Jean-Marie Bockel was Secretary of State for Defence and Veterans in the government of Prime Minister François Fillon appointed on 18 March 2008, having been Secretary of State for Cooperation and La Francophonie since June 2007. He has been a member of the French National Assembly since 1981, when he stood as a Socialist Party candidate, was Minister for Commerce in the Socialist Party government of Laurent Fabius between 1984 and 1986. Bockel was born in Strasbourg, he is a lawyer and has been mayor of Mulhouse since 1989. On the right wing of the Socialist Party, he declared himself to be an admirer and strong supporter of the policies of Tony Blair. In November 2007 he announced the formation of a new centre-left political party, Modern Left, following his resignation from the Socialist Party when joining the Sarkozy administration, used this party as a vehicle to campaign in the municipal elections of 2008 for a fourth term as mayor. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Prisons and Prison Reform: 2009–2010.
Secretary of State for Defense and Veterans: 2008–2009. Secretary of State for Cooperation and Francophony: 2007–2008. Minister of Commerce and Tourism: February–March 1986. State Secretary to the Minister of Commerce and Tourism: 1984–1986. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Haut-Rhin: 1981–1984 / 1986–1993 / 1997–2002. Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1997. Senate of France Senator of Haut-Rhin: 2004–2007. Elected in 2004. Reelected in 2008, but he stays minister. General Council General councillor of Haut-Rhin: 1982–1989 / 1994–1997. Reelected in 1988, 1994. Municipal Council Mayor of Mulhouse: 1989–2010. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008. Municipal councillor of Mulhouse: Since 1989. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008. Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Mulhouse Sud Alsace: Since 2001. Reelected in 2008. Member of the Agglomeration community of Mulhouse Sud Alsace: Since 2001. Reelected in 2008. Official website of Modern Left Biography on the official Prime-Ministerial web site
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
The Ligne à Grande Vitesse Est européenne shortened to LGV Est, is a French high-speed rail line that connects Vaires-sur-Marne and Vendenheim. The line halved the travel time between Paris and Strasbourg and provides fast services between Paris and the principal cities of eastern France as well as Luxembourg and Switzerland; the LGV Est is a segment of the Main line for Europe project to connect Paris with Budapest with high-speed rail service. The line was built in two phases. Construction on the 300 km from Vaires-sur-Marne to Baudrecourt began in 2004. Construction on the 106 km second phase from Baudrecourt to Vendenheim began in June 2010. Opening of the second phase was delayed after a train derailed near Eckwersheim during commissioning trials, resulting in 11 deaths. A specially modified train performed a series of high-speed tests on the first phase of the LGV Est prior to its opening. In April 2007, it reached a top speed of 574.8 km/h, becoming the fastest conventional train and fastest train on a national rail system.
The line passes through the French regions of Grand Est.. The first 300 km section of this new route, linking Vaires-sur-Marne near Paris to Baudrecourt in the Moselle, entered service on 10 June 2007. Constructed for speeds up to 350 km/h, for commercial service it is operating at a maximum speed of 320 km/h, was the fastest service in the world at average speed of 279.3 km/h between Lorraine and Champagne until the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway opened in 2009. It is the first line in France to travel at this maximum speed in commercial service, the first in France to use ERTMS, the new European rail signalling system and the first line served by German ICE trains; the second phase includes the 4,200-metre Saverne Tunnel. In 1969, Metz politician Raymond Mondon requested a study of a fast train from Paris to Strasbourg along the route of the planned A4 autoroute. In 1970-71, the International Union of Railways developed a master plan of fast intercity connections in continental Europe.
Its connection between Paris and Strasbourg was similar to the route of the LGV Est. The UIC master plan called for this line to be constructed shortly after Paris-Lyon and Paris-Brussels lines. In 1974, the director of SNCF confirmed. Germany, developing the Transrapid maglev system, was long reserved about the TGV system being developed by France. A 1975 study concluded that the passenger traffic to only Alsace and Lorraine would not be enough for the financial feasibility of the line. In 1982, recognizing German reluctance to extend the line into Germany, SNCF president André Chadeau announced that the company would not build the LGV Est without government subsidies; the following year, Saverne engineer Charles Maetz convinced MPs Adrien Zeller and François Grussenmeyer to establish the East European TGV Association, which managed to bring together local authorities to support the project. The LGV Est is a direct result of a project begun in 1985 with the establishment of a working group chaired by Claude Rattier and by Philippe Essig.
Their report provided the basis for preliminary design studies conducted in 1992-93. The initial 1980s plan extended along a corridor from Paris to Munich. However, the expected passenger traffic along this corridor was quite low, unlike Paris-Lyon and Paris-Brussels/London corridors, a direct route crossed a region of eastern France far from any major urban area. In 1986, MP Marc Reymann submitted to the government a route that shared a common trunk line between the LGV Nord and LGV Est from Paris, through Charles de Gaulle Airport, to Soissons before forking into lines to Brussels and Strasbourg. In 1988, the German government agreed to a rail line from Paris to Frankfurt via Saarbrücken; the following year, Philippe Essig presented the route that would be built and at the same time addressed the other problem: financing. This route, further north than previous proposals, served Strasbourg. In order to avoid offending the cities of Nancy and Metz, which share an ancient rivalry, avoid problems encountered during the construction of the A4 autoroute twenty years earlier, this route traveled directly to Strasbourg and passed midway between Nancy and Metz, where a single station would be built to serve both towns and improve relations between them.
Financing of this proposal called for contributions from local governments—a first in France for construction of a high-speed line—and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. This was a favorable financial arrangement for SNCF due to low ridership projections and because the population of the towns served were below a threshold for building a high-speed line; the complexity of financing resulted in the long delay of the project. Under the government of Pierre Beregovoy, the government refused to contribute more than 25 billion francs to the project, limited the route to Baudrecourt, to which the Alsace region threatened to withdraw its financial contribution to the project. After long delays under the successive governments, all wanting to limit the cost of the project, a two-phase project was accepted by all parties, provided that commitments were made for the quick completion of the second phase. On 1 April 1992, the project was added to the master plan of high-speed lines, in which it w
Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Jean Bizet is a member of the Senate of France, representing the Manche department. He is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement. Since March 2010, he is the chairman of the European Affairs Committee. Page on the Senate website
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français is France's national state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the country's national rail traffic along with Monaco, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network, its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure. The railway network consists of about 32,000 km of route, of which 1,800 km are high-speed lines and 14,500 km electrified. About 14,000 trains are operated daily. In 2010 the SNCF was ranked 22nd in 214th globally on the Fortune Global 500 list, it is the main business of the SNCF Group, which in 2017 had €33.5 billion of sales in 120 countries. The SNCF Group employs more than 260,000 people. Since July 2013, the SNCF Group headquarters are located in a Parisian suburb at 2 Place aux Étoiles in Saint-Denis; the President of the SNCF Group is Guillaume Pepy. SNCF operates all of France's railway system, including the TGV. In the 1970s, the SNCF began the TGV high-speed train programme with the intention of creating the world's fastest railway network.
It came to fruition in 1981. Today, the SNCF operates 1,850 km of designated high-speed track that accommodate more than 800 high-speed services per day. SNCF’s TGV trains carry more than 100 million passengers a year. TGV lines and TGV technology are now spread across several European countries in addition to South Korea; the SNCF's TGV has set many world speed records, the most recent on 3 April 2007, when a new version of the TGV dubbed the V150 with larger wheels than the usual TGV, was able to cover more ground with each rotation and had a stronger 25,000 hp engine, broke the world speed record for conventional railway trains, reaching 574.8 km/h. The SNCF has a remarkable safety record. After nearly 30 years in operation, SNCF’s TGV system has only experienced one fatal accident, which occurred during pre-opening testing and not in regular operation. In 2011 SNCF in partnership with Keolis, unsuccessfully bid for the InterCity West Coast franchise. In April 2017 SNCF took a 30% shareholding in a joint venture with Stagecoach Group and Virgin Group to bid for the West Coast Partnership that will operate services on the West Coast Main Line from May 2020 and the High Speed 2 line from 2026.
In April 2019 Stagecoach were banned from bidding for any franchises including the West Coast Partnership which has meant that Virgin and SNCF have now had to withdraw from the shortlist. Since the 1990s, SNCF has been selling railway carriages to regional governments, with the creation of the Train Express Régional brand. SNCF maintains a broad scope of international business that includes work on freight lines, inter-city lines and commuter lines. SNCF experts provide logistics, construction and maintenance services. SNCF operates the international ticketing agency Oui.sncf Voyages-sncf.com and Rail Europe. SNCF has employees in 120 countries offering extensive overseas and cross border consulting; those projects include: Israel: Training. SNCF International provides assistance to Israel Railways in every area of rail operations including projects to upgrade the network's general safety regulations. Other assistance and training programmes involve the Traction Division. Taiwan: Operations Training.
SNCF supervised the prime contractor responsible for construction of the Taiwan Railways Administration’s main high-speed rail line. It trained rail traffic controllers and crew members. On behalf of the Government of Taiwan, SNCF managed the high-speed railway Command Control Centre. United Kingdom: Maintenance. In 2007-2008, SNCF-International consultants audited the maintenance practices applied to the track and overhead electric power line on British high-speed rail lines connecting London to the Channel Tunnel. In addition, it conducted an audit of the maintainer’s performance from the service quality and cost control standpoint, made recommendations for improvements, proposed a three-year Business Plan. South Korea: HSR Electrification Design. SNCF advised Korean Railroads on the electrification of tracks between Daegu and Busan and on linking existing conventional tracks to the new high-speed line. SNCF assisted in selecting and inspecting high-speed rolling stock and trained 400 senior manager and executives in a broad range of skills, including signalling, track, rolling stock maintenance, HSR operation, safety management and passenger information systems.
Until the end of 2009, SNCF assisted Korea in maintaining its high-speed. Spain: Signalling System. SNCF partnered with ADIF in the study, supply and maintenance of the standard EU railway signaling system along the Madrid-Lleida high-speed line. On behalf of the Spanish Government, SNCF designed and led maintenance operations on this line over a two-year period. France: Lead Infrastructure and Rolling Stock Maintainer – The SNCF maintains 32,000 km of track, 26,500 main sets of points and crossings, 2,300 signal boxes, 80,000 track circuits, over 1 million relays, etc, it maintains 3,900 locomotives and 500 high-speed trains. Each of SNCF’s TGV trains travels more than 39,000 km a month – enough to circle the globe; each year SNCF’s Human Resources Department provides over 1.2 million hours of training to its over 25,000 employees. SNCF was formed in 1938 with the nationalisation of France's main railway companies (Chemin de fer, literally,'path of iron', me