scientific advancements were made that led to the first practical gliders, such as those developed in the United States by John Joseph Montgomery. Otto Lilienthal built controllable gliders in the 1890s, his rigorously documented work influenced designers, making Lilienthal one of the most influential early aviation pioneers. His aircraft is similar to a modern hang glider. Hang gliding saw a stiffened flexible wing hang glider in 1904, when Jan Lavezzari flew a double lateen sail hang glider off Berck Beach, France. In 1910 in Breslau, the triangle control frame with hang glider pilot hung behind the triangle in a hang glider, was evident in a gliding club's activity; the biplane hang glider was widely publicized in public magazines with plans for building. In April 1909, a how-to article by Carl S. Bates proved to be a seminal hang glider article that affected builders of contemporary times, as several builders would have their first hang glider made by following the plan in his article.
Volmer Jensen with a biplane hang glider in 1940 called VJ-11 allowed safe three-axis control of a foot-launched hang glider. On November 23, 1948, Francis Rogallo and Gertrude Rogallo applied for a kite patent for a flexible kited wing with approved claims for its stiffenings and gliding uses; the various stiffening formats and the wing's simplicity of design and ease of construction, along with its capability of slow flight and its gentle landing characteristics, did not go unnoticed by hang glider enthusiasts. In 1960–1962 Barry Hill Palmer adapted the flexible wing concept to make foot-launched hang gliders with four different control arrangements. In 1963 Mike Burns adapted the flexible wing to build a towable kite-hang glider. In 1963, John W. Dickenson adapted the flexible wing airfoil concept to make another water-ski kite glider. Since the Rogallo wing has been the most used airfoil of hang gliders. There are two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails: woven polyester fabrics, composite laminated fabrics made of some combinations.
Woven polyester sailcloth is a tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers, stabilized by the hot-press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to stretch; this resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of light weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities. Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a lower stretch material, better at maintaining sail shape but is still light in weight; the disadvantages of polyester film fabrics is that the reduced elasticity under load results in stiffer and less responsive handling, polyester laminated fabrics are not as durable or long lasting as the woven fabrics. In most hang gliders, the pilot is ensconced in a harness suspended from the airframe, exercises control by shifting body weight in opposition to a stationary control frame known as triangle control frame, control bar or base bar.
This bar is pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright pipe, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider; this creates the shape of a triangle or'A-frame'. In many of these configurations additional wheels or other equipment can be suspended from the bottom bar or rod ends. Images showing a triangle control frame on Otto Lilienthal's 1892 hang glider shows that the technology of such frames has existed since the early design of gliders, but he did not mention it in his patents. A control frame for body weight shift was shown in Octave Chanute's designs, it was a major part of the now commo
The Cessna 150 is a two-seat tricycle gear general aviation airplane, designed for flight training and personal use. The Cessna 150 is the fifth most produced civilian plane with 23,839 aircraft produced; the Cessna 150 was offered for sale in the 150 basic model, Commuter II, Patroller and the aerobatic Aerobat models. Development of the Model 150 began in the mid-1950s with the decision by Cessna Aircraft to produce a successor to the popular Cessna 140 which finished production in 1951; the main changes in the 150 design were the use of tricycle landing gear, easier to learn to use than the tailwheel landing gear of the Cessna 140, replacing the rounded wingtips and horizontal and vertical stabilizers with more modern, squared-off profiles. In addition, the narrow, hinged wing flaps of the 140 were replaced by larger, far more effective Fowler flaps; the Cessna 150 prototype first flew on September 12, 1957, with production commencing in September 1958 at Cessna's Wichita, Kansas plant. 1,764 aircraft were produced by Reims Aviation under license in France.
These French manufactured 150s were designated Reims F-150, the "F" indicating they were built in France. American-made 150s were all produced with the Continental O-200-A 100 hp engine, but the Reims-built aircraft are powered by a Rolls Royce-built Continental O-200-As; some versions have Continental O-240-A engines. All Cessna 150s have effective flaps that extend 40 degrees; the best-performing airplanes in the 150 and 152 fleet are the 1962 Cessna 150B and the 1963 Cessna 150C. Thanks to their light 1,500 lb gross weight and more aerodynamic rear fuselage, they climb the fastest, have the highest ceilings, require the shortest runways, they have a 109-knot cruise speed, faster than any other model year of either the 150 or 152. All models from 1966 onwards have increased baggage space. With the 1967 Model 150G the doors were bowed outwards 1.5 inches on each side to provide more cabin elbow room. A total of 22,138 Cessna 150s were built in the United States, including 21,404 Commuters and 734 Aerobats.
Reims Aviation completed 1,764 F-150s, of which 1,428 were 336 were Aerobats. A Reims affiliate in Argentina assembled 47 F-150s, including 38 Commuters and 9 Aerobats. Of all the Cessna 150-152 models, the 1966 model year was the most plentiful with 3,067 1966 Cessna 150s produced; this was the first year the aircraft featured a swept tail fin, increased baggage area and electrically operated flaps. The 150 was succeeded in the summer of 1977 by the related Cessna 152; the 152 is more economical to operate due to the increased TBO of the Lycoming O-235 engine. The 152 had its flap travel limited to 30 degrees, from the 150's 40 degree flap deflection, for better climb with full flaps and the maximum certified gross weight was increased from 1,600 lb on the 150 to 1670 lb on the 152. Production of the 152 ended in 1985. In 2007 Cessna announced the two-seat successor to the Model 162 Skycatcher. 150The first model year of the Cessna 150 carried no suffix letter. It was available as the "150" or the upgraded "Commuter".
The engine was a 100 horsepower Continental O-200, the gross weight was 1,500 lb and flaps were actuated manually with a lever between the seats. Production commenced late in 1958 as the 1959 model year; the cost was US$6,995 for the Standard Model 150, $7,940 for the Trainer and $8,545 for the Commuter. The 1960 model introduced a 35-ampere generator on the Commuter; the "patroller" was introduced in 1960. This was a standard 150 with acrylic glass windows on the lower doors, 35 US gallon long-range fuel tanks and a message chute for dropping packages to the ground. Production was 122 in 1958, 648 in 1959 and 354 in 1960. 150AThe 1961 model incorporated enough changes to justify a suffix letter and thus was designated the “150A”. The "A" had its main landing gear moved aft by two inches to eliminate the problem of the aircraft ending up on its tail while loading people and baggage and to improve nosewheel steering authority; the "A" had 15% larger rear side windows and new adjustable seats. 344 were constructed.
150BThe 150B was the 1962 model. It had a new propeller that increased cruise speed by 2 knots and the option of a two-passenger child seat for the baggage compartment. 331 "B" models were built. The Commuter version cost US$8,995. 150CThe 1963 model was the "C", which introduced the option of larger 6.00×6 inch tires to replace the standard 5.00×5 tires and fuel quick drains. 472 were completed. 150DThe 1964 "D" model brought the first dramatic change to the 150 – the introduction of a rear window under the marketing name Omni-Vision. The rear window cost 3 mph in cruise speed, it resulted in a larger baggage compartment and a greater structural weight allowance for baggage from 80 to 120 lb. The unswept tailfin from previous years was retained for another two years. Elevator and rudder mass balances were increased to reduce flutter potential caused by the less aerodynamic rear fuselage; the gross weight of the aircraft was increased in 1964 to 1,600 lb, where it would stay until the advent of the Cessna 152.
804 150Ds were built. Many people find the new cabin more "airy" and due to the increased light. 150EThe 1965 Cessna 150E saw only the addition of new seats, although the standard empty weight went up 40 lb that year to 1,010 lb. The "E" model saw production increase to 1637 aircraft. 150FThe 1966 model saw great changes to the 150 design. The tailfin was swept back 35 degrees to match the styling of the C
Bromont is a city in southwestern Quebec, Canada, at the base of Mont Brome. The Bromont area and its resort, Ski Bromont, is well known as a tourist destination for its downhill skiing, mountain biking, water slides, it features golf and equestrian events in moderate weather. Bromont boasts a high-tech industrial park, which includes IBM, General Electric, Teledyne DALSA. Bromont Airport serves the region. In the southern portion of the city lies Lac Bromont, the largest lake within the city limits, the smaller Lac Gale, near, built BALNEA Spa, the largest bathhouse resort in Quebec. On June 9, 2014, the International Federation for Equestrian Sports chose Bromont as the site of the 2018 FEI World Equestrian Games; the main venue for the games was supposed to be the Bromont Olympic Equestrian Park. On July 22, 2016, Bromont was forced to withdraw from hosting the event because of financial problems. Located between Montreal and Sherbrooke in proximity of Granby, the territory known as Bromont is characterized by a mountain with several summits, called Mont Brome, Mount Gale, a smaller top a hill, mount Soleil.
By contrast, the terrain around this mountainous mass is flat and has hills and vales sparsely distributed. This is crossed by the Yamaska river, flowing in from Fulford from its source lake Brome, separated from Bromont by Iron Hill and Fulford, leaving into Saint-Alphonse-de-Granby. Two lakes: Bromont and Gale, are pooling between the mountaintops of Mont Brome; the surface of the territory is covered by mixed forest and grasslands, sometimes exploited as grazing grounds or as growing space. Another portion is exploited for human ends. Much of Bromont's surface is crisscrossed by roads andtrails, including a section of Quebec Autoroute 10, with access to Bromont at two exits; this network has many touristic crossroads, a historic village, many neighbourhoods occupied by housing and shops, as well as a technology industrial park. Many spaces that aren't covered by woodland are cultivated, others serve to sustain large herbivorous domestic animals: cows and alpacas. A natural domain established on Mount Gale includes a protected area, uniting owned lands for conservation and hiking.
In spite of these conservation efforts, a large part of Mount Brome is exploited intensively. Bromont, mountain of experiences is a mega-tourist complex, including alpine skiing facilities, a water park, holiday housing, residences. Bromont was envisioned by Roland Désourdy. In 1963 he became the first French Canadian Master of the Montreal Hunt. Bromont was developed as a model resort community, based in Brome County. In 1966, Bromont annexed the town of West Shefford, founded in 1792 and was a stop on the stagecoach route between Montreal and Sherbrooke, Quebec. In 1989, Hyundai Auto Canada Inc. opened a stamping and assembly plant in Bromont, employing 800. The 150,000 m2 plant was situated on an 850,000 m2 site, with body and trim shops, as well as a pumping station for the plant, a paint residue treatment plant, administrative offices; the plant cost $387.7 million, with Quebec and Canadian federal government subsidies of $131 million. The plant was designed to manufacture 2,000 Hyundai Sonatas per week.
Subsequently and Hyundai considered a joint venture that would have Chrysler rebranding the Sonata manufactured at Bromont, but said the deal had failed. The Bromont plant was operational for four years before it closed in 1994, with Hyundai's sales unable to support the plant. Hyundai subsequently sold the plant to Olymbec Inc, it subdivided the plant, leasing the former paint and assembly plant to Goodyear from February 2007. The former metal stamping portion of the plant was leased to AAER Inc. a manufacturer of wind turbines based in Quebec. The environment present within Bromont limits allowed special ecosystems to develop. On Mount Gale, it is possible to observe species of amphibians that only thrive at higher elevations. Humans having encroached in the area have kept many species of domestic animals that populate the fields and roam wild just the same, house cats and horses are among the most common in the municipality. Fields and forests serve as breeding grounds for many species of birds, some of which remain all year, though a large portion migrates south during the colder months.
Many animals coveted by hunters and trappers inhabit the land, red fox, white-tailed deer, wild turkey. Covering most of the territory, vegetation of many kinds thrives. Biodiversity is a pride and Bromont aims to respect it. List of cities in Quebec Media related to Bromont, Quebec at Wikimedia Commons City of Bromont Site Bromont Equestrian Site Ski Bromont Page
General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979
Schweizer SGS 2-33
The Schweizer SGS 2-33 is an American two-seat, high-wing, strut-braced, training glider, built by Schweizer Aircraft of Elmira, New York. The 2-33 was designed to replace the Schweizer 2-22, from; the aircraft first flew in 1965 and production was started in 1967. Production was completed in 1981. From its introduction until the late 1980s, the 2-33 was the main training glider used in North America; the SGU 2-22 two seat training glider was introduced in 1945 and became the most popular training glider in the USA. By the early 1960s it became obvious to Schweizer Aircraft that a replacement for the 2-22 was needed. At that time the single seat Schweizer SGS 1-26 was becoming popular for one-design competition flying; the company realized that the new trainer should have similar performance to the 1-26, in order to be used as the 1-26's two seat transition trainer. SGU 2-22 production was ended at serial number 258 in 1967 to commence production of the new model; the SGS 2-33, indicating Schweizer Glider, Sailplane, 2 Seats, Model 33, was designed by Ernest Schweizer.
The aircraft was a derivative of the 2-22, which in turn was based on the SGU 1-7 single place glider of 1937. The 2-33 retained 1-7's metal wing, single spar and single strut arrangement; the 2-33 remained in production for 14 years. Production was only curtailed when demand dropped off due to the import of higher-performance two-place sailplanes from Europe; the 2-33 received type certificate G3EA on 10 February 1967. A number of 2-33s were delivered as kits to the purchaser and designated as SGS 2-33AK; these were accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration as certified aircraft and not amateur-builts, subject to conditions: The 2-33 type certificate is held by K & L Soaring of Cayuta, New York who now provide all parts and support for the Schweizer line of sailplanes. The 2-33 was designed to be rugged, easy to maintain and with a high degree of crashworthiness; the 2-33 has a welded steel tube fuselage covered in aircraft fabric. The single-spar, aluminum structure wings are tapered from mid-span and feature top and bottom balanced divebrakes.
The wings are covered in aluminum stressed skin. The tailplane and elevator are made from welded steel tube covered in aircraft fabric; the vertical fin is aluminum. The 2-33 has a one-piece molded front canopy. Access to the rear seat is via door on the right-hand side. Instruments are fitted in the front cockpit only. Most 2-33s have a four-position bungee trim system, with aircraft starting with serial number 500 equipped with a "ratchet-lock trim"; the United States Air Force Academy operated 13 2-33s as the TG-4A until they were replaced by the TG-10B in 2002. The USAFA TG-4s were all donated to other US government agencies, such as the Civil Air Patrol or to aviation museums. Under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system the USAF 2-33 was designated as the TG-4A; this can cause confusion with a World War II training glider made by Laister-Kauffman and used by the United States Army Air Forces from 1941 to 1947. The Laister-Kauffman LK-10B bore the designation TG-4A, but from an earlier USAAF designation system.
There were 254 SGS 2-33s registered in the USA as of November 2017, including: 47 SGS 2-33 206 SGS 2-33A 1 SGS 2-33AKThere were 93 SGS 2-33s registered in Canada as of November 2017, including: 15 SGS 2-33 78 SGS 2-33A SGS 2-33The original 2-33 was certified on 10 February 1967 and includes serial numbers 1 to 85. SGS 2-33AThe "A" model incorporated some minor changes, including a larger rudder with an aerodynamic balance horn, it includes serial numbers 86 and subsequent. The replacement rudder of the "A" model was available as a retrofit to earlier 2-33s and some have been upgraded to "A" status. SGS 2-33AKThe "AK" model was an "A" model completed by the buyer from a kit, it was certified on 19 April 1973. The SGS 2-33 remains popular with glider schools, the largest operator is the Air Cadet League of Canada with a fleet of 54 2-33s and 2-33As as of June 2011. There is a 2-33A in the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum, but none in the collection of the National Soaring Museum. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89, Pre-Course Information Package for Glider CandidatesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 25 ft 9 in Wingspan: 51 ft 0 in Height: 9 ft 3 in Wing area: 219.5 sq ft Aspect ratio: 11.85:1 Airfoil: NACA 633-618 Empty weight: 600 lb Max takeoff weight: 1,041 lb Performance Stall speed: 36 mph.