Aon plc is a British global professional services company headquartered in London that provides risk and health consulting. Aon has 500 offices worldwide, serving 120 countries with 50,000 employees. In 2011, Aon was ranked as the largest insurance broker in the world based on revenue. Aon was the principal partner and global shirt sponsor of the Premier League team Manchester United F. C. from 2010 until 2014. Aon was created in 1982 when the Ryan Insurance Group merged with the Combined Insurance Company of America. In 1987, that company was renamed Aon, a Gaelic word meaning "one". W. Clement Stone's mother bought a small Detroit insurance agency, in 1918 brought her son into the business. Mr. Stone sold low-cost, low-benefit accident insurance and issuing policies on-site; the next year he founded the Combined Registry Co.. As the Great Depression began, Stone reduced improved training. Forced by his son's respiratory illness to winter in the South, Stone moved to Texas. In 1939 he bought American Casualty Insurance Co. of Texas.
It was consolidated with other purchases as the Combined Insurance Co. of America in 1947. The company continued through the 1960s, continuing to sell health and accident policies. In the 1970s, Combined expanded overseas despite being hit hard by the recession. In 1982, after 10 years of stagnation under Clement Stone Jr. the elder Stone 79, resumed control until the completion of a merger with Ryan Insurance Co. allowed him to transfer control to Patrick Ryan. Ryan, the son of a Ford dealer in Wisconsin, had started his company as an auto credit insurer in 1964. In 1976, the company bought the insurance brokerage units of the Esmark conglomerate. Ryan added more upscale insurance products, he trimmed staff and took other cost-cutting measures, in 1987 he changed Combined's name to Aon. In 1992, he bought Dutch insurance broker Hudig-Langeveldt. In 1995, the company sold its remaining direct life insurance holdings to General Electric to focus on consulting; the following year, it began offering hostile takeover insurance policies to small and mid-sized companies.
Aon built a global presence through purchases. In 1997, it bought The Minet Group, as well as insurance brokerage Alexander & Alexander Services, Inc. in a deal that made Aon the largest insurance broker worldwide. The firm made no US buys in 1998, but doubled its employee base with purchases including Spain's largest retail insurance broker, Gil y Carvajal, the formation of Aon Korea, the first non-Korean firm of its kind to be licensed there. Responding to industry demands, Aon announced its new fee disclosure policy in 1999, the company reorganised to focus on buying personal line insurance firms and to integrate its acquisitions; that year it bought Nikols Sedgwick Group, an Italian insurance firm, formed RiskAttack, a risk analysis and financial management concern aimed at technology companies. The cost of integrating its numerous purchases, hammered profits in 1999. Despite its troubles, in 2000 Aon bought Reliance Group's accident and health insurance business, as well as Actuarial Sciences Associates, a compensation and employee benefits consulting company.
In that year, the company decided to cut 6% of its workforce as part of a restructuring effort. In 2003, the company saw revenues increase because of rate hikes in the insurance industry; that year, Endurance Specialty, a Bermuda-based underwriting operation that Aon helped to establish in November 2001 along with other investors, went public. The next year Aon sold most of its holdings in Endurance. In late 2007, Aon announced the divestiture of its underwriting business. With this move, the firm sold off its two major underwriting subsidiaries: Combined Insurance Company of America and Sterling Life Insurance Company; the low margin and capital-intensive nature of the underwriting industry was the primary reason for the firm's decision to divest. Upon completion of the move, Aon turned its attention to expanding its broking and consulting capabilities; this growth strategy manifested in November 2008 when Aon announced it had acquired reinsurance intermediary and capital advisor Benfield Group Limited for $1.75 billion.
The acquisition amplified the firm's broking capabilities, positioning Aon one of the largest players in the reinsurance brokerage industry. In 2010, Aon made its most significant acquisition to date with the purchase of Hewitt Associates for $4.9 billion. Aside from drastically boosting Aon's human resources consulting capacity and entering the firm into the business process outsourcing industry, the move added 23,000 colleagues and more than $3 billion in revenue. In January 2012, Aon announced. In 10 February 2017, Aon announced that it is selling its employee benefits outsourcing business to private equity firm The Blackstone Group for US$4.8 billion Aon's New York offices were on the 92nd and 98th–105th floors of the South Tower of the World Trade Center at the time of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack. When the North Tower was struck at 8:46 a.m. many executives began evacuating their employees from the upper floors of the South Tower. The evacuation of Aon's offices, ordered by Eric Eisenberg, was carried out as 924 of the estimated 1,100 Aon employees present at the time managed to evacuate the building before United Airlines Flight 175 struck it twenty stories below them at 9:03 a.m.
However, many were influenced to stay by security guards and security announcements, or did not exit the building in time
Information management concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion. This cycle of organisational involvement with information involves a variety of stakeholders, including those who are responsible for assuring the quality and utility of acquired information. Stakeholders might have rights to originate, distribute or delete information according to organisational information management policies. Information management embraces all the generic concepts of management, including the planning, structuring, controlling and reporting of information activities, all of, needed in order to meet the needs of those with organisational roles or functions that depend on information; these generic concepts allow the information to be presented to the audience or the correct group of people. After individuals are able to put that information to use, it gains more value.
Information management is related to, overlaps with, the management of data, technology, processes and – where the availability of information is critical to organisational success – strategy. This broad view of the realm of information management contrasts with the earlier, more traditional view, that the life cycle of managing information is an operational matter that requires specific procedures, organisational capabilities and standards that deal with information as a product or a service. In the 1970s, the management of information concerned matters closer to what would now be called data management: punched cards, magnetic tapes and other record-keeping media, involving a life cycle of such formats requiring origination, backup and disposal. At this time the huge potential of information technology began to be recognised: for example a single chip storing a whole book, or electronic mail moving messages around the world, remarkable ideas at the time. With the proliferation of information technology and the extending reach of information systems in the 1980s and 1990s, information management took on a new form.
Progressive businesses such as British Petroleum transformed the vocabulary of what was "IT management", so that “systems analysts” became “business analysts”, “monopoly supply” became a mixture of “insourcing” and “outsourcing”, the large IT function was transformed into “lean teams” that began to allow some agility in the processes that harness information for business benefit. The scope of senior management interest in information at British Petroleum extended from the creation of value through improved business processes, based upon the effective management of information, permitting the implementation of appropriate information systems that were operated on IT infrastructure, outsourced. In this way, information management was no longer a simple job that could be performed by anyone who had nothing else to do, it became strategic and a matter for senior management attention. An understanding of the technologies involved, an ability to manage information systems projects and business change well, a willingness to align technology and business strategies all became necessary.
In the transitional period leading up to the strategic view of information management, Venkatraman argued that: Data, maintained in IT infrastructure has to be interpreted in order to render information. The information in our information systems has to be understood in order to emerge as knowledge. Knowledge allows managers to take effective decisions. Effective decisions have to lead to appropriate actions. Appropriate actions are expected to deliver meaningful results; this is referred to as the DIKAR model: Data, Knowledge and Result, it gives a strong clue as to the layers involved in aligning technology and organisational strategies, it can be seen as a pivotal moment in changing attitudes to information management. The recognition that information management is an investment that must deliver meaningful results is important to all modern organisations that depend on information and good decision-making for their success, it is believed that good information management is crucial to the smooth working of organisations, although there is no accepted theory of information management per se, behavioural and organisational theories help.
Following the behavioural science theory of management developed at Carnegie Mellon University and prominently supported by March and Simon, most of what goes on in modern organizations is information handling and decision making. One crucial factor in information handling and decision making is an individual's ability to process information and to make decisions under limitations that might derive from the context: a person's age, the situational complexity, or a lack of requisite quality in the information, at hand – all of, exacerbated by the rapid advance of technology and the new kinds of system that it enables as the social web emerges as a phenomenon that business cannot ignore, and yet, well before there was any general recognition of the importance of information management in organisations and Simon argued that organizations have to be considered as cooperative systems, with a high level of information processing
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals. Deloitte provides audit, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally. In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues. As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest owned company in the United States; as of 2015, Deloitte has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India. Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner, for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue. In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.
He went on to open an office in New York in 1880. In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P. D. Griffiths as branch managers; that was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P. D. Griffiths became a partner in the London office. In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Sells in New York, it was described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants". In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York. On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress. In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization.
The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Bailey & Smart. Headed by Bailey, the organization grew in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function, it forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche. In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969. In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan, to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975. In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. In 1952, Deloitte's firm merged with Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells. In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Touche; the merged firm was led jointly by Edward A. Kangas.
Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte. Some member firms of Touche Ross rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms. In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990. At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger; the name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Touche Consulting Group. In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities.
Eclipse was separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital. In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico and Canada agreed to merge with Deloitte; the spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting. In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees; this acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917. In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence. In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection. Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010.
As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate. In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in orde
Focus: HOPE is a Detroit-based, non-denominational, non-profit organization whose aim is to overcome racism and poverty by providing education and training for underrepresented minorities and others. The organization is a public foundation under section 501 of the Internal Revenue code. Focus: HOPE was established in Detroit, Michigan in March, 1968 by co-founders Father William T. Cunningham, Father Jerome Fraser and Eleanor Josaitis. At the time the social environment in northern Detroit was one of severe racial tension as a result of the 12th Street Riot of the previous summer; the co-founders' objective was to create a harmonious community where diverse people live and work together. Starting out in the basement of the Catholic Church of Madonna, where Father Cunningham was pastor, Focus: HOPE grew to encompass a 40-acre campus along Oakman Boulevard in Detroit. Despite its origins, Focus: HOPE has no affiliation with the Catholic Church. Focus: HOPE's first significant action was a consumer survey on the disparity of food and prescription drug prices between inner-city Detroit and the surrounding suburbs.
The survey was conducted in April, 1968 and was aimed at answering three questions: • Do the poor pay more? • Does skin color affect service? • Are facilities and products equal for inner city and suburban shoppers? The survey was designed with the help of government agencies and private firms. Focus: HOPE recruited 403 women from the city and surrounding suburbs to shop for a prescribed list of items at various chain and independent stores throughout the Detroit area; the findings of the survey were that people in poor, inner-city areas paid 20% more for groceries and prescription drugs than people in the more affluent suburbs Furthermore, survey participants reported inferior quality and service in the inner-city stores. The consumer survey was instrumental in Focus: HOPE becoming the host agency for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program for the Detroit/Wayne County, MI region. In 1972 Focus: HOPE formed a coalition opposing the relocation of the Automobile Association of America of Michigan's headquarters from the city of Detroit to Dearborn, a suburb of Detroit in which the black population was less than 0.02%.
After an injunction against the move was denied Focus: HOPE filed a class action suit against AAA on behalf of its black employees alleging racial motivation for the move. The lawsuit, "Bell et al. vs. The Automobile Club of Michigan, et al." claimed that the relocation would force 200 black employees of AAA to leave their jobs due to the unavailability of public transportation to or affordable housing in the city of Dearborn. Shortly after the lawsuit was filed a federal judge ruled that Focus: HOPE had no standing in the case, since the organization itself had not suffered any damages. For the duration of the case, the majority of the financial support of the legal action against AAA was provided by Focus: HOPE. In February 1983 a settlement was reached between AAA and the plaintiffs for a substantial cash amount and a court-enforced affirmative action program to be implemented by AAA; the Housing and Transportation Trust fund was formed with part of the cash settlement for the purpose of providing low-interest mortgages and automobile loans for black employees of AAA, with Focus: HOPE appointed by the court as trustor.
In the same timeframe a second lawsuit against AAA was funded in large part by Focus: HOPE. "Greenspan, et al. vs. The Automobile Club of Michigan, et al.", was a gender discrimination class action fought on behalf of 7,000 female employees. The lawsuit branched off of the "Bell" case in 1974 and the trial concluded in December 1979. In February of the following year AAA was found guilty of discriminatory compensation and job-promotion practices. Focus: HOPE's first major program was the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, a federal program to fight malnutrition in infants and young children; the co-founders revived the program in the early 1970s and led the effort to include low-income senior citizens. The Commodity Supplemental Food Program assists 500,000 people nationwide, with Focus: HOPE serving 42,000 in metropolitan Detroit – the program's largest component, with monthly distributions of food; when Father Cunningham approached the owners of a closing machine tool plant, seeking to expand the parking lot for the Oakman Blvd. food distribution center, he observed that the plant's machinists were predominantly older, white males.
Subsequent research showed that few minorities or women were employed in the metalworking industry and that much of the workforce was nearing retirement age. The opportunity to create a means for helping area minorities trapped in welfare and low-paying jobs escape from poverty was clear and Focus: HOPE purchased the closing plant. Father Cunningham was able to convince the U. S. Department of Defense that the shortage in qualified machinists was cause for national security concerns. With the help of Sen. Carl Levin of Michigan, Focus: HOPE obtained loans of surplus machine tool equipment from the government along with a federal grant and donations from various private organizations and established the Machinist Training Institute in 1981. With industry layoffs hindering the job placement of some of the first MTI graduates, Father Cunningham and General Motors President James McDonald came to an agreement in which Focus: HOPE would be given a small production contract, enabling Focus: HOPE to hire the remaining graduates.
Thus, F & H Metalcrafting was established. In the following years, Focus: HOPE acquired more industrial space along Oakman Blvd. through purchases and donations. Additional manufacturing operations were started as sources of revenue, to provide employment for single mothers and t
Charles-Édouard Bouée is the Chief Executive Officer of Roland Berger. He was a member of the company's Global Executive Committee since 2010.. He studied at the Lycée Saint-Louis de Gonzague, from which he graduated in 1986. In 1991, Charles-Edouard Bouée achieved his master's degrees in engineering from École Centrale Paris and the University of Paris. In 1995, he achieved his MBA at Harvard Business School, he started his professional career as an investment banker at Société Générale in Paris and London, focussing on M&A and Corporate Finance. He became an Associate at Booz Allen & Hamilton. Between 1997 and 2001, Charles-Edouard Bouée acted as Vice President at AT Kearney, the strategy consultancy. In 2001, Charles-Edouard Bouée joined Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, he became President & Managing Partner for "Greater China" in 2006, in 2009, he became President for Asia at Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. In July 2010, the partners appointed him to the EC. Bouée now is the Chairman of the EC for France and North Africa, the President for Asia.
In addition, he is the Managing Partner for "Greater China" at the Shanghai office. In the EC, Bouée is responsible for France and Morocco, China and Japan, as well as for market development in Korea and Southeast Asia. In the course of his career, Bouée specialized in the fields of Strategy and M&A, he acts as a consultant for the French Ministry of Foreign Trade in Greater China. Bouée is a board member of the European Union Chamber of Commerce for the region of Shanghai in China. Through this he became specialised in economical questions on Asian markets and is considered by the press. Bouée spoke about Green Recovery at Forum For Asia Annual Conference 2010 in the China World Tower 2 in Beijing. In addition, Charles-Edouard Bouée was one of the speakers at the World Economic Forum and on Global Entrepreneur Summit Forum 2009. Charles-Edouard Bouée has two children, he is living in Paris and Shanghai, where he was honored with the "2012 Shanghai Magnolia Gold Award" for his contributions to the China-Europe relations.
In 2014 he was elected CEO of Roland Berger. In June 2018 he was reelected as CEO for another 4-year period. Charles-Edouard Bouée:"Comment la Chine change le monde", editions dialogue, 2013, ISBN 978-2-918135-77-7 Charles-Edouard Bouée: Light Footprint Management: Leadership in times of change, London 2013, ISBN 978-1-4729-0005-0. Charles-Edouard Bouée: China's Management Revolution - Spirit, Energy, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-230-28545-3. Charles-Edouard Bouée: Innovative Leaders: Compelling Obligation for CEO, professional article, China Business News, 10 November 2009 Charles-Edouard Bouee: Green Growth, Green Profit: How Green Transformation Boosts Business, November 2010 15. Http://www.rolandberger.com/media/press_releases/513-press_archive2013_sc_content/International_Partner_Meeting.html Roland Berger think act Chinese Consumer Report 2009 published in think:act Roland Berger think act Chinese Consumer Report 2010, rolandberger.at published in think:act Article about European Companies in Asia, BTM Beijing, 15 December 2007 Copy of an interview with Charles-Edouard Bouée, Bloomberg TV, 11 July 2009 Interview with Bouée about European Companies in China during times of crises, CNTV Francais, 28 November 2009 Roland Berger study about Asia-Pacific headquarters of European multi-national companies, Munich, 11 April 2011
Booz Allen Hamilton
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation is the parent of Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. an American management and information technology consulting firm, headquartered in McLean, Virginia, in Greater Washington, D. C. with 80 other offices around the globe. The company's stated core business is to provide consulting and engineering services to public and private sector organizations and nonprofits; the company, to become Booz Allen was founded in 1914, in Evanston, when Northwestern University graduate Edwin G. Booz founded the Business Research Service; the service was based on Booz's theory that companies would be more successful if they could call on someone outside their own organizations for expert, impartial advice. Booz's service attracted a number of clients, such as Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Chicago's Union Stockyards and Transit Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway. During the following three decades, the company went through a number of name changes and business models, becoming a partnership called Booz, Allen & Hamilton in 1936, before Fry's departure in 1942 left it as Booz Allen Hamilton.
In general, the post-war era saw a shift in the company's client pool, with many contracts coming from governmental institutions and different branches of the Armed Forces. Edwin G. Booz died in 1951; the company received its first international contract two years in 1953, to help reorganize land-ownership records for the newly established Philippine government. The partnership was dissolved in 1962 and the company was registered as a private corporation. In 1998, Booz Allen Hamilton developed a strategy for the IRS to reshuffle its 100,000 employees into units focused on particular taxpayer categories. Bloomberg named it "the world's most profitable spy organization". According to an Information Week piece from 2002, Booz Allen had "more than one thousand former intelligence officers on its staff". According to its own website, the company "employs more than 10,000 TS/SCI cleared personnel". In 2010, Booz Allen went public with an initial public offering of 14,000,000 shares at $17 per share.
In 2012, Booz Allen purchased the Defense Systems Engineering & Support division of ARINC, adding 1,000 new employees to its roster. In 2014, Booz Allen acquired Epidemico. In 2015, Booz Allen acquired the software development division of the Charleston, S. C. technology firm SPARC. In 2017, Booz Allen acquired eGov Holdings. Booz Allen has been credited with developing several business concepts. In 1957, Sam Johnson, great grandson of the S. C. Johnson & Son founder, Booz Allen's Conrad Jones published How to Organize for New Products which discussed theories on product life-cycle management. In 1958, Gordon Pehrson, deputy director of U. S. Navy Special Projects Office, Bill Pocock of Booz Allen Hamilton developed the Program Evaluation and Review Technique. In 1982, Booz Allen's Keith Oliver coined the term "supply chain management". In 2013, Booz Allen's Mark Herman, Stephanie Rivera, Steven Mills, Michael Kim published the Field Guide to Data Science. A second edition was published in 2015. In 2017, Booz Allen's Josh Sullivan and Angela Zutavern published The Mathematical Corporation.
In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Party the American Civil Liberties Union and Privacy International investigated the U. S. government's SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen's role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is involved with those same agencies on other contracts; the basic statement was. Beyond that, the implication was made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program that may be deemed illegal by the European Commission. A June 28, 2007 article in The Washington Post related how a United States Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS's legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.
According to the article, In a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less. Elaine C. Duke, the department's chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract, but Duke said. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held. On July 11, 2011 the group Anonymous, as part of its Operation AntiSec, hacked into Booz Allen servers, extracting e-mails and non-salted passwords from the U. S. military. This information and a complete dump of the database were placed in a file shared on The Pirate Bay. Despite Anonymous' claims that 90,000 emails were released, the Associated Press counted only 67,000 unique emails, of which only 53,000 were military addresses.
The remainder of the addresses came from educational institutions and defense contractors. Anonymous said that it accessed four gigabytes of Booz Allen source code and delet
World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum, based in Cologny-Geneva, was founded in 1971 as a not-for-profit organization. It gained formal status in January 2015 under the Swiss Host-State Act, confirming the role of the Forum as an International Institution for Public-Private Cooperation; the Forum's mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political and other leaders of society to shape global and industry agendas". The WEF hosts a annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland; the meeting brings together some 2,500 business leaders, international political leaders, economists and journalists for up to four days to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world. The organization convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia and Latin America, holds two further annual meetings in China and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the organization provides a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups from around the world – business and civil society – to come together.
It produces a series of research reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives. There have been many other international conferences nicknamed with "Davos". However, the World Economic Forum objected the use of "Davos" in such contexts for any event not organised by them; this particular statement was issued on 22 October 2018, a day before the opening of 2018 Future Investment Initiative organised by the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia. The WEF was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a business professor at the University of Geneva. First named the "European Management Forum", it changed its name to the World Economic Forum in 1987 and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for resolving international conflicts. In the summer of 1971, Schwab invited 444 executives from Western European firms to the first European Management Symposium held in the Davos Congress Centre under the patronage of the European Commission and European industrial associations, where Schwab sought to introduce European firms to American management practices.
He founded the WEF as a nonprofit organization based in Geneva and drew European business leaders to Davos for the annual meetings each January. Schwab developed the "stakeholder" management approach, which attributed corporate success to managers taking account of all interests: not shareholders and customers, but employees and the communities within which the firm is situated, including governments. Events in 1973, including the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed-exchange rate mechanism and the Arab–Israeli War, saw the annual meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues, for the first time, political leaders were invited to the annual meeting in January 1974. Political leaders soon began to use the annual meeting as a neutral platform; the Davos Declaration was signed in 1988 by Greece and Turkey, helping them turn back from the brink of war. In 1992, South African President F. W. de Klerk met with Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi at the annual meeting, their first joint appearance outside South Africa.
At the 1994 annual meeting, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat reached a draft agreement on Gaza and Jericho. In late 2015, the invitation was extended to include a North Korean delegation for the 2016 forum, "in view of positive signs coming out of the country", the WEF organizers noted. North Korea has not been attending the WEF since 1998; the invitation was accepted but after the January 2016 North Korean nuclear test on 6 January, the invitation was revoked, the country's delegation was made subject to "existing and possible forthcoming sanctions". Despite protests by North Korea calling the decision by the WEF managing board a "sudden and irresponsible" move, the WEF committee maintained the exclusion because "under these circumstances there would be no opportunity for international dialogue". In 2017, the World Economic Forum in Davos attracted considerable attention when for the first time, a head of state from the People's Republic of China was present at the alpine resort.
With the backdrop of Brexit, an incoming protectionist US administration and significant pressures on free trade zones and trade agreements, President Xi Jinping defended the global economic scheme, portrayed China as a responsible nation and a leader for environmental causes. He rebuked the current populist movements that would introduce tariffs and hinder global commerce, warning that such protectionism could foster isolation and reduced economic opportunity. In 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave the plenary speech, becoming the first head of state from India to deliver the inaugural keynote for the annual meet at Davos. Modi highlighted climate change and protectionism as the three major global challenges, expressed confidence that they can be tackled with collective effort. In 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro gave the keynote address at the plenary session of the conference. On his first international trip to Davos, he emphasized liberal economic policies despite his populist agenda, attempted to reassure the world that Brazil is a protector of the rain forest while utilizing its resources for food production and export.
He stated that "his government will seek to better integrate Brazil into the world by mainstreaming international best practices, such as those adopted and promoted by the OECD". Environmental concerns like extreme weather events, the failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation were among the top-r