In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions. The temperatures in these regions are relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold. The north temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer to the Arctic Circle, the south temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Antarctic Circle. In some climate classifications, the zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones. These include Humid subtropical climate, Mediterranean climate, subtropical climates are located between 23. 5° and 35. 0° north or south latitude on the eastern or leeward sides of landmasses. This climate has long, generally hot and short, mild winters and these climates may occur in southern Asia, the southeastern United States, parts of eastern Australia, and in eastern coastal South America. Mediterranean climates, occur between 30° and 42° north and south latitude, on the sides of landmasses. This climate has hot summers and short mild winters, seasonal rainfall is the opposite of that of the subtropical humid type.
These climates occur near the rimlands of the Mediterranean Sea, in western Australia, in California, the oceanic climates occur in the higher middle latitudes, between 45° and 60° north and south latitude. They are created by the flow from the cool high latitude oceans to their west. This causes the climate to have cool summers and cool winters, annual rainfall is spread throughout the entire year. Regions with this climate include Western Europe, northwestern North America, the Continental climates occur in middle latitudes, between 35° or 40° to 55°. These climates are normally inland or on sides of landmasses. They feature warm to hot summers and cold winters, with a large temperature variation. Regions with this climate include northern temperate Asia, the northern United States, southern Canada, the vast majority of the worlds human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the northern hemisphere, due to its greater mass of land. The richest temperate flora in the world is found in southern Africa, geographical zone Habitat Köppen climate classification Middle latitudes Polar circle Subtropics
Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7 provinces and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises,13 sub-metropolises,246 municipal councils and 481 village and it has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between, Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the worlds ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and largest city. It is a nation with Nepali as the official language. The territory of Nepal has a history since the Neolithic age. The name Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, in the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet, the Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilization. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala, the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valleys traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture, by the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, the country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India. In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic.
Nepal is a nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic and it suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022
Hash is an extracted cannabis product composed of compressed or purified preparations of stalked resin glands, called trichomes, from the plant. This all depends on the process and amount of solvent left over, the name comes from the Arabic word which means grass. It is believed that massive hashish production for international trade originated in Morocco during the 1960s, before the coming of the first hippies from the Hippie Hashish Trail, only small pieces of Lebanese hashish were found in Morocco. In 1596, Dutchman Jan Huyghen van Linschoten spent three pages on Bangue in his work documenting his journeys in the East. He particularly mentioned the Egyptian Hashish and he said, Bangue is likewise much used in Turkie and Egypt, and is made in three sorts, having three names. In the 1800s, hashish was embraced in some European literary circles, baudelaire wrote the 1860 book Les paradis artificiels, about the state of being under the influence of opium and hashish. At around the time, American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow wrote the 1857 book The Hasheesh Eater about his youthful experiences.
Hashish can be consumed by oral ingestion or smoking, typically in a pipe, vaporizer or joints, Hashish is made from cannabinoid-rich glandular hairs known as trichomes, as well as varying amounts of cannabis flower and leaf fragments. The flowers of a female plant contain the most trichomes. Certain strains of cannabis are cultivated specifically for their ability to produce amounts of trichomes. The resin reservoirs of the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called pollen, are separated from the plant through various methods, mechanical separation methods use physical action to remove the trichomes from the plant, such as sieving through a screen by hand or in motorized tumblers. This technique is known as drysifting, the resulting powder, referred to as kief or drysift, is compressed with the aid of heat into blocks of hashish, if pure, the kief will become gooey and pliable. When a high level of pure THC is present, the end product will be almost transparent, ice-water separation is another mechanical method of isolating trichomes.
Newer techniques have developed such as heat and pressure separations. Trichomes may break away from supporting stalks and leaves when plant material becomes brittle at low temperatures, the ice-water method requires ice, agitation, filtration bags with various-sized screens and plant material. With the ice-water extraction method the resin becomes hard and brittle and this allows large quantities of pure resins to be extracted in a very clean process without the use of solvents, making for a more purified hashish. Chemical separation methods use a solvent such as ethanol, butane or hexane to dissolve the lipophilic desirable resin. Remaining plant materials are filtered out of the solution and sent to the compost, the solvent is evaporated, or boiled off leaving behind the desirable resins, called honey oil, hash oil, or just oil
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This simple concept is complicated by the curvature of the Earths surface, because of this variation, the concept of scale becomes meaningful in two distinct ways. The first way is the ratio of the size of the globe to the size of the Earth. The generating globe is a model to which the Earth is shrunk. The ratio of the Earths size to the generating globes size is called the nominal scale, many maps state the nominal scale and may even display a bar scale to represent it. The second distinct concept of scale applies to the variation in scale across a map and it is the ratio of the mapped points scale to the nominal scale. In this case means the scale factor. If the region of the map is small enough to ignore Earths curvature—a town plan, in maps covering larger areas, or the whole Earth, the maps scale may be less useful or even useless in measuring distances. The map projection becomes critical in understanding how scale varies throughout the map, when scale varies noticeably, it can be accounted for as the scale factor.
Tissots indicatrix is often used to illustrate the variation of point scale across a map, map scales may be expressed in words, as a ratio, or as a fraction. Examples are, one centimetre to one hundred metres or 1,10,000 or 1/10,000 one inch to one mile or 1,63,360 or 1/63,360 one centimetre to one thousand kilometres or 1,100,000,000 or 1/100,000,000. In addition to the many maps carry one or more bar scales. For example, some modern British maps have three bar scales, one each for kilometres and nautical miles, a lexical scale may cause problems if it expressed in a language that the user does not understand or in obsolete or ill-defined units. For example, a scale of one inch to a furlong will be understood by older people in countries where Imperial units used to be taught in schools. A map is classified as small scale or large scale or sometimes medium scale, small scale refers to world maps or maps of large regions such as continents or large nations. In other words, they show areas of land on a small space.
They are called small scale because the fraction is relatively small. Large scale maps show areas in more detail, such as county maps or town plans might
West Rapti River
The Rapti rises south of a prominent E-W ridgeline midway between the western Dhaulagiri Himalaya and the Mahabharat Range. A3,500 metres summit on this ridgeline marks a triple divide, north of the triple divide the Karnali and Gandaki basins are adjacent, south of it the Rapti and similar but smaller Babai River separate the two larger basins. After crossing into India, the Babai and Rapti separately join the Karnalis continuation called Ghaghara, the Ghaghara ultimately joins the Ganges, as does the Gandaki. The Raptis headwaters descend south from rugged highlands populated by Kham Magar, the western tributary Mādī Kholā rises in northwestern Rolpa and is joined by Lungrī Kholā draining northeastern Rolpa. The Mardi crosses into Pyuthan and it is joined by east-flowing Arun Kholā at Devithān where it enters a gorge through the Mahabharat Range. Jhimruk Kholā -- east of the Mardi—mainly drains Pyuthan, below the upper highlands, an alluvial valley opens where Bahun and Chhetri rice farmers irrigate paddy fields.
At Cherneta, Pyuthan the Jhimruk approaches within 1.5 km of the Mardi, below Cherneta the Jhimruk loops east, becoming the border between Pyuthan and Arghakhanchi District. Its valley narrows and steepens as it enters the Mahabharat Range, partway through it joins the Mardi and the combined flow is named the Rapti. The main river emerges from its gorge into the lower Siwalik Hills, at Bhalubang Bazaar Nepals east-west Mahendra Highway bridges the river. Below Bhalubang, Inner Terai Deukhuri Valley opens between the Dang and Dudhwa Ranges, both subranges of the Siwaliks, following the WNW trend of the Siwalik hills for 100 km. Although the land is fertile, before DDT came into use in the 1950s Deukhuri was so malarial that only the Tharu people who had genetic resistance could be confident of surviving the warmer months, the river crosses from Dang into Banke District. Just west of the city it is joined by the smaller Rohini rising further east in Nepals Nawalparasi and Rupandehi Districts,60 km beyond Gorakhpur the Rapti joins the Ghaghara at Rajpur.
About 120 km further on at Chhapra, the Ghaghara reaches the Ganges, aciravati, an ancient river has been identified with the modern Rapti. House of Tulsipur The Raptis flow has seasonal variation because the river lacks sources in high elevation glaciers. Average monthly flows at Jalkundi in Deukhuri Valley vary from 17.6 m3/s in pre-monsoon April to 451 m3/s at the peak of the monsoon in August, maximum recorded flood was 7,390 m3/s on 10 September 1981. 100-year flood flows are predicted at 10,100 m3/s, over 700,000 acres in Uttar Pradesh are at risk of floods every year. Flood control projects under study include a dam at Jalkundi that would inundate 71,000 acres of farmland in Deukhuri Valley, an alternative dam site is upstream at Naumure on the Pyuthan-Dang district border. Impoundment would mainly be in gorges through the Mahabharat Range, inundating less farmland than the Jalkundi alternative
Pyuthan District(Nepali, प्युठान जिल्ला Listen, is a hill district some 250 km west of Kathmandu in Province No.5 in midwestern Nepal. Pyuthan covers an area of 1,309 km² with population of 212,484 in 2001 and 226,796 in 2011, Pyuthan Khalanga is the districts administrative center. Pyuthan borders Rolpa district to the west, of the two upper tributaries of the West Rapti River, Pyuthan contains all of Jhimruk Khola and the lower part of Madi Khola after it exits Rolpa. The Madi-Jhimruk confluence is in southern Pyuthan, in the Mahabharat Range, on the southeast Pyuthan borders Lumbini Zone including Arghakhanchi and Gulmi districts. The valley of Jhimruk Khola is the core of Pyuthan district and its alluvial plain is intensively planted in rice during the summer monsoon. Wheat is grown as the winter crop, Madi Khola has eroded an inner gorge and is less suited to traditional irrigated agriculture. Bahun and Chhetri farmers cultivate irrigated fields along the Jhimruk and unirrigated fields partway up the hillsides and they are served by Newar merchants and service castes such as Damai, Kami, Kumal and Sunar.
Highlands around the valley are mostly inhabited by Magars, including Kham Magars at higher elevations, the district center Pyuthan Khalanga is situated on a hillside east of the Jhimruk, some 500 meters above it. The valleys have a climate with temperatures reaching 40 Celsius in May. There is a little too much winter chill for bananas and papayas, at about 800m elevation, the Jhimruk Valley approaches the upper limit for mangoes, however Madi Khola is lower. Citrus, Asian pear and mulberries are grown as cash crops in surrounding hills, maize is grown on sloping un-irrigated bari fields up to about 2, 000m. Snow occasionally falls on adjacent peaks reaching 2, 400m but seldom lasts more than a day or two, at Cherneta the Jhimruk hydroelectric project exploits the Jhimruk bending within 2 km of Madi Khola while some 200 meters higher. It has a capacity of 12 megawatts and supplies electricity for lighting, electricity is considered too costly for cooking and heating, so firewood is still in widespread use with limited use of biogas.
Scheduled buses serve Pyuthan via a road off the main east-west Mahendra Highway at Bhalubang in Lalmitiya VDC. An old trade route was upgraded for motor vehicles in conjunction with the Jhimruk hydro project and is now being paved. A longer, now less-traveled gravel road from Tribhuvannagar in Dang Valley traverses the Mahabharat Range to Tiram, Pyuthan was one of 24 small kingdoms in the Chaubisi Rajya confederation before Prithvi Narayan Shah unified modern Nepal in the second half of the 18th century. Pyuthan is home district of Dr. Yadav Pandit a research scholar working in the field of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Dr. Pandit is an expert in measurements of anisotropy, studying fluid-like behavior and phase transitions in the dense and highly excited matter created in heavy ion collisions. Pyuthan is the district of Mohan Bikram Singh, a founder of the Communist Party of Nepal
Charas is the name given to a hashish form of cannabis which is handmade in India, Pakistan and Jamaica. It is made from the resin of the cannabis plant, the plant grows wild throughout Northern India along the stretch of the Himalayas and is an important cash crop for the local people. The difference between charas and hashish is that hashish is made from a dead plant and charas is made from a live one. Despite this long history, charas was made illegal in India under pressure from the United States in the 1980s and severe sentences were introduced for cultivation, even the mere possession had a mandatory ten-year prison sentence. These laws have been relaxed, but charas remains a medium for police to extort money from consumers of the drug. Even at the peak of the crackdown, charas was still popular and remains so today, especially young professionals. The Naga Sadhus and Tantric Bhairava sects smoke it freely as an part of their religious practice. Many smoke it in clay pipes called chillums, using a cloth to cover the smoking end of the chillum.
Before lighting the chillum they will chant the names of Shiva in veneration. It is regaining the popularity it once enjoyed with younger generation of India regarding it as a drug of choice. It is freely available in places around India especially where there is a strong affluence of tourists. In southern India there are several places where charas is manufactured. Charas can be found in places around India simply because there are people that take charas from the source to distribute it in areas where there is a substantial demand of it. The nominal price of charas in these areas is higher than in the places where charas is made. There is an amount of charas that is illegally exported across to Europe. High quality hashish in India comes from cannabis grown in the mountains, the variety from Himachal Pradesh is considered to be of the highest quality throughout India. It is easily available in Kinnaur, Ribba, Naldera, Narkanda, for this reason, the Indian subcontinent has become very popular with backpackers and drug smugglers.
During hand-harvesting, live cannabis plants flowering buds are rubbed between the palms of the hands, and by the end of the day one has perhaps 8 or 9 grams of charas
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude at 23.5 latitude and temperate latitudes. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Subtropical climates can occur at elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam. Six climate classifications use the term to define the various temperature. A great portion of the deserts are located within the subtropics. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter. Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones. Plants such as palms, mango, the tropics have been historically defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at 23. 45° north and south latitude respectively. The poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at approximately 40° north and south latitude respectively, northern fringes of the type can go further north due to moderating effects of ocean streams, like in parts of Southern Europe due to heat transported by the Gulf Stream.
Several methods have used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a temperature greater than 10 °C. According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the zone is divided into two parts, Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the zone is divided into three parts, high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the trough or Intertropical convergence zone. The upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft, as the air moves towards the Mid-Latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation is known as the Hadley cell and leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge, many of the worlds deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics
Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the tropics of Asia and Africa. The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India, Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and they have been in cultivation in East Asia for the last 10,000 years. Consumption of the minor millets has been practiced since the beginning of the ancient civilizations of the world, the millets are small-grained, warm-weather cereals belonging to grass family. They are highly tolerant of extreme conditions such as drought and are nutritious compared to the major cereals such as rice. They contain low phytic acid and are rich in fiber, calcium.
Moreover, these millets release sugar slowly in the blood and diminish the glucose absorption, major millets are the most widely cultivated species. Eragrostideae tribe, Eleusine coracana, Finger millet - the fourth-most cultivated millet, paniceae tribe, Panicum miliaceum, Proso millet - the third-most cultivated millet. Pennisetum glaucum, Pearl millet - the most cultivated millet, setaria italica, Foxtail millet - the second-most cultivated millet. Jobs tears - of minor importance as a crop, eragrostideae tribe, Eragrostis tef, Teff - often not considered to be a millet. White fonio, Black fonio, Polish millet - of minor importance as a crop, Japanese barnyard millet, Indian barnyard millet, Burgu millet, Common barnyard grass. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets, other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. Panicum sumatrense, Little millet Paspalum scrobiculatum, Kodo millet Urochloa ramosa, guinea millet Foxtail Millet is known to have been the first domesticated millet.
Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, millets formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China, for example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC, a 4, 000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China
Rukum District(Nepali, रुकुम जिल्ला Listen, is a hill and mountain district some 280 km west of Kathmandu partially belonging to Province No.5 and partially to Province No.6. Rukum covers an area of 2,877 km² with population of 188,438 in 2001 and 207,290 in 2011, Musikot is the districts administrative center. There is 5,911 metres Mt. Sisne, the westernmost high peak in the Dhaulagiri massif, locals refer to Sisne as Hiunchuli and it is considered sacred as the abode of deities Masta and Saikumari. Climbing history on the mountain is not well documented and an expedition led by Man Bahadur Khatri reached the summit ridge in May 2013. Rukumkot, a prominent village in Rukum is referred to as the place of 52 lakes and 53 hills, rukumkot (Nepali, all of them Shyarpu Tal is largest lake in Rukum रुकुमकोट） has a beautiful pond called Rukmini Tal or locally Kamal Dhaha for its lotus flowers. Nearby are notable temples called Barah and Sibalaya, and caves such as Deurali Cave, Rukum district is the northernmost part of Rapti Zone.
It is in the basin of Bheri River, a tributary of the Karnali. Most of Rukum is drained by west-flowing tributaries such as Uttar Ganga draining Dhorpatan Valley, elevation ranges from below 800 meters along the Bheri and its lowest tributaries to about 6,000 meters in the Dhaulagiris with a range of climates from sub-tropical to perpetual snow and ice. Agricultural use ranges from irrigated rice cultivation through upland cultivation of maize, wheat and fruit, two airports offer safe but rudimentary facilities for passenger flights, mainly from Nepalganj, and Kathmandu. The Rapti Highway is under construction to connect Musikot to Salyan Khalanga, Tulsipur, on the other hand, Nepals dream project Mid-Hill Highway is under construction. Dang-Salyan-Rukum, About 4 hours bus ride from Dang Tulsipur to Rukum Musikot, Mid-Hill Highway is under construction, and a national pride project that passes through 12 zones,24 districts, and 215 V. D. Cs. With a total length of 1,767 km, the highway connects Chiyo Bhanjyang of Pachthar district in the east with Jhulaghat of Baitadi district in the west, bus ride from Kathmandu takes up to 24 hours to Musikot.
The two airports in Rukum are in Chaurjahari and Salle,762 m above sea level and accessible by footpaths and horse trails only, with a grass runway 850 m long and 30 m wide. It was the mode of travel to Rukum for government, NGO personnel. During the conflict the security situation deteriorated and the police station was shut down. The airport has 10 aircraft parking spaces, the flight from Nepalganj to Rukum Salle airport takes 15–20 minutes. Located near Musikot, the district headquarters and it is accessible is foot way and road transport since Rapti Highway has touched Salle airport also. Its runway is 650 meters long with capability of parking of 4 aircraft at once, the flight from Kathmandu to Rukum Salle airport takes about 90 minutes, while the flight from Nepalganj takes about 20 minutes
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C. In tropical climates there is only two seasons, a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free and changes in the angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains constant throughout the year. Within the tropical climate there are distinct varieties based on precipitation, In the Tropical rainforest climate. These climates usually occur within 5–10° latitude of the equator, in some eastern coast areas, they may extend to as much as over 26° away from the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums Low Pressure System all year round and it is dominated by the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month with less than 60 millimetres. Examples, Southern part of Arabian Peninsula, mountaintops within the tropics, e. g. Mount Kenya, can be cold. However, like lowlands in the tropics, there is seasonal variation of temperature.
Because of the effect of sun angle on climate most areas within the tropics are hot year-round, the ITCZ is shown, for July average, in the graphic. Areas of ascending air have heavy rainfall, areas of descending air are dry, the ITCZ somewhat follows the solar equator throughout the year, but with geographical variations, and in some areas is heavily influenced by local large-scale monsoons