Yamaha XG is an extension to the General MIDI standard, created by Yamaha. It is similar in purpose to the Roland GS standard. Relative to General MIDI, XG gained popularity by increasing the number of available instruments from 128 to over 600, introduced a large set of standard controllers and parameters that composers could employ to achieve greater subtlety and realism in their compositions; the XG has a synthesizer that provides a 32 note polyphonic feature, shared through the supported 16 MIDI channels. XG has a wide range of sounds to form such complex chords and produces a vast variety of lower synthesizer sounds to choose from. In 1994, Yamaha released the first XG-based product: Yamaha MU80 Tone Generator. In 1995, Yamaha released the first XG-based product for PC users, the DB50XG daughterboard, a Creative Wave Blaster competitor. In 1996, Yamaha released MU10 external module a DB50XG in a case and the SW60XG ISA PC card. Coupled with their tone-generator, both devices included an on-board 4MB sound bank chip of sampled instruments and became desirable among MIDI fans due to their crisp, high-quality sounds similar to the newer models of Roland Sound Canvas.
These devices feature an effects processing system with individual stereo reverb and chorus effects on any of 16 channels, the ability to route any of the channels through an additional'insertion' effect, guitar amp and wah-wah pedal simulations. Yamaha's in-house songwriters utilized these tools to demonstrate the power of the XG format, notably recreating Jimi Hendrix leads complete with feedback, flamenco guitar with distinct pick/hammered notes and finger slides, growling saxophones, a convincing sitar; the DB50XG, SW60XG and SW1000XG are all discontinued. The SW1000XG was popular in the professional music industry, many of Yamaha's amateur and professional keyboards implement either XG or a subset, known as "XGlite". Many notebooks include the Yamaha YMF7xx chipset; the DB60XG, a DB50XG with an analog input, is available only in Japan.. The XG-compatible Yamaha S-YXG50 SoftSynthesizer, discontinued, is an software-based MIDI synth, it used a 2 MB or 4 MB wavetable sound set, was common among non-professional users who needed a cheap, high-quality MIDI synthesizer for purposes such as playing games that rely on MIDI to produce music and sound effects.
Korg, due to its close relationship with Yamaha, released three instruments with XG compatibility: the NS5R, which offered XG compatibility through an add-in daughterboard. Korg was the only manufacturer outside of Yamaha to produce XG-certified instruments. Comparison of MIDI standards Yamaha MU-series sound modules Yamaha Corporation. "Yamaha XG format specifications, v1.26". Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Get many XG MIDI Files on BlueMan Web Site: XG Creation, French Variety, International Success, Movies and TV, Classic Article on the S-YXG50 Yamaha Software, including XG sound demos files in. WMA format Yamaha's Product Archive – SW1000XG Theodor Lauppert: Games and General MIDI Yamaha Manual Library Yamaha XG programming
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones, they duplicate exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as AT models; the IBM AT compatible bus was named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales. Descendants of the IBM PC compatibles comprise the majority of personal computers on the market presently with the dominant operating system being Microsoft Windows, although interoperability with the bus structure and peripherals of the original PC architecture may be limited or non-existent.
Some computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used. Only the Macintosh kept significant market share without compatibility with the IBM PC. IBM decided in 1980 to market a low-cost single-user computer as as possible in response to Apple Computer's success in the burgeoning microcomputer market. On 12 August 1981, the first IBM PC went on sale. There were three operating systems available for it; the least expensive and most popular was PC DOS made by Microsoft. In a crucial concession, IBM's agreement allowed Microsoft to sell its own version, MS-DOS, for non-IBM computers; the only component of the original PC architecture exclusive to IBM was the BIOS. IBM at first asked developers to avoid writing software that addressed the computer's hardware directly, to instead make standard calls to BIOS functions that carried out hardware-dependent operations; this software would run on any machine using MS-DOS or PC-DOS. Software that directly addressed the hardware instead of making standard calls was however.
Software addressing IBM PC hardware in this way would not run on MS-DOS machines with different hardware. The IBM PC was sold in high enough volumes to justify writing software for it, this encouraged other manufacturers to produce machines which could use the same programs, expansion cards, peripherals as the PC; the 808x computer marketplace excluded all machines which were not hardware- and software-compatible with the PC. The 640 KB barrier on "conventional" system memory available to MS-DOS is a legacy of that period. Rumors of "lookalike", compatible computers, created without IBM's approval, began immediately after the IBM PC's release. InfoWorld wrote on the first anniversary of the IBM PC that The dark side of an open system is its imitators. If the specs are clear enough for you to design peripherals, they are clear enough for you to design imitations. Apple... has patents on two important components of its systems... IBM, which has no special patents on the PC, is more vulnerable. Numerous PC-compatible machines—the grapevine says 60 or more—have begun to appear in the marketplace.
By June 1983 PC Magazine defined "PC'clone'" as "a computer accommodate the user who takes a disk home from an IBM PC, walks across the room, plugs it into the'foreign' machine". Because of a shortage of IBM PCs that year, many customers purchased clones instead. Columbia Data Products produced the first computer more or less compatible with the IBM PC standard during June 1982, soon followed by Eagle Computer. Compaq announced its first IBM PC compatible in the Compaq Portable; the Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer, 100% PC-compatible. The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and write its own BIOS using clean room design. At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Texas Instruments, Tulip and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tandy described the Tandy 2000, for example, as having a "'next generation' true 16-bit CPU", with "More speed. More disk storage. More expansion" than the IBM PC or "other MS-DOS computers". While admitting in 1984 that many MS-DOS programs did not support the computer, the company stated that "the most popular, sophisticated software on the market" was available, either or "over the next six months". Like IBM, Microsoft's intention was that application writers would write to the application programming interfaces in MS-DOS or the firmware BIOS, that this would form what would now be termed a hardware abstraction layer; each computer would have its own Original Equipment Manufacturer version of MS-DOS, customized to its hardware. Any software written for MS-DOS would operate on any MS-DOS computer, despite variations in hardware design; this expectation seemed reasonable in the computer marketplace of the time. Until Microsoft was based on computer languages such as BASIC; the established small system operating software was CP/M from Digital Research, in use both at the hobbyist level and by the more professional of t
NEC Corporation is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology services and products, headquartered in Minato, Japan. It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, has been the biggest PC vendor in Japan since the 1980s; the company was known as the Nippon Electric Company, before rebranding in 1983 as NEC. NEC was the world's fourth largest PC manufacturer by 1990, its NEC Semiconductors business unit was the worldwide semiconductor sales leader between 1985 and 1990, the second largest in 1995, one of the top three in 2000, one of the top 10 in 2006. It remained one of the top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics. NEC is a member of the Sumitomo Group. NEC was #463 on the 2017 Fortune 500 list. Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda established Nippon Electric Limited Partnership on August 31, 1898 by using facilities that they had bought from Miyoshi Electrical Manufacturing Company.
Iwadare acted as the representative partner. Western Electric, which had an interest in the Japanese phone market, was represented by Walter Tenney Carleton. Carleton was responsible for the renovation of the Miyoshi facilities, it was agreed that the partnership would be reorganized as a joint-stock company when treaty would allow it. On July 17, 1899, the revised treaty between Japan and the United States went into effect. Nippon Electric Company, Limited was organized the same day with Western Electric Company to become the first Japanese joint-venture with foreign capital. Iwadare was named managing director. Ernest Clement and Carleton were named as directors. Maeda and Mototeru Fujii were assigned to be auditors. Iwadare and Carleton handled the overall management; the company started with the production and maintenance of telephones and switches. NEC modernized the production facilities with the construction of the Mita Plant in 1901 at Mita Shikokumachi, it was completed in December 1902. The Japanese Ministry of Communications adopted a new technology in 1903: the common battery switchboard supplied by NEC.
The common battery switchboards powered the subscriber phone, eliminating the need for a permanent magnet generator in each subscriber's phone. The switchboards were imported, but were manufactured locally by 1909. NEC started exporting telephone sets to China in 1904. In 1905, Iwadare visited Western Electric in the U. S. to see their production control. On his return to Japan he discontinued the "oyakata" system of sub-contracting and replaced it with a new system where managers and employees were all direct employees of the company. Inefficiency was removed from the production process; the company paid higher salaries with incentives for efficiency. New accounting and cost controls were put in place, time clocks installed. Between 1899 and 1907 the number of telephone subscribers in Japan rose from 35,000 to 95,000. NEC entered the China market in 1908 with the implementation of the telegraph treaty between Japan and China, they entered the Korean market, setting up an office in Seoul in January 1908.
During the period of 1907 to 1912 sales rose from 1.6 million yen to 2 million yen. The expansion of the Japanese phone service had been a key part of NEC's success during this period; this expansion was about to take a pause. The Ministry of Communications delayed a third expansion plan of the phone service in March, 1913, despite having 120,000 potential telephone-subscribers waiting for phone installations. NEC sales fell sixty percent between 1912 and 1915. During the interim, Iwadare started importing appliances, including electric fans, kitchen appliances, washing machines and vacuum cleaners. Electric fans had never been seen in Japan before; the imports were intended to prop up company sales. In 1916, the government resumed the delayed telephone-expansion plan, adding 75,000 subscribers and 326,000 kilometers of new toll lines. Thanks to this third expansion plan, NEC expanded at a time when much of the rest of Japanese industry contracted. In 1919, NEC started its first association with Sumitomo, engaging Sumitomo Densen Seizosho to manufacture cables.
As part of the venture, NEC provided cable manufacturing equipment to Sumitomo Densen. Rights to Western Electrics duplex cable patents were transferred to Sumitomo Densen; the Great Kantō earthquake struck Japan in 1923. 140,000 people were killed and 3.4 million were left homeless. Four of NEC's factories were destroyed, killing 105 of NEC's workers. Thirteen of Tokyo's telephone offices were destroyed by fire. Telephone and telegraph service was interrupted by damage to telephone cables. In response, the Ministry of Communications accelerated major programs to install automatic telephone switching systems and enter radio broadcasting; the first automatic switching systems were the Strowger-type model made by Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Co. in the United Kingdom. NEC participated in the installation of the automatic switching systems becoming the general sales agent for ATM. NEC developed its own Strowger-type automatic switching system in a first in Japan. One of the plants leveled during the Kanto earthquake, the Mita Plant, was chosen to support expanding production.
A new three-story steel-reinforced concrete building was built, starting in 1925. It was modeled after the Western Electric Hawthorne Works. NEC started its radio communications business in 1924. Japan's first radio broadcaster, Radio Tokyo was founded in 1924 and started broadcasting in 1925. NEC imported the broadcasting equipment from Western Electric; the expansion of radio broadcasting into Osaka and Nagoya marked the emergence of
IBM Music Feature Card
The IBM Music Feature Card and sometimes abbreviated as the IBM MFC, or just IMFC: is a professional-level sound card for the PC, used the 8-bit ISA bus. The card made use of the Yamaha YM2164 chip which produces music via FM synthesis, it was introduced in 1987 by IBM, oriented towards composers and musicians. In the late 80's, sound was becoming the norm in computer games and as such, video game companies started supporting sound cards in their products. In the case of the IBM Music Feature Card and MicroProse were the main companies who showed support; the IBM Music Feature Card failed to gain much traction because of its high retail price at the time, aggressive superior competition by Roland with the internal LAPC-I. Some games support the IMFC, including King's Quest IV: The Perils of Rosella, Leisure Suit Larry Goes Looking for Love, Leisure Suit Larry III: Passionate Patti in Pursuit of the Pulsating Pectorals, Space Quest III: The Pirates of Pestulon and Silpheed. IBM IBM PC Sound card Sierra Online Roland LAPC-I, MPU-401 and MT-32 IBM Music Feature store demonstration software
A PC speaker is a loudspeaker built into some IBM PC compatible computers. The first IBM Personal Computer, model 5150, employed a standard 2.25 inch magnetic driven speaker. More recent computers use a piezoelectric speaker instead; the speaker allows software and firmware to provide auditory feedback to a user, such as to report a hardware fault. A PC speaker generates waveforms using an Intel 8253 or 8254 chip; the PC speaker is used during power-on self-test sequence to indicate errors during the boot process. Since it is active before the graphics card, it can be used to communicate "beep codes" related to problems that prevent the much more complex initialization of the graphics card to take place. For example, the Video BIOS cannot activate a graphics card unless working RAM is present in the system, while beeping the speaker is possible with just ROM and the CPU registers. Different error codes will be signaled by specific beeping patterns, such as e.g. "one beep. These patterns are specific to the BIOS manufacturer and are documented in the technical manual of the motherboard.
The PC speaker was used in innovative ways to create the impression of polyphonic music or sound effects within computer games of its era, such as the LucasArts series of adventure games from the mid-1990s, using swift arpeggios. Several games such as Space Hulk and Pinball Fantasies were noted for their elaborate sound effects. Several programs, including MP, Scream Tracker, Fast Tracker, Impulse Tracker, device drivers for Linux and Microsoft Windows, could play pulse-code modulation sound through the PC speaker using special techniques explained in this article. Modern Microsoft Windows systems have PC speaker support as a separate device with special capabilities – that is, it cannot be configured as a normal audio output device; some software uses this special sound channel to produce sounds. For example, Skype can use it as a reserve calling signal device for the case where the primary audio output device cannot be heard. In some applications, the PC speaker is affixed directly to the computer's motherboard.
Some PC cases come with a PC speaker preinstalled. A wired PC speaker connector may have a two-, three-, or four-pin configuration, either two or three wires; the female connector of the speaker connects to pin headers on the motherboard, which are sometimes labeled SPEAKER or SPKR. The PC speaker is meant to reproduce a square wave via only 2 levels of output. However, by timing a short pulse, by relying on the speaker's physical filtering properties, the end result corresponds to intermediate sound levels, functioning as a crude digital-to-analog converter; this technique allows approximate playback of PCM audio. With the PC speaker, this method achieves limited quality playback; the clock rate of the PC's programmable interval timer which drives the speaker is fixed at 1,193,180 Hz, the product of the audio sample rate times the maximum DAC value must equal this. A 6-bit DAC with a maximum value of 63 is used at a sample rate of 18,939.4 Hz, producing poor but recognizable audio. This use of the PC speaker for complex audio output became less common with the introduction of the Sound Blaster and other sound cards.
Intel 8253 RealSound Loudspeaker enclosure Smacky Open-source C++ software for playing songs on the PC speaker. Site for old PC without sound cards. PCGPE article on programming the PC Speaker. Part 1 of another article about programming the PC speaker. Part 2 of the article Bleeper Music Maker A freeware to use the PC speaker to make music Article about programming PC speaker using C++ Commandline PC speaker program for LinuxFTP Practical article on implementing a Linux Kernel Driver Timing on the PC family under DOS
The MPU-401, where MPU stands for MIDI Processing Unit, is an important but now obsolete interface for connecting MIDI-equipped electronic music hardware to personal computers. It was designed by Roland Corporation, which co-authored the MIDI standard. Released around 1984, the original MPU-401 was an external breakout box providing MIDI IN/MIDI OUT/MIDI THRU/TAPE IN/TAPE OUT/MIDI SYNC connectors, for use with a separately-sold interface card/cartridge inserted into a computer system. For this setup, the following "interface kits" were made: MIF-APL: For the Apple II. MIF-C64: For the Commodore 64. MIF-FM7: For the Fujitsu FM7. MIF-IPC: For the IBM PC/IBM XT, it turned out not to work reliably with faster processors. Early versions of the actual PCB had IF-MIDI/IBM as a silk screen. MIF-IPC-A: For the IBM AT, works with XT as well. Xanadu MUSICOM IFM-PC: For the IBM PC / IBM XT / IBM AT; this was a third party MIDI card, incorporating the MIF-IPC and additional functionality, coupled with the OEM Roland MPU-401 BOB.
It had a mini audio jack on the PCB. MIF-MSX: For the MSX. MIF-PC8: For the NEC PC-88. MIF-PC98: For the NEC PC-98. MIF-X1: For the Sharp X1. MIF-V64: For the Commodore 64. In 2014 hobbyists built clones of the MIF-IPC-A card for PCs. Roland would put most of the electronics found in the breakout box onto the interface card itself, thus reducing the size of the breakout box. Products released in this manner: MPU-401N: an external interface designed for use with the NEC PC-98 series notebook computers; this breakout-box unit features a special COMPUTER IN port for direct connection to the computer's 110-pin expansion bus. METRONOME OUT connector was added. Released in Japan only. MPU-IPC: for the IBM PC/IBM XT/IBM AT and compatibles, it had a 25-pin female connector for the breakout box though only nine pins were used, only seven were functionally different: both 5V and ground use two pins each. MPU-IPC-T: for the IBM PC/IBM XT/IBM AT and compatibles; the MIDI SYNC connector was removed from this Taiwanese-manufactured model, the hardcoded I/O address and IRQ could be set to different values with jumpers.
MPU-IMC: for the IBM PS/2's Micro Channel Architecture bus. In earlier models both I/O address and IRQ were hardcoded to IRQ 2, it had a 9-pin female connector for the breakout box.. Due to the incompatibility of IRQ 2/9 between the MPU-IMC and IBM PS/2 MCA models certain games will not work with MPU-401. S-MPU/AT: for the IBM AT and compatibles, it had a Mini-DIN female connector for the breakout box. The MIDI SYNC, TAPE IN, TAPE OUT, METRONOME OUT connectors was removed, but a second MIDI IN connector was added. An application to assign resources must be run to use the card in DOS; this application is not a TSR, i.e. it does not take up conventional memory. S-MPU-IIAT: for the IBM or compatible Plug and Play PC's, it had a Mini-DIN female connector for the breakout box with two MIDI In connectors and two MIDI Out connectors. An application to assign resources must be run to use the card in DOS; this application is not a TSR, i.e. it does not take up precious conventional memory. LAPC-I: for the IBM PC and compatibles.
Includes the Roland CM-32L sound source. A breakout box for this card, the MCB-1, was sold separately. LAPC-N: for the NEC PC-98. Includes the Roland CM-32LN sound source. A breakout box for this card, the MCB-2, was sold separately. RAP-10: for the IBM AT and compatibles. General midi sound source only. MPU-401 UART mode only. A breakout box for this card, the MCB-10, was sold separately. SCP-55: for the IBM and compatible laptops. Includes the Roland SC-55 sound source. A breakout box for this card, the MCB-3, was sold separately. MPU-401 UART mode only. Still Roland would get rid of the breakout box and put all connectors on the back of the interface card itself. Products released in this manner: MPU-APL: for the Apple II series. Single-card combination of the MIF-APL interface and MPU-401, featuring MIDI IN, OUT, SYNC connectors. MPU-401AT: for IBM AT and "100% compatibles". Includes a connector for Wavetable daughterboards. MPU-PC98: for the NEC PC-98. MPU-PC98II: for the NEC PC-98. S-MPU/PC: for the NEC PC-98.
S-MPU/2N: for the NEC PC-98. SCC-1: for the IBM PC and compatibles. Includes the Roland SC-55 sound source. GPPC-N & GPPC-NA: for the NEC PC-98. Includes the Roland SC-55 sound source. By the late 1980s other manufacturers of PCBs developed intelligent MPU-401 clones; some of these, like Voyetra, were equipped with Roland chips whereas others had retro-engineered ROMs. Examples: Midiman MM-401 Computer Music Supply CMS-401 Music Quest PC MIDI Card / MQX-16s / MQX-32m Voyetra V-400x / OP-400x MIDI LAND DX-401 & MD-401 Data Soft DS-401 In 2015 hobbyists developed a Music Quest PC MIDI Card 8BIT clone. In 2017/2018 hobbyists developed a revision of the Music Quest PC MIDI Card 8BIT clone that includes a wavetable header in analogy of the Roland MPU-401AT; the MPU-401 can work in normal mode and UART mode. "Normal mode" would provide the host system with an 8-track sequencer, MIDI clock output, SYNC 24 signal output, Tape Sync and a metronome. Compare this
The YM2413, a.k.a. OPLL, is a cost-reduced FM synthesis sound chip manufactured by Yamaha Corporation and based on their YM3812. To make the chip cheaper to manufacture, many of the internal registers were removed; the result of this is. There were other cost-cutting modifications: the number of waveforms was reduced to two, the channels are not mixed using an adder; the YM2413 was used in: the FM Sound Unit add-on for the Sega Mark III, sold in Japan, that improved the sound quality of all compatible games. The Japanese model of the Master System came with this add-on built-in, it is built into select MSX2 and MSX2+ systems, all MSX Turbo R machines, as part of the MSX-Music standard. Yamaha YM2420 is a variant with changed registers, used in Yamaha's own home keyboards, it has the same pinout and built-in FM patches as the YM2413, but several registers have parts of the bit order reversed. Yamaha DS1001 contains a YM2413 derivative, used on the Family Computer game Lagrange Point, as well as on a few redemption arcade machines.
It has 6 FM channels instead of 9, lacks the rhythm channels. It has a different set of built in FM patches from the YM2413. Yamaha YM2413B and YMF281B are low power variants of YMF281 respectively; these variants eliminate the crossover distortion of the DAC. A lower power consumption indicates. Yamaha YM2423 is another YM2413 derivative, it has the same pinout and register set as the YM2413. Yamaha YMF281 is a YM2413 derivative intended for pachinko or pachislot machines, it has the same pinout and register set as the YM2413. It may be the same chip as the FHB013 below, as it has the same patches. Yamaha FHB013 is a YM2413 derivative, it is a 2-metal CMOS process instead of NMOS. It has the same pinout and register set as the YM2413, it may be the same chip as the YMF281 above, as it has the same patches. It may be directly derived from the YM2413B. UMC U3567 is a 100% software compatible chip with a different pinout, requiring a pin-to-pin adapter in order to be used on a YM2413 socket. UMC UM3567 is a 100% software compatible chip, with the same pinout as the U3567 but a enhanced DAC output.
It requires the same pin-to-pin adapter, but the different DAC output will require the two pull-down resistors of the audio output pins to be removed from the motherboard. MSX-Music d'Osvualdo, G. Luppes, E. Martin, C. Brychkov, E. "FM-Pak without SRAM". AGE Labs, 2013-12-29. Accessed on 2013-12-31