Mark W. Tilden is a robotics physicist who produces complex robotic movements from simple analog logic circuits with discrete electronic components, without a microprocessor, he is controversial because of his libertarian Tilden's Laws of Robotics, is known for his invention of BEAM robotics and the WowWee Robosapien humanoid robot. Born in the UK in 1961, raised in Canada, Tilden started at the University of Waterloo moved on to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he developed simple robots such as the SATbot which instinctively aligned itself to the magnetic field of the earth, de-mining insectoids, "Nervous Network" theory and applications, interplanetary explorers, behavioral research into many solar-powered "Living Machines" of his own design. Tilden referred to his early robots as "wimpy" for the results of their programming using Isaac Asimov's Three Rules of Robotics, he accordingly promulgated another set of three rules for what he called "wild" robots survivalists. Having left government service and moved to Hong Kong, Tilden works as a freelance robotics designer and lecturer.
His commercial products are marketed through WowWee Toys. Biomorphic robot-based items include B. I. O. Bugs, Constructobots, G. I Joe Hoverstrike, RoboSapien, Robosapien v2, Robopet, Roboreptile, RS Media, Roboboa, the humanform Femisapien and the Roomscooper floor-cleaning robot. Tilden and his robots have been featured on several television specials, such as "Robots Rising", "The Shape of Life", "TechnoSpy", "Extreme Machines - Incredible Robots", "The Science behind Star Wars", as well as many magazines, newspaper publications and books. A comprehensive article on Tilden by Thomas Marsh is viewable online through the "Robot" Magazine website. Tilden was a technical consultant for the robot scenes in the 2001 movie Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, his robots are continuous background props in the TV series The Big Bang Theory. Movies which feature his robots in prominent roles include The 40 Year Old Virgin, Paul Blart Mall Cop and X-Men: The Last Stand. Tilden appeared in the 2016 documentary film Machine of Human Dreams, which showed the work of several prominent technologists based in Hong Kong.
Behavior based robotics Robot EvoSapien - A website dedicated on Hacking the Robosapien Robot, lots of mods, useful information, codings, videos, including the new line of Mark Tilden Robots. EvoRaptor A Website dedicated to the Roboraptor, videos, videos and lots more. Created 2005 by M. W Tilden and Wow hacked by fans and the Maker community. RoboCommunity - The official WowWee Robotics user community detailing hacks and how-it-was-made pictorial articles on Mark's robots. Superstreng Podcast- A September 2006 podcast interview with Mark Tilden, conducted by Eirik Newth for Norwegian science radio show Superstreng. Robotsrule - Detailed information site on many commercially available entertainment robots. Solarbotics - On-line store for parts, plans and history of BEAM robotics. BEAM Discussion Group - Active on-line discussion group of BEAM robots, builders and history. "Robot" Magazine - Detailed article on Mark Tilden's history and robotics approach, with images. Discover Magazine - Article about Mark Tilden
A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons; this effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics; the first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with high light output. Early LEDs were used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced white-light LEDs suitable for room lighting.
LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaper and medical devices. Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, functionally monochromatic. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927, his research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium. Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted led lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patented a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emmitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, crystal in 1953. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, silicon-germanium alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins. In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance; as noted by Kroemer Braunstein "…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away; this signal was played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup." This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications. In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in Dallas, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate. By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.
On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled "Semiconductor Radiant Diode" based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U. S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. After filing the patent, Texas Instruments began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product, which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output. In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110; the first visible-spectrum LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working at General Electric. Holonyak first reported his LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.
M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunicat
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected assembly of 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications; the most common application of solar energy collection outside agriculture is solar water heating systems. Photovoltaic modules use light energy from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect; the majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural member of a module can either be the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are available; the cells must be connected electrically in one to another. A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and it is its output interface.
Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. USB power interface can be used. Module electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability; the conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated; some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area in a cost-effective way. Solar panels use metal frames consisting of racking components, reflector shapes, troughs to better support the panel structure. In 1839, the ability of some materials to create an electrical charge from light exposure was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel.
Though the premiere solar panels were too inefficient for simple electric devices they were used as an instrument to measure light. The observation by Becquerel was not replicated again until 1873, when Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published "The action of light on selenium" in 1876, describing the experiment they used to replicate Smith's results. In 1881, Charles Fritts created the first commercial solar panel, reported by Fritts as "continuous, constant and of considerable force not only by exposure to sunlight but to dim, diffused daylight." However, these solar panels were inefficient compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design, used in many modern solar panels, he patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell; each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, ranges from 100 to 365 Watts.
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24% Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but cannot cover the entire solar range. Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into six to eight different wavelength ranges that will produce a different color of light, direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges; this has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power. A photovoltaic system includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, optionally a solar tracking mechanism.
Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells. The Spectrolab scientists predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions; the best achieved sunlight conversion rate is around 21.5% in new commercial products lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar modules have power density values of up to 175 W/m2. Research by Imperial College, London has shown that the efficiency of a solar panel can be improved by studying the light-receiving semiconductor surface with aluminum nanocylinders similar to the ridges on Lego blocks; the scattered light travels along a longer path in the semiconductor which means that more photons can be absorbed and converted into current.
Although these nanocylinders have been used the light scattering occurred in the near infrared region and visible light was absorbed strongly. Aluminum was found to have absorbed the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, while the visible and near infrared parts o
Robot locomotion is the collective name for the various methods that robots use to transport themselves from place to place. Wheeled robots are quite energy efficient and simple to control. However, other forms of locomotion may be more appropriate for a number of reasons, for example traversing rough terrain, as well as moving and interacting in human environments. Furthermore, studying bipedal and insect-like robots may beneficially impact on biomechanics. A major goal in this field is in developing capabilities for robots to autonomously decide how and where to move. However, coordinating a large number of robot joints for simple matters, like negotiating stairs, is difficult. Autonomous robot locomotion is a major technological obstacle for many areas of robotics, such as humanoids. See Leg mechanism See Hexapod Walking robots simulate human or animal motion, as a replacement for wheeled motion. Legged motion makes it possible to negotiate uneven surfaces and other areas that would be difficult for a wheeled robot to reach, as well as causes less damage to environmental terrain as wheeled robots, which would erode it.
Hexapod robots are based on insect locomotion, most popularly the cockroach and stick insect, whose neurological and sensory output is less complex than other animals. Multiple legs allow several different gaits if a leg is damaged, making their movements more useful in robots transporting objects. See Passive dynamics See Zero Moment Point Examples: ASIMO, BigDog, HUBO 2, RunBot, Toyota Partner Robot. In terms of energy efficiency on flat surfaces, wheeled robots are the most efficient; this is. A wheel rolling at a given velocity needs no input to maintain its motion; this is in contrast to legged robots which suffer an impact with the ground at heelstrike and lose energy as a result. For simplicity most mobile robots have a number of continuous tracks; some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with two wheels. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled robot would not be able to.
Examples: Boe-Bot, Elmer, Enon, HERO, IRobot Create, iRobot's Roomba, Johns Hopkins Beast, Land Walker, Modulus robot, Omnibot, PaPeRo, Pocketdelta robot, Push the Talking Trash Can, RB5X, Seropi, Shakey the robot, Sony Rolly, Spykee, TiLR, Topo, TR Araña, Wakamaru. Several robots, built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory demonstrated dynamic walking. A robot with only one leg, a small foot, could stay upright by hopping; the movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump in that direction, in order to catch itself. Soon, the algorithm was generalised to four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and performing somersaults. A quadruped was demonstrated which could trot, run and bound. Examples: The MIT cheetah cub is an electrically powered quadruped robot with passive compliant legs capable of self-stabilizing in large range of speeds; the Tekken II is a small quadruped designed to walk on irregular terrains adaptively.
Coordinated, sequential mechanical action having the appearance of a traveling wave is called a metachronal rhythm or wave, is employed in nature by ciliates for transport, by worms and arthropods for locomotion. Several snake robots have been developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings; the Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot can navigate both on land and in water. Examples: Snake-arm robot and Snakebot. See Autonomous underwater vehicles Brachiation allows robots to travel by swinging, using energy only to grab and release surfaces; this motion is similar to an ape swinging from tree to tree. The two types of brachiation can be compared to bipedal running. Continuous contact is when a hand/grasping mechanism is always attached to the surface being crossed. Robots can be designed to perform locomotion in multiple modes. For example, the Bipedal Snake Robo can both walk like a biped robot.
Gait engineering Product optimization Motion planning Motion capture may be performed on humans and other organisms. Machine learning with reinforcement learning. Rodney Brooks Marc Raibert Jessica Hodgins Red Whittaker Robot Locomotion
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit; the capacitor was known as a condenser or condensator. The original name is still used in many languages, but not in English; the physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte; the nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials used as dielectrics include glass, plastic film, mica and oxide layers. Capacitors are used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy.
When two conductors experience a potential difference, for example, when a capacitor is attached across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No current flows through the dielectric. However, there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases. If a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them; the unit of capacitance in the International System of Units is the farad, defined as one coulomb per volt. Capacitance values of typical capacitors for use in general electronics range from about 1 picofarad to about 1 millifarad; the capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the surface area of the plates and inversely related to the gap between them.
In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. It has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage; the conductors and leads introduce an undesired resistance. Capacitors are used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems, they stabilize power flow; the property of energy storage in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers. In October 1745, Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania, found that charge could be stored by connecting a high-voltage electrostatic generator by a wire to a volume of water in a hand-held glass jar. Von Kleist's hand and the water acted as conductors, the jar as a dielectric. Von Kleist found that touching the wire resulted in a powerful spark, much more painful than that obtained from an electrostatic machine.
The following year, the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor, named the Leyden jar, after the University of Leiden where he worked. He was impressed by the power of the shock he received, writing, "I would not take a second shock for the kingdom of France."Daniel Gralath was the first to combine several jars in parallel to increase the charge storage capacity. Benjamin Franklin investigated the Leyden jar and came to the conclusion that the charge was stored on the glass, not in the water as others had assumed, he adopted the term "battery", subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. Leyden jars were made by coating the inside and outside of jars with metal foil, leaving a space at the mouth to prevent arcing between the foils; the earliest unit of capacitance was the jar, equivalent to about 1.11 nanofarads. Leyden jars or more powerful devices employing flat glass plates alternating with foil conductors were used up until about 1900, when the invention of wireless created a demand for standard capacitors, the steady move to higher frequencies required capacitors with lower inductance.
More compact construction methods began to be used, such as a flexible dielectric sheet sandwiched between sheets of metal foil, rolled or folded into a small package. Early capacitors were known as condensers, a term, still used today in high power applications, such as automotive systems; the term was first used for this purpose by Alessandro Volta in 1782, with reference to the device's ability to store a higher density of electric charge than was possible with an isolated conductor. The term became deprecated because of the ambiguous meaning of steam condenser, with capacitor becoming the recommended term from 1926. Since the beginning of the study of electricity non conductive materials like glass, porcelain and mica have been used as insulators; these materials some decades were well-suited for further use as the dielectric for the first capacitors. Paper capacitors made by sandwiching a strip of impregnated paper between strips of metal, rolling the result into a cylinder were used in the late 19th century.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the SI unit of energy is the joule, the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field, the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass and energy are related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy, any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive enough scale.
Living organisms require exergy to stay alive, such as the energy. Human civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy; the processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified into potential energy, kinetic energy, or combinations of the two in various ways. Kinetic energy is determined by the movement of an object – or the composite motion of the components of an object – and potential energy reflects the potential of an object to have motion, is a function of the position of an object within a field or may be stored in the field itself. While these two categories are sufficient to describe all forms of energy, it is convenient to refer to particular combinations of potential and kinetic energy as its own form. For example, macroscopic mechanical energy is the sum of translational and rotational kinetic and potential energy in a system neglects the kinetic energy due to temperature, nuclear energy which combines utilize potentials from the nuclear force and the weak force), among others.
The word energy derives from the Ancient Greek: translit. Energeia, lit.'activity, operation', which appears for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century BC. In contrast to the modern definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness and pleasure. In the late 17th century, Gottfried Leibniz proposed the idea of the Latin: vis viva, or living force, which defined as the product of the mass of an object and its velocity squared. To account for slowing due to friction, Leibniz theorized that thermal energy consisted of the random motion of the constituent parts of matter, although it would be more than a century until this was accepted; the modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two. In 1807, Thomas Young was the first to use the term "energy" instead of vis viva, in its modern sense. Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described "kinetic energy" in 1829 in its modern sense, in 1853, William Rankine coined the term "potential energy".
The law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, applies to any isolated system. It was argued for some years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or a physical quantity, such as momentum. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the generation of heat; these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics aided the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Walther Nernst, it led to a mathematical formulation of the concept of entropy by Clausius and to the introduction of laws of radiant energy by Jožef Stefan. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time. Thus, since 1918, theorists have understood that the law of conservation of energy is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational symmetry of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time.
In 1843, James Prescott Joule independently discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of experiments. The most famous of them used the "Joule apparatus": a descending weight, attached to a string, caused rotation of a paddle immersed in water insulated from heat transfer, it showed that the gravitational potential energy lost by the weight in descending was equal to the internal energy gained by the water through friction with the paddle. In the International System of Units, the unit of energy is the joule, named after James Prescott Joule, it is a derived unit. It is equal to the energy expended in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre; however energy is expressed in many other units not part of the SI, such as ergs, British Thermal Units, kilowatt-hours and kilocalories, which require a conversion factor when expressed in SI units. The SI unit of energy rate is the watt, a joule per second. Thus, one joule is one watt-second, 3600 joules equal one wa
Turtles are a class of educational robots designed in the late 1940s and used in computer science and mechanical engineering training. These devices are traditionally built low to the ground with a hemispheric shell and a power train capable of a small turning radius; the robots are equipped with sensor devices which aid in avoiding obstacles and, if the robot is sufficiently sophisticated, allow it some perception of its environment. Turtle robots are common projects for robotics hobbyists. Turtle robots are associated with the work of Seymour Papert and the common use of the Logo programming language in computer education of the 1980s. Turtles designed for use with Logo systems come with pen mechanisms allowing the programmer to create a design on a large sheet of paper; the original Logo turtle, built by Paul Wexelblat at BBN, was named "Irving" and was demonstrated at the former Muzzey Junior High in Lexington, Massachusetts. "Irving" could give audio feedback with a bell. The development of the robotic Logo turtle led to the use of the term to describe the cursor in video screen implementations of the language and its turtle graphics package.
Root Robotics, LOGO inspired turtle-like robot performing the original functionality of the "Irving" robot but a smaller scale that drives on the classroom whiteboard. BEAM robotics, the branch of robotics pioneered in part by William Grey Walter, specializing in autonomous devices using simple analog control systems iRobot Create and its predecessor Roomba, turtle-like robots designed for domestic use Player Project, a free robotics suite. Curses, an interactive fiction game by Graham Nelson that includes a voice-operated turtle in one of its more difficult puzzles Unicycle cart, for a mathematical model of the dynamics of a turtle robot Butiá robot, turns xo computer in a logo controlled robot Robot Turtles, the board game that teaches programming to 4 to 8 yr olds Littlecodr, a card game to help kids from 4 yrs on learn the building blocks of writing code, where players replace the turtle. LogoTurtle, a 3D breadboard electronics floor turtle for hobbyist construction; the Story of Turtle Robots in Pictures.
Articles about Turtle and Roamer robots. Photo gallery of Walter's original turtles and a Lego-based replica Pictures and information about early UK analog turtle designs from the Bristol Robotics Laboratory A Logo Primer or Whats with the Turtles Logo Foundation