Charles Edward Anderson Berry was an American singer and songwriter, one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. With songs such as "Maybellene", "Roll Over Beethoven", "Rock and Roll Music" and "Johnny B. Goode", Berry refined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive. Writing lyrics that focused on teen life and consumerism, developing a music style that included guitar solos and showmanship, Berry was a major influence on subsequent rock music. Born into a middle-class African-American family in St. Louis, Berry had an interest in music from an early age and gave his first public performance at Sumner High School. While still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, Berry worked at an automobile assembly plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker, Berry began performing with the Johnnie Johnson Trio.
His break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. With Chess, he recorded "Maybellene"—Berry's adaptation of the country song "Ida Red"—which sold over a million copies, reaching number one on Billboard magazine's rhythm and blues chart. By the end of the 1950s, Berry was an established star, with several hit records and film appearances and a lucrative touring career, he had established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berry's Club Bandstand. However, he was sentenced to three years in prison in January 1962 for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had several more hits, including "No Particular Place to Go", "You Never Can Tell", "Nadine", but these did not achieve the same success, or lasting impact, of his 1950s songs, by the 1970s he was more in demand as a nostalgic performer, playing his past hits with local backup bands of variable quality.
However, in 1972 he reached a new level of achievement when a rendition of "My Ding-a-Ling" became his only record to top the charts. His insistence on being paid in cash led in 1979 to a four-month jail sentence and community service, for tax evasion. Berry was among the first musicians to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on its opening in 1986. Berry is included in several of Rolling Stone magazine's "greatest of all time" lists; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll includes three of Berry's: "Johnny B. Goode", "Maybellene", "Rock and Roll Music". Berry's "Johnny B. Goode". Born in St. Louis, Berry was the fourth child in a family of six, he grew up in the north St. Louis neighborhood known as the Ville, an area where many middle-class people lived, his father, Henry William Berry, was a deacon of a nearby Baptist church. Berry's upbringing allowed him to pursue his interest in music from an early age, he gave his first public performance in 1941 while still a student at Sumner High School.
Berry's account in his autobiography is that his car broke down and he flagged down a passing car and stole it at gunpoint with a nonfunctional pistol. He was convicted and sent to the Intermediate Reformatory for Young Men at Algoa, near Jefferson City, where he formed a singing quartet and did some boxing; the singing group became competent enough that the authorities allowed it to perform outside the detention facility. Berry was released from the reformatory on his 21st birthday in 1947. On October 28, 1948, Berry married Themetta "Toddy" Suggs, who gave birth to Darlin Ingrid Berry on October 3, 1950. Berry supported his family by taking various jobs in St. Louis, working as a factory worker at two automobile assembly plants and as a janitor in the apartment building where he and his wife lived. Afterwards he trained as a beautician at the Poro College of Cosmetology, founded by Annie Turnbo Malone, he was doing well enough by 1950 to buy a "small three room brick cottage with a bath" on Whittier Street, now listed as the Chuck Berry House on the National Register of Historic Places.
By the early 1950s, Berry was working with local bands in clubs in St. Louis as an extra source of income, he had been playing blues since his teens, he borrowed both guitar riffs and showmanship techniques from the blues musician T-Bone Walker. He took guitar lessons from his friend Ira Harris, which laid the foundation for his guitar style. By early 1953 Berry was performing with Johnnie Johnson's trio, starting a long-time collaboration with the pianist; the band played blues and ballads, but the most popular music among whites in the area was country. Berry wrote, "Curiosity provoked me to lay a lot of our country stuff on our predominantly black audience and some of our black audience began whispering'who is that black hillbilly at the Cosmo?' After they laughed at me a few times they began requesting the hillbilly stuff and enjoyed dancing to it."Berry's calculated showmanship, along with a mix of country tunes and R&B tunes, sung in the style of Nat King Cole set to the music of Muddy Waters, brought in a wider
Richard Wayne Penniman, known as Little Richard, is an American recording artist, singer and actor. An influential figure in popular music and culture for seven decades, Penniman's most celebrated work dates from the mid-1950s, when his dynamic music and charismatic showmanship laid the foundation for rock and roll, his music played a key role in the formation of other popular music genres, including soul and funk. Penniman influenced numerous musicians across musical genres from rock to hip hop. Penniman has been honored by many institutions, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as part of its first group of inductees in 1986. He was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, he is the recipient of a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Recording Academy and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. Little Richard's "Tutti Frutti" was included in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2010, which stated that his "unique vocalizing over the irresistible beat announced a new era in music."
In 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Little Richard with a Rhapsody & Rhythm Award for his pivotal role in the formation of popular music genres and in helping to shatter the color line on the music charts, changing American culture significantly. Little Richard was born Richard Wayne Penniman on December 5, 1932, in Georgia, he was the third of twelve children of Charles "Bud" Penniman. His father was a church deacon who sold bootlegged moonshine on the side and owned a nightclub, the Tip In Inn, his mother was a member of Macon's New Hope Baptist Church. Penniman's first name was supposed to have been "Ricardo" but an error resulted in "Richard" instead; the Penniman children were raised in a neighborhood of Macon called Pleasant Hill. In childhood, he was nicknamed "Lil' Richard" by his family, because of his skinny frame. A mischievous child who played pranks on neighbors, Penniman began singing in church at a young age; as a result of complications at birth, Penniman had a slight deformity that left one of his legs shorter than the other.
This produced an unusual gait. Penniman's family was religious, joining various A. M. E. Baptist and Pentecostal churches, with some family members becoming ministers. Penniman enjoyed the Pentecostal churches the most, because of their charismatic worship and live music, he recalled that people in his neighborhood during segregation sang gospel songs throughout the day to keep a positive outlook, because "there was so much poverty, so much prejudice in those days". He had observed that people sang "to feel their connection with God" and to wash their trials and burdens away. Gifted with a loud singing voice, Penniman recalled that he was "always changing the key upwards" and that they once stopped him from singing in church for "screaming and hollering" so loud, earning him the nickname "War Hawk"; as a child, Penniman would "beat on the steps of the house, on tin cans and pots and pans, or whatever", while singing, annoying neighbors. Penniman's initial musical influences were gospel performers such as Brother Joe May, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Mahalia Jackson and Marion Williams.
May, who as a singing evangelist was known as "the Thunderbolt of the Middle West" because of his phenomenal range and vocal power, inspired the boy to become a preacher. Penniman attended Macon's Hudson High School. Penniman learned to play alto saxophone joining his school's marching band while in fifth grade. While in high school, Penniman obtained a part-time job at Macon City Auditorium for local secular and gospel concert promoter Clint Brantley. Penniman sold Coca-Cola to crowds during concerts of star performers of the day such as Cab Calloway, Lucky Millinder and his favorite singer, Sister Rosetta Tharpe. In October 1947, 14-year-old Penniman performed with Tharpe at the Macon City Auditorium. After the show Tharpe paid him. A year he began performing in Doctor Nubillo's traveling show. Penniman was inspired to wear turbans and capes in his career by Nubillo, who "carried a black stick and exhibited something he called'the devil's child' - the dried-up body of a baby with claw feet like a bird and horns on its head."
Nubillo told Penniman he was "gonna be famous" but that he would have to "go where the grass is greener."Before entering the tenth grade, Penniman left his family home and joined Dr. Hudson's Medicine Show in 1949, performing Louis Jordan's "Caldonia". Penniman recalled the song was the first secular R&B song he learned, since his family had strict rules against playing R&B music, which they considered "devil music." Penniman performed in drag during this time, performing under the name "Princess LaVonne". In 1950, Penniman joined his first musical band, Buster Brown's Orchestra, where Brown gave him the name Little Richard. Performing in the minstrel show circuit, Penniman, in and out of drag, performed for various vaudeville acts such as Sugarfoot Sam from Alabam, the Tidy Jolly Steppers, the King Brothers Circus and Broadway Follies. Having settled in Atlanta, Georgia at this point, Penniman began listening to rhythm and blues and frequented Atlanta clubs, including the Harlem Theater and the Royal Peacock where he saw performers such as Roy Brown and Billy Wright onstage.
Penniman was further influenced by Brown's and Wright's flashy style of showmanship and was more influenced by Wright
Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter and dancer. A prominent figure in popular culture, she is known for sonically innovative conscious and sexually provocative records, elaborate stage shows; the youngest child of the Jackson family, she began her career with the variety television series The Jacksons in 1976 and went on to appear in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including Good Times and Fame. After signing a recording contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a pop icon following the release of her third and fourth studio albums Control and Rhythm Nation 1814, her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, disco and industrial beats, which led to crossover success in popular music. In 1991 Jackson signed the first of two record-breaking multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest-paid artists in the industry, her fifth album Janet saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her music.
That same year, she appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice. Jackson released her sixth studio album The Velvet Rope, distinguished for its innovative production and dark lyrical content. By the end of the 1990s, she was named by Billboard magazine as the second most successful recording artist of the decade after Mariah Carey, her seventh album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on the recording industry as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin Records, she released her tenth album Discipline, her first and only album with Island Records. In 2015, she partnered with BMG Rights Management to launch her own record label, Rhythm Nation, released her eleventh album Unbreakable the same year. Jackson is one of the world's best-selling music artists, selling over 180 million albums, she has amassed an extensive catalog, with singles such as "Nasty", "Rhythm Nation", "That's the Way Love Goes", "Together Again" and "All for You". In 2008, Billboard placed her number seven on its list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, in 2010 ranked her fifth among the "Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years".
In December 2016, the magazine named her the second most successful dance club artist of all-time after Madonna. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Jackson was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019. Janet Jackson was born on May 16, 1966 in Gary, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther and Joseph Walter Jackson; the Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would refrain from organized religion. At a young age, her brothers began performing as the Jackson 5 in the Chicago-Gary area. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, soon had their first number-one hit; the family moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles. Jackson had desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, considered the idea after recording herself in the studio. At age seven, Jackson performed at the MGM Casino on the Las Vegas Strip.
A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was withdrawn, told her to address him by his first name as a child. She began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976. In 1977, she was selected to have a starring role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good Times, she starred in A New Kind of Family and got a recurring role on Diff'rent Strokes, portraying Charlene Duprey from seasons three to six. Jackson played the role of Cleo Hewitt during the fourth season of Fame, but expressed indifference towards the series due to the emotional stress of her secret marriage to R&B singer, James DeBarge. Jackson elaborated on her time on the show in an interview with Anderson Cooper, revealing that the cast would play pranks on her, but she spoke fondly of them; when Jackson was sixteen, her father and manager Joseph Jackson, arranged a contract for her with A&M Records. Her debut album, Janet Jackson, was released in 1982, it was produced by Angela Winbush, René Moore, Bobby Watson of Rufus and Leon Sylvers III, overseen by her father Joseph.
It peaked at No. 63 on the Billboard 200, No. 6 on the publication's R&B albums chart, receiving little promotion. The album appeared on the Billboard Top Black Albums of 1983, while Jackson herself was the highest-ranking female vocalist on the Billboard Year-End Black Album Artists. Jackson's second album, Dream Street, was released two years later. Dream Street reached No. 147 on the Billboard 200, No. 19 on the R&B albums chart. The lead single. Both albums consisted of bubblegum pop music. After her second album, Jackson terminated business affairs with her family, commenting "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, one of the most difficult things that I had to do." Attempting a third album, Jackson teamed with producers Jimmy Terry Lewis. They set out to achieve crossover pop appeal, while creating a strong foundation within the urban market. Within six weeks and the duo crafted her third studio album, released in February 1986; the album shot to No. 1 on the Billboard 200, was certified f
Roberta Joan "Joni" Mitchell, CC is a Canadian singer-songwriter. Drawing from folk, pop and jazz, Mitchell's songs reflect social and environmental ideals as well as her feelings about romance, confusion and joy, she has received many accolades, including nine Grammy Awards. Rolling Stone called her "one of the greatest songwriters ever", AllMusic has stated, "When the dust settles, Joni Mitchell may stand as the most important and influential female recording artist of the late 20th century". Mitchell began singing in small nightclubs in her hometown of Saskatoon and throughout western Canada, before busking in the streets and nightclubs of Toronto, Ontario. In 1965, she began touring; some of her original songs were covered by other folk singers, allowing her to sign with Reprise Records and record her debut album, Song to a Seagull, in 1968. Settling in Southern California, with popular songs like "Big Yellow Taxi" and "Woodstock", helped define an era and a generation, her 1971 album Blue is cited as one of the best albums of all time.
In 2000, The New York Times chose Blue as one of the 25 albums that represented "turning points and pinnacles in 20th-century popular music". In 2017, NPR ranked Blue Number 1 on a list of Greatest Albums Made By Women. Mitchell's fifth album, For the Roses, was released in 1972, she switched labels and began exploring more jazz-influenced melodic ideas, by way of lush pop textures, on 1974's Court and Spark, which featured the radio hits "Help Me" and "Free Man in Paris" and became her best-selling album. Around 1975, Mitchell's vocal range began to shift from mezzo-soprano to more of a wide-ranging contralto, her distinctive piano and open-tuned guitar compositions grew more harmonically and rhythmically complex as she explored jazz, melding it with influences of rock and roll, R&B, classical music and non-western beats. In the late 1970s, she began working with noted jazz musicians, among them Jaco Pastorius, Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, as well as Charles Mingus, who asked her to collaborate on his final recordings.
She turned again toward pop, embraced electronic music, engaged in political protest. In 2002, she was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 44th Annual Grammy Awards. Mitchell is the sole producer credited on most including all her work in the 1970s. A blunt critic of the music industry, she quit touring and released her 17th, last, album of original songs in 2007. With roots in visual art, Mitchell has designed most of her own album covers, she describes herself as a "painter derailed by circumstance". Mitchell was born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943, in Fort Macleod, Canada, the daughter of Myrtle Marguerite and William Andrew Anderson, her mother's ancestors were Irish. Her mother was a teacher while her father was a Royal Canadian Air Force flight lieutenant who instructed new pilots at RCAF Station Fort Macleod, she moved with her parents to various bases in western Canada. After the war she settled with her family in Saskatchewan, she sang about her small-town upbringing in several of her songs, including "Song for Sharon".
At school Mitchell struggled. During this time she studied classical piano. At age nine, Mitchell contracted polio in an epidemic, was hospitalised for weeks. Following this incident she focused on her creative talent, considered a singing or dancing career for the first time. By nine, she was a smoker. At 11, she moved with her family to the city of Saskatoon, she responded badly to formal education. One unconventional teacher did manage to make an impact on her, stimulating her to write poetry, her first album includes a dedication to him. In Grade 12, she dropped out and hung out downtown with a rowdy set until deciding that she was getting too close to the criminal world. At this time, country music began to eclipse rock, Mitchell wanted to play the guitar; as her mother disapproved of its hillbilly associations, she settled for the ukulele. She taught herself guitar from a Pete Seeger songbook; the polio had weakened her left hand, so she devised alternative tunings to compensate. Mitchell started singing with her friends at bonfires around Waskesiu Lake, northwest of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.
Her first paid performance was on October 31, 1962, at a Saskatoon club that featured folk and jazz performers. At 18, she widened her repertoire to include her own favorite performers like Édith Piaf and Miles Davis. Though she never performed jazz herself in those days and her friends sought out gigs by jazz musicians. Mitchell said, "My jazz background began with one of the early Lambert and Ross albums." That album, The Hottest New Group in Jazz, was hard to find in Canada, she says. "So I bought it at a bootleg price. I considered. I learned every song off of it, I don't think there is another album anywhere—including my own—on which I know every note and word of every song."But art was still her chief passion at this stage, when she finished high school at
Carlos Santana audio is a Mexican and American musician who first became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band, which pioneered a fusion of rock and Latin American jazz. The band's sound featured his melodic, blues-based guitar lines set against Latin and African rhythms featuring percussion instruments such as timbales and congas not heard in rock music. Santana continued to work in these forms over the following decades, he experienced a resurgence of popularity and critical acclaim in the late 1990s. In 2015, Rolling Stone magazine listed Santana at number 20 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists, he has won 10 Grammy Awards and three Latin Grammy Awards. Santana was born in Autlán de Navarro, Mexico, he learned to play the violin at age five and the guitar at age eight under the tutelage of his father, a mariachi musician. His younger brother, Jorge Santana, would become a professional guitarist. Young Carlos was influenced by Ritchie Valens at a time when there were few Mexicans in American rock and pop music.
The family moved from Autlán de Navarro to Tijuana, the city on Mexico's border with California, San Francisco. Carlos stayed in Tijuana but joined his family in San Francisco. During his early years from the age of 10–12 he was sexually molested by an American man who brought him across the border. Living in the Mission District, graduating from James Lick Middle School, in 1965 from Mission High School. Carlos was accepted at California State University and Humboldt State University, but chose not to attend college. Santana was influenced by popular artists of the 1950s such as B. B. King, T-Bone Walker, Javier Batiz, John Lee Hooker. Soon after he began playing guitar, he joined local bands along the "Tijuana Strip" where he was able to begin adding his own unique touch to'50s Rock'n' Roll, he was introduced to a variety of new musical influences, including jazz and folk music, witnessed the growing hippie movement centered in San Francisco in the 1960s. After several years spent working as a dishwasher in a diner and busking for spare change, Santana decided to become a full-time musician.
In 1966 he gained all happening on the same day. Santana was a frequent spectator at Bill Graham's Fillmore West. During a Sunday matinee show, Paul Butterfield was slated to perform there but was unable to do so as a result of being intoxicated. Graham assembled an impromptu band of musicians he knew through his connections with Butterfield's band and with the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, but he had not yet chosen all the guitarists. Santana's manager, Stan Marcum suggested to Graham that Santana join the impromptu band and Graham agreed. During the jam session, Santana's guitar playing and solo gained the notice of both the audience and Graham. During the same year, Santana formed the Santana Blues Band, with fellow street musicians David Brown, Marcus Malone and Gregg Rolie, he was signed to Columbia where his band name, "Santana Blues Band" was shortened to, "Santana" that released a series of hit albums with an Afro-Cuban and Latin Rock feel thanks to Carlos' exquisite guitar playing, characterized by the self-sustaining melody that became his trademark.
With their original blend of Latin-infused rock, blues and African rhythms, the band gained an immediate following on the San Francisco club circuit. The band's early success, capped off by a memorable performance at Woodstock in 1969, led to him signing a recording contract with Columbia Records run by Clive Davis. Santana was signed by CBS Records and went into the studio to record their first album in January 1969, they decided changes needed to be made. This resulted in the dismissal of drummer Bob Livingston. Santana replaced him with Mike Shrieve, who had a strong background in both rock. Percussionist Marcus Malone was forced to quit the band due to involuntary manslaughter charges, the band re-enlisted Michael Carabello. Carabello brought with him percussionist Jose Chepito Areas, well known in his native Nicaragua, with his skills and professional experience, was a major contributor to the band. Bill Graham, a Latin Music aficionado, had been a fan of the band from its inception, arranged for them to appear at the Woodstock Music and Art Festival before their debut album was released.
They were one of the surprises of the festival. Graham gave the band some key advice to record the Willie Bobo song "Evil Ways", as he felt it would get them radio airplay, their first album, was released in August 1969 and became a huge hit, reaching #4 on the U. S. album charts. In 1969, the band's performance at the Woodstock festival introduced them to an international audience and garnered critical acclaim, although the band's sudden success put pressure on the group, highlighting the different musical directions in which Rolie and Santana were starting to go. Rolie, along with some of the other band members, wanted to emphasize a basic hard rock sound, a key component in establishing the band from the start. Santana, was interested in moving beyond his love of blues and rock and wanted more jazzy, ethereal elements in the music, which were influenced by his fascination with Gábor Szabó, Miles Davis, Ph
Tina Turner is an American-born Swiss singer-songwriter. Turner rose to prominence with Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm before recording hit singles both with Ike and as a solo performer. One of the world's best-selling recording artists of all time, she has been referred to as The Queen of Rock'n' Roll and has sold more than 200 million records worldwide to date. Turner is noted for her energetic stage presence, powerful vocals, career longevity, trademark legs. Anna Mae Bullock was born in Tennessee, she began her career in 1958 as a featured singer with Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm, first recording under the name "Little Ann". Her introduction to the public as Tina Turner began in 1960 as a member of the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. Success followed with a string of notable hits credited to the duo, including "River Deep – Mountain High", "Proud Mary" and "Nutbush City Limits", a song that she wrote. Tina Turner married Ike Turner in 1962. In her autobiography, I, Tina Turner revealed several instances of severe domestic abuse against her by Ike Turner prior to their 1976 split and subsequent 1978 divorce.
Raised a Baptist, she became an adherent of Nichiren Buddhism in 1973, crediting the spiritual chant of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo with helping her to endure during difficult times. After her divorce and professional separation from Ike, Turner built her own career through live performances. In the 1980s, Turner launched a major comeback as a solo artist; the 1983 single "Let's Stay Together" was followed by the 1984 release of her fifth solo album, Private Dancer, which became a worldwide success. The album contained the song "What's Love Got to Do with It". Turner's solo success continued throughout the 1980s and 1990s with multi-platinum albums and hit singles. In 1993, What's Love Got to Do with It, a biographical film adapted from Turner's autobiography, was released along with an accompanying soundtrack album. In 2008, Turner returned from semi-retirement to embark on her Tina!: 50th Anniversary Tour. Turner has garnered success acting in films such as the 1975 rock musical Tommy, the 1985 action film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome, the 1993 film Last Action Hero.
Turner has won 12 Grammy Awards. Rolling Stone ranked Turner 63rd on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time and 17th on its list of the 100 greatest singers of all time. Turner has her own stars on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. In 1991, Turner was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame with Ike Turner, she was a 2005 recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors. Tina Turner was born Anna Mae Bullock on November 26, 1939, in Nutbush, the daughter of Zelma Priscilla and Floyd Richard Bullock, she was born at Poindexter Farm on Highway 180, where her father worked as an overseer of the sharecroppers. She is of African-American descent, with 33% European and 1% Native American ancestry; the latter was revealed when she appeared on the PBS documentary African American Lives 2, the host Henry Louis Gates shared the results of her ancestral tests. Bullock had Evelyn Juanita and Ruby Alline; as young children, the three sisters were separated when their parents relocated to Knoxville, Tennessee, to work at a defense facility during World War II.
Bullock went to stay with her strict, religious paternal grandparents and Roxanna Bullock, who were deacon and deaconess at the Woodlawn Missionary Baptist Church. After the war, the sisters moved with them to Knoxville. Two years the family returned to Nutbush to live in the Flagg Grove community, where Bullock attended Flagg Grove Elementary School from first through eighth grade; as a young girl, Bullock sang in the church choir at Nutbush's Spring Hill Baptist Church. When she was 11, her mother Zelma ran off without warning, seeking freedom from her abusive relationship with Floyd Bullock; as a teen, Bullock worked as a domestic worker for the Henderson family. Two years after her mother left the family, her father moved to Detroit. Bullock and her sister were sent to live with their grandmother Georgeanna in Brownsville, Tennessee. A self-professed tomboy, Bullock joined both the cheerleading squad and the female basketball team at Carver High School in Brownsville, "socialized every chance she got".
Her first boyfriend was Harry Taylor, who attended a different school but relocated to Bullock's school to be near her. The relationship ended; when Bullock was 16, her grandmother died, so she went to live with her mother in St. Louis and was reunited with her sister. There, she graduated from Sumner High School in 1958. After her graduation, Bullock worked as a nurse's aide at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Bullock and her sister began to frequent nightclubs in East St. Louis. At Club Manhattan, a nightclub in the East St. Louis area, she first saw Ike Turner and his band, the Kings of Rhythm, perform. Bullock was impressed by the band's music and Ike's talent, claiming t
Neil Percival Young, is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After embarking on a music career in the 1960s, he moved to Los Angeles, where he formed Buffalo Springfield with Stephen Stills, Richie Furay and others. Young had released two solo albums and three as a member of Buffalo Springfield by the time he joined Crosby, Stills & Nash in 1969. From his early solo albums and those with his backing band Crazy Horse, Young has recorded a steady stream of studio and live albums, sometimes warring with his recording company along the way. Young's guitar work personal lyrics and signature tenor singing voice transcend his long career. Young plays piano and harmonica on many albums, which combine folk, rock and other musical styles, his distorted electric guitar playing with Crazy Horse, earned him the nickname "Godfather of Grunge" and led to his 1995 album Mirror Ball with Pearl Jam. More Young has been backed by Promise of the Real. Young directed films using the pseudonym Bernard Shakey, including Journey Through the Past, Rust Never Sleeps, Human Highway, CSNY/Déjà Vu.
He contributed to the soundtracks of the films Philadelphia and Dead Man. Young has received several Grammy and Juno awards; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted him twice: as a solo artist in 1995 and in 1997 as a member of Buffalo Springfield. In 2000, Rolling Stone named Young the 34th greatest rock'n roll artist, he retains Canadian citizenship. He was awarded the Order of Manitoba on July 14, 2006, was made an Officer of the Order of Canada on December 30, 2009. Neil Young was born on November 1945, in Toronto, Ontario, his father, Scott Alexander Young, was a journalist and sportswriter who wrote fiction. His mother, Edna Blow Ragland "Rassy" Young was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Although Canadian, his mother had French ancestry. Young's parents married in 1940 in Winnipeg and their first son, Robert "Bob" Young, was born in 1942. Shortly after Young's birth in 1945, his family moved to rural Omemee, which Young described fondly as a "sleepy little place". Young suffered from polio in 1951 during the last major outbreak of the disease in Ontario.
After his recovery, the Young family vacationed in Florida. During that period, Young attended Chisolm Elementary School in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. In 1952, upon returning to Canada, Young moved from Omemee to Winnipeg for a year, before relocating to Toronto and Pickering. Young became interested in popular music; when Young was twelve, his father, who had had several extramarital affairs, left his mother. His mother asked for a divorce, granted in 1960. Young went to live with his mother, who moved back to Winnipeg, while his brother Bob stayed with his father in Toronto. During the mid-1950s, Young listened to rock'n roll, doo-wop, R&B, western pop, he idolized Elvis Presley and referred to him in a number of his songs. Other early musical influences included Link Wray, Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs, The Ventures, Cliff Richard and the Shadows, Chuck Berry, Hank Marvin, Little Richard, Fats Domino, The Chantels, The Monotones, Ronnie Self, the Fleetwoods, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and Gogi Grant.
Young first began to play music himself on a plastic ukulele, before, as he would relate, going on to "a better ukulele to a banjo ukulele to a baritone ukulele – everything but a guitar."Young and his mother settled into the working-class area of Fort Rouge, where the shy, dry-humoured youth enrolled at Earl Grey Junior High School. It was there that he formed his first band, the Jades, met Ken Koblun. While attending Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, he played in several instrumental rock bands dropping out of school in favour of a musical career. Young's first stable band was the Squires, with Ken Koblun, Jeff Wuckert and Bill Edmondson on drums, who had a local hit called "The Sultan"; the band played in Fort William, where they recorded a series of demos produced by a local producer, Ray Dee, who Young called "the original Briggs". While playing at The Flamingo, Young met Stephen Stills, whose band the Company were playing the same venue, they became friends; the Squires played in several dance clubs in Winnipeg and Ontario.
After leaving the Squires, Young worked folk clubs in Winnipeg. Mitchell recalls Young as having been influenced by Bob Dylan at the time. Here he wrote some of his earliest and most enduring folk songs such as "Sugar Mountain", about lost youth. Mitchell wrote "The Circle Game" in response; the Winnipeg band The Guess Who had a Canadian Top 40 hit with Young's "Flying on the Ground is Wrong", Young's first major success as a songwriter. In 1965 Young toured Canada as a solo artist. In 1966, while in Toronto, he joined the Rick James-fronted Mynah Birds; the band managed to secure a record deal with the Motown label, but as their first album was being recorded, James was arrested for being AWOL from the Navy Reserve. After the Mynah Birds disbanded and the bass player Bruce Palmer decided to pawn the group's musical equipment and buy a Pontiac hearse, which they used to relocate to Los Angeles. Young admitted in a 2009 interview that he was in the United States illegally until he received a "green card" in 1970.
Once they reached Lo