Roman à clef, French for novel with a key, is a novel about real life, overlaid with a façade of fiction. The fictitious names in the novel represent real people, the "key" is the relationship between the nonfiction and the fiction; the "key" may be produced separately by the author or implied through the use of epigraphs or other literary techniques. Created by Madeleine de Scudéry in the 17th century to provide a forum for her thinly-veiled fiction featuring political and public figures, the roman à clef has since been used by writers including Sylvia Plath, John Banville, Truman Capote, Simone de Beauvoir, Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell, Jack Kerouac, Victor Hugo, Blaise Cendrars, Philip K. Dick, Bret Easton Ellis, Jay McInerney, Naguib Mahfouz, John McGahern, Charles Bukowski, Malachi Martin, Saul Bellow, Hunter S. Thompson, James Joyce, Djuna Barnes; the reasons an author might choose the roman à clef format include satire. Biographically inspired works have appeared in other literary genres and art forms, notably the film à clef.
Allegory Autobiografiction Autobiographical novel Blind item Creative nonfiction Defamation List of narrative techniques Non-fiction novel Semi-fiction Small penis rule Amos, William. The Originals: Who's Really Who in Fiction. London: Cape. ISBN 0-7221-1069-3. Busby, Brian. Character Parts: Who's Really Who in CanLit. Toronto: Knopf Canada. ISBN 0-676-97579-8
Ernest Tristram Crutchley was a British civil servant, the predecessor of the first British High Commissioner to Australia. Crutchley was educated at Emanuel School and joined the Post Office as a "boy clerk" in 1893. In 1909 he was promoted from clerk to Assistant Surveyor "upon a special recommendation from the Postmaster-General." During World War I he was appointed to organise the Army postal service and was commissioned in the Royal Engineers with the rank of Captain. He ended the war as an acting Lieutenant colonel and was appointed OBE. After the war he served in the Ministry of Transport 1919–21 on the staff of the last Chief Secretary for Ireland at Dublin Castle until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. In 1928 he was appointed "British Government Representative for Migration in Australia", in 1931 he became "Representative in the Commonwealth of Australia of HM Government in the United Kingdom" pending the appointment of the first British High Commissioner to Australia.
In 1935 he was recalled by the Post Office to serve as Public Relations Officer was Public Relations Officer in the Ministry of Home Security, 1939–40 "to undertake the difficult task of explaining to the public the importance of the new Civil Defence measures." He retired due to ill health shortly before his death. Crutchley was appointed OBE in 1919 and promoted to CBE in 1926, he was appointed CB in the 1935 Birthday Honours. Portraits of Ernest Tristram Crutchley at the National Portrait Gallery, London
The Books of the Maccabees are books concerned with the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty and related subjects. The term refers to two deuterocanonical books contained in various canons of the Bible: 1 Maccabees written in Hebrew and surviving in a Greek translation, relates the history of the Maccabees from 175 BCE until 134 BCE. 2 Maccabees, a Greek abridgment of an earlier history in Hebrew, relates the history of the Maccabees down to 161 BCE, focusing on Judas Maccabaeus, discussing praying for the dead and offerings. The term commonly refers to two further works: 3 Maccabees, a Greek book relating to a 3rd-century BCE persecution of the Jews of Egypt. 4 Maccabees, a philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of reason over passion, using the Maccabean martyrs as examples. The term may refer to: 5 Maccabees, an Arab language history from 186 BCE to 6 BCE; the same title is used for a Syriac version of 6th book of Josephus' Jewish War. 6 Maccabees, a Syriac poem that shared a lost source with 4 Maccabees.
7 Maccabees, a Syriac work focusing on the speeches of the Maccabean Martyrs and their mother. 8 Maccabees, a brief account of the revolt drawing on Seleucid sources, preserved in the Chronicle of John Malalas. Ethiopian Maccabees, a similar account from Ethiopian sources, it offers a narrative of Jewish rebels who fight against Antiochus' rule, but make no mention of the brothers from Modein. The origin of these accounts are unknown; the books of the First and Second Maccabees offer different accounts. The authors display notably different beliefs; the narratives do not match. Differences include the description of martyrdom. In First Maccabees, the author does not mention the value of martyrdom; the author insinuates. In First Maccabees, pious Jews’ martyrdom does not stimulate God to act in the Maccabean revolt. Pious Jews, in the author's eyes, had to obey the Hasmoneans. Religious devotion was not sufficient to emancipate the Jews. In contrast, Jason of Cyrene, the author of the Second Book of Maccabees, believed that martyrs were heroes and had power.
Jason depicts other martyrs alongside Judas Maccabaeus as champions. He bitterly denies; the tone of each record is in contrast. The author of First Maccabees presents an objective and sober account, taking influence from the authors of the Hebrew Bible. Second Maccabees is notably emotional. For instance, Jason of Cyrene has an emotional outburst in his narrative, where he powerfully supports the belief in resurrection, denied in First Maccabees, he continues. These two books are unlike in composition. First Maccabees begins with the rise and legitimacy of the Hasmonean dynasty, originating with a narrative of the Jewish priest Mattathias, a forefather to the Maccabean revolt. Second Maccabees begins with two letters, Epistle I and Epistle II; these letters are insubstantial aspects in relation to the narrative