Engelbert Humperdinck (singer)
Engelbert Humperdinck is an English pop singer. Humperdinck has been described as "one of the finest middle-of-the-road balladeers around." His singles "Release Me" and "The Last Waltz" both topped the UK music charts in 1967, sold more than a million copies each. In North America, he had chart successes with "After the Lovin'" and "This Moment in Time", he has sold more than 140 million records worldwide. Arnold George Dorsey was born in Madras, British India in 1936, one of ten children to British Army NCO Mervyn Dorsey, of Welsh descent, his wife Olive, who according to Dorsey was of German descent, it is believed that he is of Anglo-Indian descent. His family moved to Leicester, when he was ten, he soon began learning the saxophone. By the early 1950s, he was playing saxophone in nightclubs, but he is believed not to have tried singing until he was seventeen, when friends coaxed him into entering a pub contest, his impression of Jerry Lewis prompted friends to begin calling him "Gerry Dorsey", a name that he worked under for a decade.
Dorsey's music career was interrupted by his national service in the British Army Royal Corps of Signals during the mid-1950s. He got his first chance to record in 1958 with Decca Records after his discharge, his first single "I'll Never Fall in Love Again" was not a hit, but Dorsey recorded for the same company a decade with different results. He continued working the nightclubs until 1961, he returned to nightclub work, but with little success. Dorsey spent the early 1960s living in a house with Johnny "Sambuca" Todd in Jersey where he honed his talent. In 1965, Dorsey teamed up with Gordon Mills, his former roommate in the Bayswater area of London, who had become a music impresario and the manager of Tom Jones. Mills, aware that Dorsey had been struggling for several years to become successful in the music industry, suggested a name-change to the more arresting Engelbert Humperdinck, borrowed from the 19th-century German composer of operas such as Hansel and Gretel. Dorsey adopted the name professionally but not legally.
Mills arranged a new deal for him with Decca Records, Dorsey has been performing under this name since. Humperdinck enjoyed his first real success during July 1966 in Belgium, where he and four others represented Britain in the annual Knokke song contest. Three months in October 1966, he was on stage in Mechelen, he made a mark on the Belgian charts with "Dommage, Dommage", an early music video was filmed with him in the harbour of Zeebrugge. In the mid-1960s, Humperdinck visited German songwriter Bert Kaempfert at his house in Spain and was offered arrangements of three songs: "Spanish Eyes", he returned to Britain. He recognised the potential of "Strangers in the Night" and asked manager Gordon Mills whether it could be released as a single—but his request was refused, since the song had been requested by Frank Sinatra. In early 1967, the changes paid off when Humperdinck's version of "Release Me" made the top ten on both sides of the Atlantic and number one in Britain, recorded in a smooth ballad style with a full chorus joining him on the third refrain, keeping The Beatles' "Strawberry Fields Forever"/"Penny Lane" from the top slot in the United Kingdom.
His song "Ten Guitars", a B-side on the single "Release Me" became a huge hit in New Zealand. Another groundbreaking video showed. "Release Me" spent 56 weeks in the Top 50 in a single chart run. "Release Me" was believed to have sold 85,000 copies a day at the height of its popularity, it was the best known of his songs for years. Humperdinck's easygoing style and good looks earned him a large following among women, his hardcore female fans called themselves "Humperdinckers". "Release Me" was succeeded by two more hit ballads: "There Goes My Everything" and "The Last Waltz", earning him a reputation as a crooner, a description which he disputed. "If you are not a crooner," he told The Hollywood Reporter writer Rick Sherwood:"It's something you don't want to be called. No crooner has the range. I can hit notes. What I am is a contemporary singer, a stylised performer." In 1968, following his major successes the previous year, Humperdinck reached No. 2 on the UK Singles Chart with "A Man Without Love", the album of the same name climbed to No. 3.
Another single, "Les Bicyclettes de Belsize", was a top 10 hit in the United Kingdom and reached the top 40 in the United States. By the end of the decade, Humperdinck's expanding roster of songs included "Am I That Easy to Forget", "The Way It Used to Be", "I'm a Better Man" and "Winter World of Love", he supplemented these big-selling singles with a number of successful albums. These albums formed the bedrock of his fame, include Release Me, The Last Waltz, A Man Without Love and Engelbert Humperdinck. For six months in 1969–1970, Humperdinck fronted his own television series The Engelbert Humperdinck Show for ATV in the United Kingdom, ABC in the US. In this musical variety show, the singer was joined by some of the most popular figures active in entertainment, including Paul Anka, Shirley Bassey, Tony Bennett, Jack Benny, Milton Berle, Ray Charles, Four Tops, Lena Horne, Lulu, Carmen McRae Dusty Springfield, Jack Jones, Tom Jones and Dionne Warwick. By the start of the 1970s, Humperdinck had settled into a busy schedule of recordings, a number of signature songs emerged from this period written by no
Diplomatic correspondence is correspondence between one state and another – though not – of a formal character. It follows several observed customs and style in composition, substance and delivery and can be categorized into letters and notes. Letters are correspondence between heads of state used for the appointment and recall of ambassadors. Letters between two monarchs of equal rank will begin with the salutation "Sir My Brother" and close with the valediction "Your Good Brother". In the case where one monarch is of inferior rank to the other, the inferior monarch will use the salutation "Sire", while the superior monarch may refer to the other as "Cousin" instead of "Brother". If either the sender or the recipient is the head-of-state of a republic, letters may begin with the salutation "My Great and Good Friend" and close with the valediction "Your Good Friend". A letter of credence is the instrument by which a head of state appoints ambassadors to foreign countries. Known as credentials, the letter closes with a phrase "asking that credit may be given to all that the ambassador may say in the name of his sovereign or Government."
The credentials are presented to the receiving country's head of state or viceroy in a formal ceremony. Letters of credence are worded as the sending or acceptance of a letter implies diplomatic recognition of the other government. Letters of credence date to the thirteenth century. A letter of recall is formal correspondence from one head-of-state notifying a second head-of-state that he or she is recalling his state's ambassador. In cases where an envoy is entrusted with unusually extensive tasks that would not be covered by an ordinary permanent legation, an envoy may be given full powers "in letters patent signed by the head of the State" designing "either limited or unlimited full powers, according to the requirements of the case." According to Satow's Diplomatic Practice, the bestowal of full powers traces its history to the Roman plena potestas. Their use at the present day is a formal recognition of the necessity of absolute confidence in the authority and standing of the negotiator.
A note verbale (French pronunciation: , is a formal form of note and is so-named as it represented a formal record of information delivered orally. It is more formal than an aide-mémoire. A note verbale can be referred to as a third person note. Notes verbale are printed on official letterhead. All notes verbale begin with a formal salutation, typically: Notes verbales will close with a formal valediction, typically: Notes verbales composed by the British Foreign Office are written on blue paper. Ukrainian protest of the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation; the Ukrainian party categorically denies extension of sovereignty of the Russian Federation on Ukrainian territory, reserves the right to exercise measures in accordance with international law and the laws of Ukraine. A collective note is a letter delivered from multiple states to a single recipient state, it is always written in the third person. The collective note has been a used form of diplomatic communication due to the difficulty in obtaining agreements among multiple states to the exact wording of a letter.
An identic note is a letter delivered from a single state to multiple recipient states. Examples include the identic note sent by Thomas Jefferson regarding action against the Barbary Pirates and that from the United States to China and the Soviet Union in 1929. In it, the United States called on the other two powers to resolve their differences over the Eastern China Railway peacefully. A bout de papier may be presented by a visiting official when meeting with an official from another state at the conclusion of the meeting. Prepared in advance, it contains a short summary of the main points addressed by the visiting official during the meeting and, serves as a memory aid for the visiting official when speaking. It, removes ambiguity about the subject of the meeting occasioned by verbal miscues by the visiting official. Bouts de papier are always presented without credit or attribution so as to preserve the confidentiality of the meeting in case the document is disclosed. A démarche is considered less formal than the informal bout de papier.
Described as "a request or intercession with a foreign official" it is a written request, presented without attribution from the composing state and is, delivered in-person. Similar to a démarche, an aide-mémoire is a proposed agreement or negotiating text circulated informally among multiple states for discussion without committing the originating delegation's country to the contents, it has title, or attribution and no standing in the relationship involved. Standard diplomatic pro
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
California State University
The California State University is a public university system in California. With 23 campuses and eight off-campus centers enrolling 484,300 students with 26,858 faculty and 25,305 staff, CSU is the largest four-year public university system in the United States, it is one of three public higher education systems in the state, with the other two being the University of California system and the California Community Colleges System. The CSU System is incorporated as The Trustees of the California State University; the California State University system headquarters are at 401 Golden Shore in Long Beach, California. The California State University was created in 1960 under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, it is a direct descendant of the system of California State Normal Schools. With nearly 100,000 graduates annually, the CSU is the country's greatest producer of bachelor's degrees; the university system collectively sustains more than 150,000 jobs within the state, its related expenditures reach more than $17 billion annually.
In the 2011–12 academic year, CSU awarded 52 percent of newly issued California teaching credentials, 47 percent of the state's engineering degrees, 28 percent of the state's information technology bachelor's degrees, it had more graduates in business, communication studies, health and public administration than all other universities and colleges in California combined. Altogether, about half of the bachelor's degrees, one-third of the master's degrees, nearly two percent of the doctoral degrees awarded annually in California are from the CSU. Furthermore, the CSU system is one of the top U. S. producers of graduates who move on to earn their Ph. D. degrees in a related field. The CSU has a total of 17 AACSB accredited graduate business schools, over twice as many as any other collegiate system. Since 1961, nearly three million alumni have received their bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees from the CSU system. CSU offers more than 1,800 degree programs in some 240 subject areas. In fall of 2015, 9,282 of CSU's 24,405 faculty were tenured or on the tenure track.
Today's California State University system is the direct descendant of the Minns Evening Normal School, a normal school in San Francisco that educated the city's future teachers in association with the high school system. The school was taken over by the state in 1862 and moved to San Jose and renamed the California State Normal School. A southern branch of the California State Normal School was created in Los Angeles in 1882. In 1887, the California State Legislature dropped the word "California" from the name of the San Jose and Los Angeles schools, renaming them "State Normal Schools." Chico, San Diego, other schools became part of the State Normal School system. However, these did not form a system in the modern sense, in that each normal school had its own board of trustees and all were governed independently from one another. In 1919, the State Normal School at Los Angeles became the Southern Branch of the University of California. In May 1921, the legislature enacted a comprehensive reform package for the state's educational system, which went into effect that July.
The State Normal Schools were renamed State Teachers Colleges, their boards of trustees were dissolved, they were brought under the supervision of the Division of Normal and Special Schools of the new California Department of Education located at the state capital in Sacramento. This meant that they were to be managed from Sacramento by the deputy director of the division, who in turn was under the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the State Board of Education. By this time it was commonplace to refer to most of the campuses with their city names plus the word "state"; the resulting administrative situation from 1921 to 1960 was quite complicated. On the one hand, the Department of Education's actual supervision of the presidents of the State Teachers Colleges was minimal, which translated into substantial autonomy when it came to day-to-day operations. Unlike the University of California, the State Teachers Colleges had no academic senates through which their faculties could collectively express their displeasure with presidents' decisions.
On the other hand, the State Teachers Colleges were treated under state law as ordinary state agencies, which meant their budgets were subject to the same stifling bureaucratic financial controls as all other state agencies. At least one president would depart his state college because of his express frustration over that issue: J. Paul Leonard, president of San Francisco State, in 1957. During the 1920s and 1930s, the State Teachers Colleges started to transition from normal schools into teachers colleges whose graduates would be qualified to teach all K–12 grades. A leading proponent of this idea was Charles McLane, the first president of Fresno State, one of the earliest persons to argue that K–12 teachers must have a broad liberal arts education. In 1932, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was asked by the state legislature and governor to perform a study of California higher education; the Foundation's 1933 report criticized the State Teachers College
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Antonio Ramón Villaraigosa is an American politician who served as the 41st Mayor of Los Angeles, from 2005 to 2013. Before becoming mayor, he was a member of the California State Assembly, where he served as the Democratic leader of the Assembly, the Speaker of the California State Assembly; as Speaker, Villaraigosa was an advocate for working families and helped to write legislation protecting the environment, expanding healthcare access, increasing funding for public schools. He ran for mayor in 2001 against Los Angeles City Attorney James Hahn, but lost in the second round of voting. Villaraigosa ran for and was elected to the Los Angeles City Council in 2003. In 2005, he won. During his tenure as mayor, he gained national attention for his work and was featured in Time's story on the country's 25 most influential Latinos, he was the first Mexican American in over 130 years to have served as Mayor of Los Angeles. As Mayor, Villaraigosa spearheaded policies to improve student outcomes in the Los Angeles Unified School District, reduce city and highway traffic, enhance public safety.
Since leaving office in 2013, Villaraigosa has continued to be engaged in education, civic engagement, immigration and economic development issues. He speaks nationally and throughout California on these issues. Villaraigosa is a member of the Democratic Party, was a national co-chairman of Hillary Clinton's 2008 presidential campaign, a member of President Barack Obama's Transition Economic Advisory Board, Chairman of the 2012 Democratic National Convention in September 2012. In November 2016, Villaraigosa announced his candidacy for Governor of California in 2018. In June 2018, Villaraigosa came in third in the blanket primary election, losing to Gavin Newsom and John Cox. Born Antonio Ramón Villar, Jr. in the City Terrace neighborhood of Los Angeles County's Eastside, he attended both Catholic and public schools. His father immigrated to the United States and became a successful businessman, but lost his wealth during the Great Depression, his young wife left him at this time. His father abandoned their family when he was 5 years old, at age of 16, a benign tumor in his spinal column paralyzed him from the waist down, curtailing his ability to play sports.
His grades plummeted at Cathedral High School, the next year, he was expelled from the Roman Catholic institution after getting into a fight after a football game. He graduated from Theodore Roosevelt High School in Boyle Heights after taking adult education classes there at night, with the help of his English teacher, Herman Katz. Villar went on to attend East Los Angeles College, a community college, transferred to University of California, Los Angeles, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History in 1977. At UCLA, he was a leader of MEChA, an organization that seeks to promote Chicano unity and empowerment through political action, but renounced his association with the group citing its controversial stances on race. At this time, he went by the short form Tony of his given name Antonio. After UCLA, Villar attended the Peoples College of Law. After completing law school and subsequently failing the bar exam four times, he became a field representative/organizer with the United Teachers Los Angeles where he organized teachers and was regarded as a gifted advocate.
He served as president of the Los Angeles chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union and the American Federation of Government Employees. He changed his surname to Villaraigosa upon his marriage with Corina Raigosa in 1987. In 1990, Villaraigosa was appointed to the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Board, where he served until 1994. In 1994, he was elected to the California State Assembly. Within his first term, he was selected to serve as Democratic Assembly Whip and Assembly Majority Leader. In 1998, Villaraigosa was chosen by his colleagues to be the Speaker of the Assembly, the first from Los Angeles in 25 years, he left the Assembly in 2000 after serving three two-year terms. Villaraigosa ran for election as Mayor of Los Angeles in the 2001 citywide contest, but was defeated by Democrat James Hahn in a run-off election. In 2003, Villaraigosa defeated incumbent Councilman Nick Pacheco to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council representing the 14th District. Villaraigosa placed first in the primary for the Los Angeles mayoral election of March 8, 2005, won the run-off election on May 17, receiving 58.7% of the vote.
On July 1, 2005, Villaraigosa was sworn in as the 41st Mayor of Los Angeles. He became the first Latino Mayor of Los Angeles since 1872. Attendees to his first inauguration included Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Villaraigosa was re-elected in 2009, receiving 55.65% of the vote against his most prominent challenger, attorney Walter Moore who won 26.23% of the vote. Villaraigosa drew controversy by refusing to debate any of his opponents before the election, namely Walter Moore. One of Villaraigosa's main transportation-related goals is to extend the Purple Line subway down Wilshire Boulevard to Santa Monica. Proponents have dubbed the project the "Subway to the Sea." Villaraigosa worked to persuade Congressman Henry Waxman to repeal the ban on subway tunneling in Los Angeles, which occurred in 2006. On November 4, 2008, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure R, an additional half-cent per dollar sales tax that increased the sale