Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, as a component of various health foods, it is used in soups and stews, in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2016, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind maize and wheat; the Old English word for'barley' was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley"; the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
The word barn, which meant "barley-house", is rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family, it is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley is the ancestor of domestic barley. Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle spike. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes.
The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele; each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect. Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. Spikelets are arranged in triplets. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile; this condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.
Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used. Hulless or "naked" barley is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, for its value-added products.
These include flour for multiple food applications. In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L. six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. VocabularyDON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of Fusarium head blight known as vomitoxin Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level Nutans: A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to'erectum' (with an erect ea
Pyuthan District (Nepali: प्युठान जिल्लाListen, is a "hill" district some 250 km west of Kathmandu in Province No. 5 in midwestern Nepal. Pyuthan covers an area of 1,309 km² with population of 212,484 in 2001 and 226,796 in 2011. Pyuthan Khalanga is the district's administrative center. Pyuthan borders Dang Deukhuri District to the southwest along the crest of the Mahabharat Range and extends about 50 km northeast through the Middle Hills to a 3,000+ meter ridge, both Pyuthan's border with Baglung district of Dhaulagiri Zone and the main watershed between the Rapti and Gandaki River basins. Pyuthan borders Rolpa district to the west. Of the two upper tributaries of the West Rapti River, Pyuthan contains all of Jhimruk Khola and the lower part of Madi Khola after it exits Rolpa; the Madi-Jhimruk confluence is in the Mahabharat Range. On the southeast Pyuthan borders Lumbini Zone including Gulmi districts; the valley of Jhimruk Khola is the core of Pyuthan district. Its alluvial plain is intensively planted in rice during the summer monsoon.
Wheat is grown as the winter crop. Madi Khola is less suited to traditional irrigated agriculture. Bahun and Chhetri farmers cultivate irrigated fields along the Jhimruk and unirrigated fields partway up the hillsides, they are served by Newar merchants and service castes such as Damai, Kami, Kumal and Sunar. Highlands around the valley are inhabited by Magars, including Kham Magars at higher elevations; the district center Pyuthan Khalanga is situated on a hillside east of the Jhimruk, some 500 meters above it. The valleys have a subtropical climate with temperatures reaching 40 Celsius in May and falling to single digits in winter. There is a little too much winter chill for papayas. At about 800m elevation, the Jhimruk Valley approaches the upper limit for mangoes, however Madi Khola is lower. Citrus, Asian pear and mulberries are grown as cash crops in surrounding hills. Maize is grown on sloping un-irrigated bari fields up to about 2,000m. Snow falls on adjacent peaks reaching 2,400m but lasts more than a day or two.
At Cherneta the Jhimruk hydroelectric project exploits the Jhimruk bending within 2 km of Madi Khola while some 200 meters higher. It has a capacity of 12 megawatts and supplies electricity for lighting and machinery. Electricity is considered too costly for cooking and heating, so firewood is still in widespread use with limited use of biogas. Scheduled buses serve Pyuthan via a spur road off the main east-west Mahendra Highway at Bhalubang in Lalmitiya VDC, Deukhuri Valley. An old trade route was upgraded for motor vehicles in conjunction with the Jhimruk hydro project and is now being paved. A longer, now less-traveled gravel road from Tribhuvannagar in Dang Valley traverses the Mahabharat Range to Tiram descends toward Madi Khola to join the Bhalubang road at Devisthan; the Madi is followed 1 km. upstream to Chakchake where a left fork continues further upstream into Rolpa district while the main road climbs to cross a low pass at Cherneta and descend into the valley of Jhimruk Khola. At Bijuwar Bazaar about 10 km. beyond Chakchake this road forks again with a branch continuing north along the Jhimruk while the main road crosses the Jhimruk and climbs to Khalanga the district's administrative center.
Pyuthan was one of 24 small kingdoms in the Chaubisi Rajya confederation before Prithvi Narayan Shah unified modern Nepal in the second half of the 18th century. Since Dang Deukhuri District to the south and Salyan District to the west belonged to another confederation called Baise Rajya, Pyuthan was a western outpost of the Chaubisi and a defense perimeter defended by forts, for example at Okharkot. Pyuthan is home district of Dr. Yadav Pandit a research scholar working in the field of Experimental Nuclear Physics. Dr. Pandit is an expert in measurements of anisotropy, studying fluid-like behavior and phase transitions in the dense and excited matter created in heavy ion collisions. Pyuthan is the home district of Mohan Bikram Singh, a founder of the Communist Party of Nepal. Singh's organizational work in Pyuthan and other districts of Rapti Zone laid the basis for the area becoming the so-called "heartland" of the Maoist insurgency 1996–2006 that cost over 12,000 lives but was instrumental in transforming the country from a kingdom ruled by the Shah dynasty into a republic.
Other prominent communist leaders from Pyuthan include Mohan Baidhya, Lila Mani Pokhrel, Bamdev Gautam and Navraj Subedi. Pyuthan is the home district of Anirudra Sharma, Sibraj Subedi, Mukti Prasad Sharma of Nepali Congress Party and Khem Raj Pandit of the conservative and royalist Rastriya Prajatantra Party. Arkha, Bangemarkot, Baraula, Belbas, Bijaya Nagar, Bijuwar Chunja Dakha Kwadi, Dangbang, Dharmawati, Dhubang, Dhungegadhi Gothibang Hansapur Jumrikanda Khabang, Pyuthan Municipality, Kochibang, Ligha, Lung Majhakot, Markabang Narikot, Naya Gaun Okharkot Pakala, Puja Rajbara, Raspurkot, Swargadwarikhal, Tiram, Tusara Pandeydada khalanga Airabati, Asurkot Bandhikot, Bhagawati Temple, Bhawaniswari Temple, Bhimsen Temple, Bhimsen Temple, Bhimsen Temple, Bhitrikot Cave, Bhitrikot Durbar, Bhringri Kot, Bijulikot, Birdisthan Chhetrapal Temple Devi Bhagawati, Devi Bhagawati Temp
Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Finland)
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is a ministry in the Finnish Government and is responsible for preparing and implementing the government's foreign policy. The ministry in 2017 has a total budget of 1.079 billion euros, of which 675 million will be spent on development cooperation and 248 million euros on the ministry's operating expenses. Upkeep of crisis management troops will cost 50 million euros and civilian personnel 15 million, it employs 1,420 people as well as 980 locally hired personnel and maintains 89 overseas offices housing foreign missions. Since 1987 the ministry has been concentrated in the Katajanokka district of Helsinki. Two ministers in the current Juha Sipilä's government have portfolios relating to the ministry: Minister for Foreign Affairs, in overall political control of the ministry Minister for Foreign Trade and DevelopmentThe most senior civil servant is the Secretary of State, is assisted by four Under-Secretaries of State with responsibilities allocated as follows: Administrative and Protocol Affairs Foreign and Security Policy and Culture External Economic Affairs International Development Cooperation and Development PolicyBelow these, the ministry is divided into twelve departments: Political Department Department for External Economic Relations Department for Development Policy Department for Europe Department for Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Department for Global Affairs Legal Department Department for Administrative Affairs Department for Communication and Culture Protocol DepartmentOutside of these departments there are two specialised units: Unit for Internal Auditing Unit for Policy Planning and Research The ministers, as of 12 February 2018, are: Minister for Foreign and European Affairs - Timo Soini Minister for Foreign Trade and Development - Anne-Mari VirolainenThe current Secretary of State at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs is Matti Anttonen. Foreign relations of Finland Minister for Foreign Affairs ThisisFINLAND
Dang Deukhuri District
Dang Deukhuri District is located in Inner Terai in Province No. 5 in midwestern Nepal. The district, with Ghorahi as its headquarters, covers 2,955 km² and has a population of 548,141. Tulsipur, the second biggest city of Dang, is a transportation hub. There are numerous gumbas in Dang Deukhuri district. Ghorahi is a proposed capital of Rapti Lumbini Province based on the Constitution of Nepal 2015; this district consists of the larger easterly and upstream portions of the parallel Inner Terai valleys of Dang and Deukhuri, plus enclosing ranges of hills and mountains. Downstream, both valleys cross into Banke District. To the south, the district borders Uttar Pradesh, a state in India, Nepal's neighboring country—specifically the Balarampur and Shravasti districts of Awadh; because the international border follows the southern edge of the outermost Siwalik foothills called the Dudhwa Range, there is no Outer Terai extending onto the main Ganges Plain inside this district. The permeable geology of the Siwaliks does not support moisture retention or soil development, so they are covered with unproductive scrub forest.
The Dudhwas rise steeply to a crest at about 700 meters slope more into the Deukhuri Valley, down to 250 meters elevation at the Rapti River. The Dudhwas extend more than 100 km, causing the Rapti to detour west around them before turning southeast down the main trend of the plains into India. Deukhuri's climate is nearly tropical and it is well watered by the river, as well as possessing abundant groundwater. North of Deukhuri Valley, the Dang Range rises as high as 1,000 meters with passes at about 700 meters; the Dang Valley lies north of these hills, drained by the Babai River tributary to the Ghaghara. Valley elevations range from 600 meters along the Babai with alluvial slopes rising northward to 700 meters along the base of the Mahabharat Range; the district extends upslope to the crest of the Mahabharats at 1,500 to 1,700 meters elevation. The bordering districts to the north are Pyuthan and Salyan. Hand axes and other artifacts dated to early Paleolithic have been found in alluvial deposits along the Babai River in Dang Valley.
Archeologists classify these as Acheulean, i.e.'second-generation' toolmaking that succeeds the oldest Olduwan. There are more numerous less ancient archeological sites dating to the Upper Paleolithic/Late Pleistocene; these are along the Babai, as well as in Deukhuri Valley adjacent and south of Dang Valley. Throughout historic times and earlier the Dang and Deukhuri valleys were home to indigenous Tharu people; the House of Tulsipur ruled one of the largest Taluqs of Oudh, which included the Dang and Deukhuri Valleys. Therefore, it counted as one of the Baise Rajya, a confederation in what became western Nepal; the town shares its name with another Tulsipur in Nepal. About 1760 AD all these kingdoms were annexed by the Shah Dynasty during the reunification of Nepal, except Tulsipur lands south of the Siwalik Hills were not taken. Since Dang was somewhat higher, better-drained and therefore less malarial than most Inner Terai valleys in Nepal, it was settled to some extent by Shah and Rana courtiers and other Nepalese.
Deukhuri was more of a Tharu enclave until DDT was introduced to control the disease-bearingAnopheles mosquito in the 1950s. Long time ago, Dang used to be the capital of Rapti Zone. In the past, it was ruled by Dangi Sharan. East West Highway —the main east-west highway across Nepal— follows Deukhuri Valley, passing Kalakate and Bhalubang bazar at the upper end and Lamahi downstream. From Bhalubang, branch roads lead up the Rapti River into Rolpa Districts. From Lamahi there are roads north across the Dang Range to Ghorahi, south over the Dudhwas to Koilabas, which used to be an international trade centre earlier; the East West highway which passes through the Lamahi joints the Banke district leading Kohalpur. Roads from Ghorahi lead to the Swargadwari pilgrimage site. From Tulsipur a motorable road goes north into Salyan District. At Tarigaun, Dang Airport has scheduled connections to other cities in Nepal; the dry and agriculturally unproductive Dudhwa range creates a buffer zone between the divergent cultures of the plains of Uttar Pradesh and the Inner Terai.
Deukhuri was malarial before the late 1950s when DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos so that Tharu people who had evolved resistance managed to live in isolation from more developed and avaricious cultures of the plains to the south and the hills to the north. Although road development further reduced Deukhuri's isolation by the 1980s, the valley retains some of its Garden of Eden charm with its lazy river, thick jungle alternating with rice paddies, surrounding hills in the middle distance, unique peoples. Dang Valley is higher, less tropical and less malarial than Deukhuri. Despite poorer soil and more seasonal streamflow, its healthier climate made it more attractive to settlers from outside before the introduction of DDT. Since the early 1990s activist groups have been attempting to eradicate the practice of child indentured servitude among the Tharu, many of whom sold young daughters to wealthy families in urban areas; this region has majority of people of the Tharu ethnicity. The steep uninhabited southern slopes of the Mahabharat Range are another cultural buffer zone between traditional Tharu lands and the culturally distinct Middle Hills where Nepali is the dominant language, the homeland of dangi Chhetris.
The Kumal ethnic gr
Prithvi Narayan Shah
Maharajadhiraja Prithivi Narayan Shah was the last ruler of the Gorkha Kingdom in the Indian subcontinent, present-day Nepal, first monarch of Kingdom of Nepal on the Indian subcontinent. He claimed to be a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India. Majority of the people credit Prithvi Narayan Shah for starting the campaign for the unification of Nepal, while some feel contempt against him for colonization. Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah self-proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan due to much of North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers; the self-proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmashastra over his reign and refer to his country as being inhabitable for Hindus. He referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan and derided the region as being infiltrated by Muslim foreigners; the Gorkha dynasty was established by Dravya Shah. After them, Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah and Prithvipati Shah ruled over the state of Gorkha in succession.
King Prithvipati Shah had gained a good reputation as an able King as he maintained good relations with the neighboring state kings with the King of Lalitpur. He had maintained a friendly relationship with Nripendra Malla, the King of the state named "Kantipur". Prithvipati had many sons among which the eldest son Birbhadra Shah had established himself as the heir-apparent and the prince, but on, the relationship started to worsen between Prithvipati Shah and Birbhadra Shah. The latter died on his way back to the capital of Gorkha after staying a while in the state "Bhaktapur". Prithvipati Shah's grandson and the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nara Bhupal Shah was born of Mallikavati. Nara Bhupal Shah married the princess of Khaachi state, Chandra Pravawati at around B. S. 1772. About a year he ascended to the throne of Gorkha after which he married Kausalyavati Devi, the daughter of Gundharva Sen, the King of Palpa. No children were born of Nara Bhupal Shah from either queen which prompted him to marry two royal princesses and Subhadramati.
Yet on, from Queen Kausalyavati Devi a child was born on the date B. S. 1779. The child was named Prithivi Narayan Shah, his complete care was taken by the eldest of Chandra Pravawati. Prince Prithivi Narayan Shah showed his greatness from a early age, his education began at the age of five through the appropriate ceremony. At that time, the responsibility to educate him was given to Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal, They were the Upadhyayas who worked in the palace as Astrologers, where they were known as Jyotish or Jaisi. Though his primary education was provided by the Gurus, the duty of developing his character was taken by the Queen Chandra Pravawati, it is said that seeing the Prince of neighboring states Tanahun and Kaski being indulged in excess pleasure, Chandra Pravawati kept Prithivi Narayan Shah away from pleasurable and wrong pursuits. That is; the result of which, from young age virtuous qualities such as courage and positive character developed in him. From a young age, he took interest in the affairs of his father's state and soon began to take on these responsibilities.
Prithivi Narayan Shah had an early dream of conquering Nuwakot as his father had lost it to the Mallas of Kathmandu in an earlier war. After the death of his father in 1743, Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20; as king, he enjoyed talking to his subjects about their general concerns. This practice helped him to build a rapport with his people and helped him to understand the requirements of the citizens of Gorkha. King Shah sealed his borders and maintained a peaceful environment except for distant relations with the British, who were refusing to trade with Nepal at the time. Before Prithivi Narayan Shah's unification movement, there were a total of 54 states in Nepal. In the South-Eastern Terai, there were three Sen states: Makawanpur and Chaudandi. In the West, from Gorkha to Gandaki Province, there were 24 states. In the province of Karnali, there were 22 states with Kalyan, Samaal and Chand dynasties. Along with Gorkha and Mustang, Bhaktapur and Lalipur made up the remaining five states.
When Prithivi Narayan Shah had ascended to the throne of Gorkha in the year 1743 A. D, it was yet a small state, he started to contemplate on the methods to turn Gorkha into a huge and strong state. He went to Varanasi to gain first-hand knowledge about the neighboring states and about India to the south. During those days, Varanasi was one of the large trade centers of India where people from different places gathered, he met with different types of people and gained valuable understandings regarding the Political and Social condition of the Indian Sub-Continent. In Varanasi, his father-in-law Abhiman Singh, a Rajput Chief, procured for him some firearms and a quantity of ammunition, his first attempt at invasion of Nuwakot in 1743 CE failed and his reign began with an immediate military defeat. Conquering Nuwakot was essential for the unification, as it lay between Kathmandu and the Gorkha District, making it a vital trading route to Tibet. On his return to Gorkha from Varanasi, Prithivi Narayan Shah first took steps to defeat Nuwakot in the diplomatic field.
He entered into friendly alliance with the chiefs of Lamjung and Palpa. This done, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent an army against Nuwakot from three directions; the Chief of Nuwakot knowing that Gorkha is going to attack them in near fut
The Dhaulagiri massif in Nepal extends 120 km from the Kaligandaki River west to the Bheri. This massif is bounded on the north and southwest by tributaries of the Bheri River and on the southeast by the Myagdi Khola. Dhaulagiri I is the seventh highest mountain in the world at 8,167 metres above sea level, the highest mountain within the borders of a single country, it was first climbed on May 1960 by a Swiss/Austrian/Nepali expedition. The mountain's name is धौलागिरी in Nepali; this comes from Sanskrit where धवल means dazzling, beautiful and गिरि means mountain. Dhaulagiri I is the highest point of the Gandaki river basin. Annapurna I is 34 km. east of Dhaulagiri I. The Kali Gandaki River flows between the two in the Kaligandaki Gorge, said to be the world's deepest; the town of Pokhara is south of the Annapurnas, an important regional center and the gateway for climbers and trekkers visiting both ranges as well as a tourist destination in its own right. Looking north from the plains of India, most 8,000-metre peaks are obscured by nearer mountains, but in clear weather Dhaulagiri I is conspicuous from northern Bihar and as far south as Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh.
In 1808, survey computations showed it to be the highest mountain yet surveyed. This lasted until 1838 when Kangchenjunga took its place, followed by Mount Everest in 1858. Dhaulagiri I's sudden rise from lower terrain is unequaled, it rises 7,000 m from the Kali Gandaki River 30 km to the southeast. The south and west faces rise precipitously over 4,000 m; the south face of Gurja Himal in the same massif is notably immense. Most ascents have followed the northeast ridge route of the first ascent, but climbs have been made from most directions; as of 2007 there had been 358 successful ascents and 58 fatalities, a summit to fatality rate of 16.2%. Between 1950 and 2006, 2.88% of 2,016 expedition members and staff going above base camp on Dhaulagiri I died. On all 8,000 metre peaks in Nepal the death rate was 1.63%, ranging from 0.65% on Cho Oyu to 4.04% on Annapurna I and 3.05% on Manaslu. 1950 – Dhaulagiri I reconnoitered by a French expedition led by Maurice Herzog. They do not see a feasible route and switch to Annapurna, where they make the first ascent of an 8000 m peak.
1953–1958 – Five expeditions attempt the north face, or "Pear Buttress", route. 1959 – Austrian expedition led by Fritz Moravec makes the first attempt on the northeast ridge. 1960 – Swiss-Austrian expedition led by Max Eiselin, successful ascent by Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert, Nyima Dorje Sherpa, Nawang Dorje Sherpa on May 13. First Himalayan climb supported by a fixed-wing aircraft, which crashed in Hidden Valley north of the mountain during takeoff and was abandoned. 1969 – American team led by Boyd Everett attempt southeast ridge. 1970 – second ascent, via the northeast ridge by a Japanese expedition led by Tokufu Ohta and Shoji Imanari. Tetsuji Kawada and Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa reach the summit. 1973 – American team led by James Morrissey makes third ascent via the northeast ridge. Summit team: John Roskelley, Louis Reichardt, Nawang Samden Sherpa. 1975 – Japanese team led by Takashi Amemiya attempts southwest ridge. Six are killed in an avalanche. 1976 – Italian expedition makes the fourth ascent.
1977 – International team led by Reinhold Messner attempts the south face. 1978, spring: Amemiya returns with an expedition that puts five members on the summit via the southwest ridge—the first ascent not using the northeast ridge. One team member dies during the ascent. 1978, autumn – Seiko Tanaka of Japan leads successful climb of the difficult southeast ridge. Four are killed during the ascent. French team attempts the southwest buttress, only reaches 7,200 m. 1980 – A four-man team consisting of Polish climbers Voytek Kurtyka, Ludwik Wiczyczynski, Frenchman René Ghilini and Scotsman Alex MacIntyre climb the east face, topping out at 7,500 m on the northeast ridge. After a bivouac they descend back to base camp in a storm. One week they climb the mountain via the northeast ridge reaching the summit on May 18. 1981 – Yugoslav team reaches 7,950 m after putting up the first route on the true south face of the mountain, on the right side, connecting with the southeast ridge. They climb in alpine style but suffer four days of open bivouacs and six days without food before returning.
Hironobu Kamuro of Japan reaches the summit alone, via the normal route. 1982, May 5 – Three members – Philip Cornelissen, Rudi Van Snick and Ang Rita Sherpa – of a Belgian-Nepali team reach the summit via the north-east ridge. A day four more climbers – Ang Jangbu Sherpa, Marnix Lefever, Lut Vivijs and Jan Vanhees – summit also. Vivijs becomes the first woman to reach the summit. 1982, 13 December – Two members of Japanese team led by Jun Arima of the Academic Alpine Club of Hokkaido University reach the summit. By the world calendar, winter begins December 21, so this was not a winter but a very-late-autumn-climb; however the climb was done under a winter climbing permit, which the Nepali government issues for climbs beginning on or after December 1. 1984 – Three members of the Czechoslovakian expedition climb the west face to the summit. Simon died during the descent. 1985 – Polish expedition led by Adam Bilczewski set out to conquer Dhaulagiri for the first time in winter. After seven weeks of dramatic struggle against hurricane-force winds and temperatures below −40c°, Andrzej Czok and Jerzy Kukuczka made first winter ascent on 21 January