Dolly Rebecca Parton is an American singer, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, author and philanthropist, known for her work in country music. After achieving success as a songwriter for others, Parton made her album debut in 1967 with Hello, I'm Dolly. With steady success during the remainder of the 1960s, her sales and chart peak came during the 1970s and continued into the 1980s. Parton's albums in the 1990s sold less well, but she achieved commercial success again in the new millennium and has released albums on various independent labels since 2000, including her own label, Dolly Records. Parton's music includes 25 Recording Industry Association of America -certified gold and multi-platinum awards, she has had 25 songs reach No. 1 on the Billboard country music charts, a record for a female artist. She has 41 career top-10 country albums, a record for any artist, she has 110 career charted singles over the past 40 years, she has garnered nine Grammy Awards, two Academy Award nominations, ten Country Music Association Awards, seven Academy of Country Music Awards, three American Music Awards, is one of only seven female artists to win the Country Music Association's Entertainer of the Year Award.
Parton has received 47 Grammy nominations. In 1999, Parton was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame, she has composed over 3,000 songs, including "I Will Always Love You", "Jolene", "Coat of Many Colors", "9 to 5". She is one of the few to have received at least one nomination from the Academy Awards, Grammy Awards, Tony Awards, Emmy Awards; as an actress, she has starred in films such as 9 to 5 and The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, for which she earned Golden Globe nominations for Best Actress, as well as Rhinestone, Steel Magnolias, Straight Talk and Joyful Noise. Dolly Rebecca Parton was born January 19, 1946, in a one-room cabin on the banks of the Little Pigeon River in Pittman Center, Tennessee, a small community in Sevier County in the Great Smoky Mountains of East Tennessee, she is the fourth of 12 children born to Avie Lee Caroline and Robert Lee Parton Sr.. Mr. Parton worked in the mountains of east Tennessee, first as a sharecropper and tending his own small farm and acreage.
He worked temporary side jobs to make ends meet. He write. Despite his lack of formal education, Parton has said that he was one of the smartest people she has known. Avie Lee was homemaker for the large family, her 11 pregnancies in 20 years made her a mother of 12 by age 35. In poor health, she still managed to keep house and entertain her children with songs and tales of mountain folklore. Avie Lee's father, Jake Owens, was a Pentecostal preacher, so Parton and her siblings all attended church regularly. Parton has long credited her father for her business savvy, her mother's family for her musical abilities. While she was still young, Dolly Parton's family moved to a farm on nearby Locust Ridge. Most of her cherished memories of youth happened there, it is the place about which she wrote the song "My Tennessee Mountain Home" in the 1970s. Parton bought back the Locust Ridge property in the 1980s. Two of her siblings are no longer living. Dolly Parton's middle name comes from her maternal great-great-grandmother Rebecca Whitted.
She has described her family as "dirt poor." Parton's father paid the doctor. She outlined her family's poverty in her early songs "Coat of Many Colors" and "In the Good Old Days", they lived in a rustic, one-room cabin in Locust Ridge, just north of the Greenbrier Valley of the Great Smoky Mountains, a predominantly Pentecostal area. Music played an important role in her early life, she was brought up in the Church of the church her grandfather, Jake Robert Owens, pastored. Her earliest public performances were beginning at age six. At seven, she started playing a homemade guitar; when she was eight, her uncle bought her first real guitar. Parton began performing as a child, singing on local radio and television programs in the East Tennessee area. By ten, she was appearing on The Cas Walker Show on both WIVK Radio and WBIR-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee. At 13, she was recording on a small Louisiana label, Goldband Records, appeared at the Grand Ole Opry, where she first met Johnny Cash, who encouraged her to follow her own instincts regarding her career.
After graduating from Sevier County High School in 1964, Parton moved to Nashville the next day. Her initial success came as a songwriter, having signed with Combine Publishing shortly after her arrival, her songs were recorded by many other artists during this period, including Kitty Wells and Hank Williams Jr. She signed with Monument Records in 1965, at age 19, she released a string of singles, but the only one that charted, "Happy, Happy Birthday Baby", did not crack the Billboard Hot 100. Although she expressed a desire to record country material, Monument resisted, thinking her unique voice with its strong vibrato was not suited to the genre
"Mixed-Up Confusion" is a song written and recorded by Bob Dylan and released as his first single. The song was recorded with an electric band on November 14, 1962, during the sessions for The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan but was not used on that album, aside from "Corrina, Corrina", was acoustic. Instead the song, backed with "Corrina, Corrina", a traditional blues song, appeared as Dylan's first single, released in the United States on December 14, 1962, as Columbia 4-42656. According to legend, Dylan wrote the song in a cab on the way to the Columbia studios for the recording session. A different version of the song, recorded on November 1, 1962, with overdubbing, was released on the compilation album Masterpieces in 1978 and on the original 1985 issue of the Biograph box set. Olof Björner's website lists all the different takes of this song, recorded by Dylan in October and November 1962. Bob Dylan – vocal, harmonica George Barnes – guitar Bruce Langhorne – guitar Dick Wellstood – piano Gene Ramey – bass Herb Lovelle – drums Lyrics
Lucinda Williams is an American rock, folk and country music singer and musician. She recorded her first albums in 1978 and 1980 in a traditional country and blues style and received little attention from radio, the media, or the public. In 1988, she released Lucinda Williams; this release featured "Passionate Kisses," a song recorded by Mary Chapin Carpenter, which garnered Williams her first Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Known for working Williams recorded and released only one other album in the next several years, Sweet Old World, in 1992, her commercial breakthrough came in 1998 with Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, an album presenting a broader scope of songs that fused rock, blues and Americana into a distinctive style that remained consistent and commercial in sound. Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, which includes the Grammy nominated track "Can't Let Go", became Williams' greatest commercial success to date; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA and earned Williams a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album, while being universally acclaimed by critics.
Williams released the critically acclaimed Essence three years and the album became a commercial success. One of the album's tracks, "Get Right With God," earned Williams the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance in 2002. Williams has released a string of albums since that have earned her more critical acclaim and commercial success, she has won 3 Grammy Awards, from 15 nominations, received 2 Americana Awards, from 12 nominations. Additionally, Williams ranked No. 97 on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Rock & Roll in 1998, was named "America's best songwriter" by Time magazine in 2002. Williams was born in Lake Charles, the daughter of poet and literature professor Miller Williams and an amateur pianist, Lucille Fern Day, her parents divorced in the mid-1960s. Williams's father gained custody of her and her younger brother, Robert Miller, sister, Karyn Elizabeth. Like her father, she has spina bifida, her father worked as a visiting professor in Mexico and different parts of the United States, including Baton Rouge.
Williams never was accepted into the University of Arkansas. Williams started writing when she was 6 years old and showed an affinity for music at an early age, was playing guitar at 12. Williams's first live performance was in Mexico City at 17, as part of a duo with her friend, a banjo player named Clark Jones. By her early 20s, Williams was playing publicly in Austin and Houston, concentrating on a folk-rock-country blend, she moved to Jackson, Mississippi, in 1978 to record her first album, for Smithsonian/Folkways Records. Titled Ramblin' on My Mind, it was a collection of blues covers; the album title was shortened to Ramblin'. She followed it up in 1980 with Happy Woman Blues. Neither album received much attention. In the 1980s, Williams moved to Los Angeles, where, at times backed by a rock band and at others performing in acoustic settings, she developed a following and a critical reputation. While based in Los Angeles, she was married to Long Ryders drummer Greg Sowders, whom she had met in a club.
In 1988 Rough Trade Records released the self-titled Lucinda Williams, produced by Gurf Morlix. The single "Changed the Locks", about a broken relationship, received radio play around the country and gained fans among music insiders, including Tom Petty, who would cover the song, its follow-up, Sweet Old World produced by Morlix, is a melancholy album dealing with themes of suicide and death. Williams' biggest success during the early 1990s was as a songwriter. Mary Chapin Carpenter recorded a cover of "Passionate Kisses" in 1992, the song became a smash country hit for which Williams received the Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Carpenter received a Grammy for her performance of the song, she duetted with Steve Earle on the song "You're Still Standin' There" from his album I Feel Alright. In 1991, the song "Lucinda Williams" appeared on Vic Chesnutt's album West of Rome. Williams had garnered considerable critical acclaim. Emmylou Harris said of Williams, "She is an example of the best of what country at least says it is, for some reason, she's out of the loop and I feel that that's country music's loss."
Harris recorded the title track from Williams's Sweet Old World for her career-redefining 1995 album, Wrecking Ball. Williams gained a reputation as a perfectionist and slow worker when it came to recording; the long-awaited release, 1998's Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, was Williams' breakthrough into the mainstream and received a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Containing the single "Still I Long for Your Kiss" from the Robert Redford film The Horse Whisperer, the album received wide critical notice and soon went gold; the single "Can't Let Go" enjoyed considerable crossover radio play. Williams toured with Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers and Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on her own in support of the album. An expanded edition of the album, including three additional studio recordings and a second CD documenting a 1998 concert, was released in 2006. In 1999, she appeared on Return of the Grievous Angel: A Tribute to Gram Parso
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Taylor Alison Swift is an American singer-songwriter. As one of the world's leading contemporary recording artists, she is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which has received widespread media coverage. Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music, she signed with the label Big Machine Records and became the youngest artist signed by the Sony/ATV Music publishing house. Her 2006 self-titled debut album peaked at number five on the Billboard 200 and spent the most weeks on the chart in the 2000s; the album's third single, "Our Song", made her the youngest person to single-handedly write and perform a number-one song on the Hot Country Songs chart. Swift's second album, was released in 2008. Buoyed by the success of pop crossover singles "Love Story" and "You Belong with Me", Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 in the US; the album won four Grammy Awards, with Swift becoming the youngest Album of the Year winner.
Swift was the sole writer of Speak Now. It debuted at number one in the United States and the single "Mean" won two Grammy Awards, her fourth album, yielded the successful singles "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and "I Knew You Were Trouble". For her fifth album, the pop-focused 1989, she received three Grammys, became the first woman and fifth act overall to win Album of the Year twice, its singles "Shake It Off", "Blank Space", "Bad Blood" reached number one in the US, Canada. Swift's sixth album and its lead single "Look What You Made Me Do" topped the UK and US charts. Swift is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 50 million albums—including 27.8 million in the US—and 150 million single downloads. As a songwriter, she has received awards from the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame, was included in Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time in 2015, she is the recipient of 10 Grammys, one Emmy, 23 Billboard Music Awards, 12 Country Music Association Awards, she holds six Guinness World Records.
She has appeared in Time's 100 most influential people in the world and Forbes' lists of top-earning women in music, 100 most powerful women, Celebrity 100. Her inclusion in the third of these made her the youngest woman on the list, she ranked first in Celebrity 100. Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 1989, in Reading, Pennsylvania, her father, Scott Kingsley Swift, was a stockbroker for Merrill Lynch, her mother, Andrea Gardner Swift, was a homemaker who had worked as a mutual fund marketing executive. Swift was named after the American singer-songwriter James Taylor, she has a younger brother named Austin, an actor. Swift spent the early years of her life on a Christmas tree farm which her father purchased from one of his clients, she attended preschool and kindergarten at the Alvernia Montessori School, run by Franciscan nuns, before transferring to The Wyndcroft School. The family moved to a rented house in the suburban town of Wyomissing, where she attended Wyomissing Area Junior/Senior High School.
At the age of nine, Swift became interested in musical theater and performed in four Berks Youth Theatre Academy productions. She traveled to New York City for vocal and acting lessons. Swift shifted her focus toward country music inspired by Shania Twain's songs, which made her "want to just run around the block four times and daydream about everything", she spent her weekends performing at local events. After watching a documentary about Faith Hill, Swift felt sure that she needed to go to Nashville, Tennessee, to pursue a music career. At the age of eleven, she traveled with her mother to visit Nashville record labels and submitted a demo tape of Dolly Parton and Dixie Chicks karaoke covers. However, she was rejected. So, I kept thinking to myself, I need to figure out a way to be different"; when Swift was about 12 years old, computer repairman and local musician Ronnie Cremer taught her how to play guitar and helped with her first efforts as a songwriter, leading to her writing "Lucky You".
In 2003, Swift and her parents started working with New York-based music manager Dan Dymtrow. With his help, Swift modelled for Abercrombie & Fitch as part of their "Rising Stars" campaign, had an original song included on a Maybelline compilation CD, attended meetings with major record labels. After performing original songs at an RCA Records showcase, Swift was given an artist development deal and began making frequent trips to Nashville with her mother. To help Swift break into country music, her father transferred to the Nashville office of Merrill Lynch when she was 14, the family relocated to a lakefront house in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Swift attended Hendersonville High School, but after two years transferred to the Aaron Academy, which through homeschooling could accommodate her touring schedule, she graduated a year early. In Nashville, Swift worked with experienced Music Row songwriters such as Troy Verges, Brett Beavers, Brett James, Mac McAnally, The Warren Brothers, she formed a lasting working relationship with Liz Rose.
They began meeting for two-hour writing sessions every Tuesday afternoon after school. Rose thought that the sessions were "some of the easiest I've done. I was just her editor. She'd write about, she had such a clear vision of. And sh
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li
Paul Frederic Simon is an American singer-songwriter and actor. Simon's musical career has spanned seven decades with his fame and commercial success beginning as half of the duo Simon & Garfunkel, formed in 1956 with Art Garfunkel. Simon was responsible for writing nearly all of the pair's songs including three that reached number one on the U. S. singles charts: "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson", "Bridge over Troubled Water"; the duo split up in 1970 at the height of their popularity, Simon began a successful solo career, recording three acclaimed albums over the next five years. In 1986, he released Graceland, an album inspired by South African township music, which sold 14 million copies worldwide on its release and remains his most popular solo work. Simon wrote and starred in the film One-Trick Pony and co-wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman with the poet Derek Walcott. On June 3, 2016, Simon released his 13th solo album, Stranger to Stranger, which debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard Album Chart and the UK charts.
Simon has earned sixteen Grammys for his solo and collaborative work, including three for Album of the Year, a Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2001, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and in 2006 was selected as one of the "100 People Who Shaped the World" by Time. In 2011, Rolling Stone named Simon one of the 100 greatest guitarists. In 2015, he was named one of the 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time by Rolling Stone. Among many other honors, Simon was the first recipient of the Library of Congress's Gershwin Prize for Popular Song in 2007. In 1986, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Music degree from Berklee College of Music, where he serves on the Board of Trustees. Simon was born on October 1941, in Newark, New Jersey, to Hungarian Jewish parents, his father, was a college professor, double-bass player, dance bandleader who performed under the name "Lee Sims". His mother, was an elementary school teacher. In 1945, his family moved to the Kew Gardens Hills section of Queens, in New York City.
The musician Donald Fagen has described Simon's childhood as that of "a certain kind of New York Jew a stereotype to whom music and baseball are important. I think; the parents are either immigrants or first-generation Americans who felt like outsiders, assimilation was the key thought—they gravitated to black music and baseball looking for an alternative culture." Simon, upon hearing Fagen's description, said it "isn't far from the truth." Simon says about his childhood, "I was a ballplayer. I'd go on my bike, I'd hustle kids in stickball." He adds that his father was a New York Yankees fan: I used to listen to games with my father. He was a nice guy. Fun. Funny. Smart, he didn't play with me as much. He was at work until late at night.... Sometimes two in the morning. Simon's musical career began after meeting Art Garfunkel when they were both 11, they performed in a production of Alice in Wonderland for their sixth-grade graduation, began singing together when they were 13 performing at school dances.
Their idols were the Everly Brothers. Simon developed an interest in jazz and blues in the music of Woody Guthrie and Lead Belly. Simon's first song written for himself and Garfunkel, when Simon was 12 or 13, was called "The Girl for Me," and according to Simon became the "neighborhood hit." His father wrote the chords on paper for the boys to use. That paper became the first copyrighted Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel song, is now in the Library of Congress. In 1957, in their mid-teens, they recorded the song "Hey, Schoolgirl" under the name "Tom & Jerry", a name, given to them by their label Big Records; the single reached No. 49 on the pop charts. After graduating from Forest Hills High School, Simon majored in English at Queens College and graduated in 1963, while Garfunkel studied mathematics at Columbia University in Manhattan. Simon was a brother in the Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity, earned a degree in English literature, attended Brooklyn Law School for one semester after graduation in 1963, but his real passion was rock and roll.
Between 1957 and 1964, Simon wrote and released more than 30 songs reuniting with Garfunkel as Tom & Jerry for some singles, including "Our Song" and "That's My Story". Most of the songs Simon recorded during that time were performed alone or with musicians other than Garfunkel, they were released on several minor record labels, such as Amy, Hunt, King and Madison. He used several pseudonyms for these recordings, most "Jerry Landis", but "Paul Kane" and "True Taylor". By 1962, working as Jerry Landis, he was a frequent writer/producer for several Amy Records artists, overseeing material released by Dotty Daniels, The Vels and Ritchie Cordell. Simon enjoyed some moderate success in recording a few singles as part of a group called Tico and the Triumphs, including a song called "Motorcycle" that reached No. 97 on the Billboard charts in 1962. Tico and the Triumphs released four 45s. Marty Cooper, known as Tico, sang lead on several of these releases, but not on "Motorcycle", which featured Simon's vocal.
That same year, Simon reached No. 99 on the pop charts as Jerry Landis with the novelty song "The Lone Teen Ranger." Both chart singles were released on Amy Records. In early 1964, Simon and Garfunkel got an audition with Columbia Records, whose executive Clive Davis was impressed enough to sign the du