Cornish rebellion of 1497
The Cornish rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall. Its primary cause was the response by the impoverished Cornish populace to the raising of war taxes by King Henry VII to raise money for a campaign against Scotland. Tin miners were angered as the scale of the taxes overturned previous rights granted by Edward I of England to the Cornish Stannary Parliament, which exempted Cornwall from all taxes of 10ths or 15ths of income. In 1496, after disagreements regarding new regulations for the tin-mining industry, King Henry VII suspended the privileges of the Stannaries. In late 1496 the council approved a forced loan to which Cornwall contributed a disproportionately large share; the primary cause of the rebellion was Henry VII's tax levy to pay for a war against the Scots. The terms of the levy violated the Stannary Charter of 1305 which prohibited taxes of 10ths and 15ths from being raised in Cornwall. Cornwall had contributed to the Scottish expedition though it was not affected by any border incursions.
The first stirrings of protest arose in the parish of St Keverne on the Lizard peninsula, where there was resentment against the actions of Sir John Oby, provost of Glasney College in Penryn, the tax collector for that area. In reaction to King Henry's tax levy, Michael Joseph, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer of Bodmin, incited many of the people of Cornwall into armed revolt against the King; the rebels included Flamank and William Antron. An army some 15,000 strong marched into Devon, attracting support in terms of provisions and recruits as they went. From Taunton, they moved on to Wells, where they were joined by their most eminent recruit, James Touchet, the seventh Baron Audley, a member of the old nobility. Despite this welcome and prestigious acquisition of support, An Gof, the blacksmith, remained in command of the army. Audley joined Thomas Flamank as joint'political' leader of the expedition. After issuing a declaration of grievances, the army left Wells and marched to Winchester via Bristol and Salisbury, remarkably unopposed as they progressed across the south of England.
At this point, having come so far, there seems to have been some questioning of what should be done. The King had shown no sign of willingness to concede the issue and, far from home, there must have come to the leadership the belated cold realisation that only force of arms would resolve the matter one way or the other. Flamank conceived the idea of trying to broaden the rising. Flamank proposed that they should head for Kent,'the classic soil of protests', the home of the Peasants' Revolt and Jack Cade's rebellion, to rally the volatile men of Kent to their banner, it was a subtle and ambitious strategy—but sadly misinformed. Although the Scottish War was as remote a project to the Kentishmen as to the Cornish, they not only declined to offer their support but went so far as to offer resistance under their Earl. Sadly disillusioned, the Cornish army retreated and some of the men returned to their homes; the remainder, let go the pretence of acting against the King's ministers alone – they were prepared to give battle against the King himself.
Moving back west, by 13 June 1497 the Cornish army arrived at Guildford. Although shocked by the scale of the revolt and the speed of its approach, Henry VII had not been idle; the army of 8,000 men assembled for Scotland under the command of Giles, Lord Daubeny, Henry's chief general and Lord Chamberlain, was recalled. The Earl of Surrey was sent north to conduct a defensive, holding operation against the Scots until such time as the King had quelled his domestic difficulties; the Royal family moved to the Tower of London for safety whilst in the rest of the City there was panic among the common citizens. It is said there was a general cry of'Every man to harness! To harness!' and a rush of armed citizenry to the walls and gates. The same day that the Cornish arrived at Guildford and his men took up position upon Hounslow Heath and were cheered by the arrival of food and wine dispatched by the Lord Mayor of London; the Crown decided to test the strength and resolve of the Cornish forces. Lord Daubeney sent out a force of 500 mounted spearmen and they clashed with the Cornish at'Gill Down' outside Guildford on Wednesday 14 June 1497.
The Cornish army left Guildford and moved via Banstead and Chussex Plain to Blackheath where they pitched their final camp, looking down from the hill onto the Thames and City of London. Despite unrest among the Cornish forces, An Gof held his army together, but faced with overwhelming odds, some Cornish deserted and by morning there remained only some 9–10,000 Cornish stalwarts left in arms; the Battle of Deptford Bridge took place on 17 June 1497 on a site in present-day Deptford south-east London, adjacent to the River Ravensbourne and was the culminating event of the Cornish Rebellion. Henry VII had mustered an army of some 25,000 men and the Cornish lacked the supporting cavalry and artillery arms essential to the professional forces of the time. After spreading rumours that he would attack on the following Monday, Henry moved against the Cornish at dawn on his'lucky day' – Saturday; the Royal forces were divided into three'battles', two under Lords Oxford and Suffolk, to wheel round the right flank and rear of enemy whilst the third waited in reserve.
When the Cornish were duly surrounded, Lord Daubeney and the third'battle' were ordered into frontal attack. At the br
Francis II, Duke of Brittany
Francis II of Brittany was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death. He was the grandson of Duke of Brittany. A recurring theme in Francis' life would be his quest to maintain the quasi-independence of Brittany from France; as such, his reign was characterized by conflicts with King Louis XI of France and with his daughter, Anne of France, who served as regent during the minority of her brother, King Charles VIII. The armed and unarmed conflicts between 1484–1488 have been called the Mad War and the "War of the Public Weal". Francis II was born on 23 June 1433 to Richard of Brittany, Count of Étampes and his wife, Margaret of Orléans, Countess of Vertus. Richard of Brittany was the youngest son of Duke John IV of Brittany. Richard's older brothers, John V and Arthur III, both succeeded their father as duke, but upon Arthur's death in 1458, the only legitimate male heir was his nephew Francis II. Duke Francis II unexpectedly became the protector of England's House of Lancaster in exile from 1471–1484.
During the latter half of the 15th century, civil war existed in England as the House of York and House of Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In 1471, the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury; the Lancastrian king, Henry VI of England and his only son, Edward of Westminster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury. Their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. Subsequently, the Yorkist king, Edward IV of England, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry Tudor, naming them as traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds in the English Channel forced them to land at Le Conquet in Brittany, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of royal bloodline, had a weak claim to the throne, King Edward IV regarded him as "a nobody."
However, Francis II viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid, when in conflicts with France, therefore kept the Tudors under his protection. He housed Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor, the core of their group of exiled Lancastrians at the Château de Suscinio in Sarzeau, where they remained there for 11 years. There, Francis II generously supported this group of exiled Englishmen against all the Plantagenet demands that he should surrender them. In October 1483, Henry Tudor launched a failed invasion of England from Brittany. Duke Francis II supported this invasion by providing 40,000 gold crowns, 15,000 soldiers, a fleet of transport ships. Henry's fleet of 15 chartered vessels was scattered by a storm, his ship reached the coast of England in company with only one other vessel. Henry realized that the soldiers on shore were the men of the new Yorkist king, Richard III of England, so he decided to abandon the invasion and return to Brittany; as for Henry's main conspirator in England, Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, he was convicted of treason and beheaded on 2 November 1483, way before Henry's ships landed in England.
For Henry's conspiracy against King Richard III had been unravelled, without the Duke of Buckingham or Henry Tudor, the rebellion was crushed. Survivors of the failed uprising fled to Brittany, where they supported Henry Tudor's claim to the throne. On Christmas Day in 1483 at the Rennes Cathedral, Henry swore an oath to marry King Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, thus unite the warring houses of York and Lancaster. Henry's rising prominence made him a great threat to King Richard III, the Yorkist king made several overtures to Duke Francis II to surrender the young Lancastrian. Francis II refused. In mid-1484, Francis was incapacitated by one of his periods of illness, while recuperating, his treasurer, Pierre Landais, took over the reins of government. Landais reached an agreement with King Richard III to send Henry and his uncle Jasper back to England in exchange for a pledge of 3,000 English archers to defend Brittany against a threatened French attack. John Morton, a bishop of Flanders, warned the Tudors in time.
The Tudors managed to separately escape, hours ahead of Landais' soldiers, across the nearby border into France. They were received at the court of King Charles VIII of France who allowed them to stay and provided them with resources. Shortly afterwards, when Francis II had recovered, he offered the 400 remaining Lancastrians, still at and around the Château de Suscinio, safe-conduct into France and paid for their expenses. For the French, the Tudors were useful pawns to ensure that King Richard III did not interfere with French plans to acquire Brittany. Thus, the loss of the Lancastrians played against the interests of Francis II. Circa 1136, King Stephen of England named Alan of Penthièvre of Brittany the 1st Earl of Richmond. After Alan, the title and its possessions were bestowed upon the Dukes of Brittany, with a few interruptions, through the ducal reign of John IV, which ended in 1399. After John IV, the English kings would bestow the title Earl of Richmond on nobles other than the Dukes of Brittany, including Edmund Tudor, Henry Tudor's father.
However the dukes of Brittany from John V through Francis II would continue to use the titulary Earl of Richmond. It is possible that Francis willed whatever remained of his cl
The Bretons are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. They trace much of their heritage to groups of Brittonic speakers who emigrated from southwestern Great Britain Cornwall and Devon during the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, they migrated in waves from the 3rd to 9th century into Armorica, subsequently named Brittany after them. The main traditional language of Brittany is Breton, spoken in Lower Brittany. Breton is spoken by around 206,000 people as of 2013; the other principal minority language of Brittany is Gallo. As one of the Brittonic languages, Breton is related to Cornish and more distantly to Welsh, while the Gallo language is one of the Romance langues d'oïl. Most Bretons' native language is standard French. Brittany and its people are counted as one of the six Celtic nations. Ethnically, along with the Cornish and Welsh, the Bretons are Celtic Britons; the actual number of ethnic Bretons in Brittany and France as a whole is difficult to assess as the government of France does not collect statistics on ethnicity.
The population of Brittany, based on a January 2007 estimate, was 4,365,500. It is said that, in 1914, over 1 million people spoke Breton west of the boundary between Breton and Gallo-speaking region—roughly 90% of the population of the western half of Brittany. In 1945, it was about 75%, today, in all of Brittany, the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of four million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique, which the Vichy government separated from historical Brittany in 1941. Seventy-five percent of the estimated 200,000 to 250,000 Breton speakers using Breton as an everyday language today are over the age of 65. A strong historical emigration has created a Breton diaspora within the French borders and in the overseas departments and territories of France. Many Breton families have emigrated to the Americas, predominantly to Canada and the United States. People from the region of Brittany were among the first European settlers to permanently settle the French West Indies, i.e. Dominica and Martinique, where remnants of their culture can still be seen to this day.
The only places outside Brittany that still retain significant Breton customs are in Île-de-France, Le Havre and in Îles des Saintes, where a group of Breton families settled in the mid-17th century. In the late 4th century, large numbers of British auxiliary troops in the Roman army may have been stationed in Armorica; the 9th-century Historia Brittonum states that the emperor Magnus Maximus, who withdrew Roman forces from Britain, settled his troops in the province. Nennius and Gildas mention a second wave of Britons settling in Armorica in the following century to escape the invading Anglo-Saxons and Scoti. Modern archaeology supports a two-wave migration, it is accepted that the Brittonic speakers who arrived gave the region its current name as well as the Breton language, Brezhoneg, a sister language to Welsh and Cornish. There are numerous records of Celtic Christian missionaries migrating from Britain during the second wave of Breton colonisation the legendary seven founder-saints of Brittany as well as Gildas.
As in Cornwall, many Breton towns are named after these early saints. The Irish saint Columbanus was active in Brittany and is commemorated accordingly at Saint-Columban in Carnac. In the Early Middle Ages, Brittany was divided into three kingdoms—Domnonée, Bro Waroc'h —which were incorporated into the Duchy of Brittany; the first two kingdoms seem to derive their names from the homelands of the migrating tribes in Britain and Devon. Bro Waroc'h derives from the name of one of the first known Breton rulers, who dominated the region of Vannes; the rulers of Domnonée, such as Conomor, sought to expand their territory, claiming overlordship over all Bretons, though there was constant tension between local lords. Bretons were the most prominent of the non-Norman forces in the Norman conquest of England. A number of Breton families were of the highest rank in the new society and were tied to the Normans by marriage; the Scottish Clan Stewart and the royal House of Stuart have Breton origins. Alan Rufus known as Alan the Red, was both a cousin and knight in the retinue of William the Conqueror.
Following his service at Hastings, he was rewarded with large estates in Yorkshire. At the time of his death, he was by far the richest noble in England, his manorial holding at Richmond ensured a Breton presence in northern England. The Earldom of Richmond became an appanage of the Dukes of Brittany. Many people throughout France claim Breton ethnicity, including a few French celebrities such as Marion Cotillard, Malik Zidi, Patrick Poivre d'Arvor, Yoann Gourcuff, Nolwenn Leroy and Yann Tiersen. After 15 years of disputes in the French courts, the European Court of Justice recognized Breton Nationality for the six children of Jean-Jacques and Mireille Manrot-Le Goarnig. In 2015, Jonathan Le Bris started a legal battle against the French administration to claim this status; the Breton diaspora includes Breton immigrants in some cities of France like Paris, Le Havre and Toulon, Breton Canadians and Breton Americans, along with other Fre
Katheryn of Berain
Katheryn of Berain, sometimes called Mam Cymru, was a Welsh noblewoman noted for her four marriages and her extensive network of descendants and relations. She is sometimes referred to as Katheryn Tudor, her father being Tudor ap Robert Vychan and her mother Jane Velville, her maternal grandfather Sir Roland de Velville, is said to have been a natural son of King Henry VII of England by a Breton lady. Katheryn, said to have been a ward of Queen Elizabeth, was the heiress to the Berain and Penymynydd estates in Denbighshire and Anglesey. At the age of 22, Katheryn married John Salusbury, son of Sir John Salusbury of Llewenni, of the prestigious Salusbury Family of Lleweni, Denbighshire. According to John Ballinger, this was a "child marriage". There is said to be a letter written by young Salusbury while at Westminster School in which he mentions his wife, he died in late May or early June 1566. They had two sons: Thomas Salusbury. Executed as a traitor for his involvement in the Babington Plot.
He married his stepsister Margaret Wynn, their daughter, Margaret inherited Berain, John Salusbury, married Ursula Stanley, illegitimate daughter of Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby and Jane Halsall. One of their two surviving sons was Sir Henry Salusbury, 1st Baronet, the first of the Salusbury Baronets of Lleweni. Henry was the father of Anne Salusbury, the wife of Arthur Stanhope and ancestor of all the Earls of Chesterfield from the fifth Earl. Shakespeare's poem The Phoenix and the Turtle was published in a collection called Love's Martyr, dedicated to Katheryn's son John Salusbury, knighted by Queen Elizabeth in June 1601. Following her first husband's death, Katheryn married Sir Richard Clough, an wealthy merchant, who established the Royal Exchange in the City of London with his business partner Sir Thomas Gresham. Clough had lived in Antwerp, upon his return to Denbighshire in 1567 he built two houses, Bach-y-graig and Plas Clough; the houses were built in Antwerp style by Flemish craftsmen and were the first brick houses in Wales.
Upon Clough's death Plas Clough was inherited by his son by his first wife. Katheryn had two daughters by Clough: Anne Clough, married Roger Salusbury, a brother of John Salusbury and paternal uncle to her older half-brothers, their only son was John Salisbury. Anne inherited "Bach-y-graig". Mary Clough. Married William Wynn, A relative of Maurice Wynn; the Cloughs lived for a time in Antwerp, where Katheryn's portrait was painted by Adriaen van Cronenburgh, as the National Museum now suggests, or by Lucas de Heere, a previous attribution. Within six years of their marriage, Sir Richard Clough died in Hamburg aged forty, he was poisoned because of his work as a spy for Queen Elizabeth I. Katheryn married Maurice Wynn of Gwydir. Wynn was Sheriff of Caernarvonshire and left Katheryn an wealthy woman when he died. Katheryn had a further two children by Maurice Wynn: Henry Wynn. Jane Wynn, who married Simon Thelwall. Katheryn's fourth and last husband was Edward Thelwall of Plas-y-Ward; the Welsh poet Robert Parry wrote an elegy on the occasion of Katheryn's death.
Her many descendants included the 18th century explorer John Salusbury. Adriaen van Cronenburgh's portrait of Katheryn in the National Museum Cardiff
Anglesey is an island off the north coast of Wales with an area of 276 square miles. Anglesey is by the seventh largest in the British Isles. Anglesey is the largest island in the Irish Sea by area, the second most populous island; the ferry port of Holyhead handles more than 2 million passengers each year. The Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, the Britannia Bridge span the Menai Strait to connect Anglesey with the mainland. Anglesey, one of the historic counties of Wales, was administered as part of Gwynedd, but along with Holy Island and other smaller islands, it is now governed by the Isle of Anglesey County Council. Much of this article covers the whole of this administrative area; the majority of Anglesey's inhabitants are Welsh speakers and Ynys Môn, the Welsh name for the island, is used for the UK Parliament and National Assembly constituencies. The population at the 2011 census was 69,751; the island falls within the LL postcode area, covering LL58 to LL78. The name of the island may be derived from the Old Norse.
No record of such an Ǫngli survives, but the place name was used in the Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd. The traditional folk etymology reading the name as the "Island of the Angles" may account for its Norman use but has no merit, although the Angles' name itself is a cognate reference to the shape of the Angeln peninsula. All of these derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank-. Through the 18th and 19th centuries and into the 20th, it was spelt Anglesea in documents. Ynys Môn, the island's Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources, it was known to the Saxons as Monez. The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant "Island of the Cow"; this view is untenable, according to modern scientific philology, the etymology remains a mystery. Poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn for its royal courts. There are numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory.
Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs. The Welsh Triads claim. Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. In AD 60 the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the power of the druids, attacked the island using his amphibious Batavian contingent as a surprise vanguard assault and destroying the shrine and the nemeta. News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest; the island was brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper; the foundations of Caer Gybi, a fort in Holyhead, are Roman, the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was a Roman road. The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland rather than with Britain. British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered by the 19th century antiquarian William Owen Stanley.
After the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey and the nearby Llŷn Peninsula. In response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out; this was continued by grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion. As an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Apart from a devastating Danish raid in 853 it remained the capital until the 13th century, when improvements to the English navy made the location indefensible. Anglesey was briefly the most southerly possession of the Norwegian Empire. After the Irish, the island was invaded by Vikings — some of these raids were noted in famous sagas — and by Saxons, Normans, before falling to Edward I of England in the 13th century. Anglesey is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales. In medieval times, before the conquest of Wales in 1283, Môn had periods of temporary independence, as it was bequeathed to the heirs of kings as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd.
The last times this occurred were a few years after 1171, following the death of Owain Gwynedd, when the island was inherited by Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, between 1246 and c. 1255, when it was granted to Owain Goch as his share of the kingdom. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglesey was created a county under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. Prior to this it had been divided into the cantrefi of Aberffraw and Cemaes. During the First World War, the Presbyterian minister and celebrity preacher John Williams toured the island as part of an effort to recruit young men to volunteer for a “just war”. German POWs were kept on the island. By the end of the war, some 1,000 of the island's men had died while on active service. In 1936 the NSPCC opened its first branch on Anglesey. During the Second World War, Anglesey received Italian POWs; the isla
A duchy is a country, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. The term is used exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left; the term "duke" should not be confused with the title Grand Duke, as there exists a significant difference of rank between the two. In common European cultural heritage, a grand duke is the third highest monarchic rank, after emperor and king, its synonym in many Slavic and Baltic European languages is translated as Grand Prince, whereas most Germanic and Romance European languages use expressions corresponding to Grand Duke. Unlike a duke, the sovereign grand duke is considered royalty; the proper form of address for a grand duke is His Royal Highness, whereas for a non-royal duke in the United Kingdom it is His Grace. In contrast to this, the rank of a duke differs from one country to the next. In Germany, for example, a duke is listed in the aristocratic hierarchy below an emperor, grand duke, elector – in that order – whereas in Britain the duke comes third after king/queen and prince.
In all countries, there existed an important difference between "sovereign dukes" and dukes subordinate to a king or emperor. Some historic duchies were sovereign in areas that would become part of nation-states only during the modern era, such as Germany and Italy. In contrast, others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that had unified either or during the medieval era, such as France, Sicily and the Papal States. In England, the term is used in respect of non-territorial entities. Traditionally, a grand duchy, such as Luxembourg or Tuscany, was independent and sovereign. There were many sovereign or semi-sovereign duchies in the de facto confederate Holy Roman Empire and German-speaking areas. In France, a number of duchies existed in the medieval period including Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine; the medieval German stem duchies were associated with the Frankish Kingdom and corresponded with the areas of settlement of the major Germanic tribes. They formed the nuclei of the major feudal states that comprised the early era of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
These were Schwaben and Sachsen in pre-Carolingian times, to which Franken and Lothringen were added in post-Carolingian times. As mentioned above, such a duke was styled Herzog. In medieval England, duchies associated with the territories of Lancashire and Cornwall were created, with certain powers and estates of land accruing to their dukes; the Duchy of Lancaster was created in 1351 but became merged with the Crown when, in 1399, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, ascended the throne of England as Henry IV. Nowadays the Duchy of Lancaster always belongs to the sovereign and its revenue is the Privy Purse; the Duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 and held successively by the Dukes of Cornwall, who were heirs to the throne. Nowadays, the Duchy of Cornwall belongs to the sovereign's heir apparent, if there is one: it reverts to the Crown in the absence of an heir apparent, is automatically conferred to the heir apparent upon birth; these duchies today have lost any non-ceremonial political role, but generate their holders' private income.
During the Wars of the Roses, the Duke of York made a successful entry into the City of York, by claiming no harm and that it was his right to possess "his duchy of York". Any and all feudal duchies that made up the patchwork of England have since been absorbed within the Royal Family. Other than Cornwall and Lancaster, British royal dukedoms are titular and do not include land holdings. Non-royal dukedoms are associated with ducal property, but this is meant as the duke's private property, with no other feudal privileges attached. In more recent times, territorial duchies have become rare. At present all independent duchies have disappeared. Luxembourg, an independent and sovereign nation with a history dating back as far as the 8th century, is the only remaining independent grand duchy, with HRH the Grand Duke Henri I as its head of state since the year 2000. In the middle east the concept of beylik can be seen as equivalent to duchy. For example, the Ottoman Empire, first just the nomadic Kayı tribe among the Ghuzz, settled in Bithynia on the border to the Byzantine Empire, evolved under the Sultanate of Rûm into a border principality.
It became an independent principality. It grew further into its own empire by conquering the nearby Anatolian beyliks remnants of the Sultanate of Rûm. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duchy of