An entablature is the superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, are divided into the architrave, the frieze, the cornice; the Greek and Roman temples are believed to be based on wooden structures, the design transition from wooden to stone structures being called petrification. The structure of an entablature varies with the orders of architecture. In each order, the proportions of the subdivisions are defined by the proportions of the column. In Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is approximately a quarter of the height of the column. Variants of entablature that do not fit these models are derived from them. In the pure classical Doric order entablature is simple; the architrave, the lowest band, is split, from bottom to top, into the guttae, the regulae, the taenia. The frieze is dominated by the triglyphs, vertically channelled tablets, separated by metopes, which may or may not be decorated.
The triglyphs sit on top of the taenia, a flat, horizontal protrusion, are finished at the bottom by decoration of drops, called guttae, which belong to the top of the architrave. The top of the triglyphs meet the protrusion of the cornice from the entablature; the underside of this protrusion is decorated with mutules, tablets that are finished with guttae. The cornice is split into the soffit, the corona, the cymatium; the soffit is the exposed underside. The corona and the cymatium are the principal parts of the cornice; the Ionic order of entablature adds the fascia in the architrave, which are flat horizontal protrusions, the dentils under the cornice, which are tooth-like rectangular block moldings. The Corinthian order adds a far more ornate cornice, from bottom to top, into the cyma reversa, the dentils, the ovulo, the modillions, the fascia, the cyma recta; the modillions are ornate brackets, similar in use to dentils, but in the shape of acanthus leaves. The frieze is sometimes omitted—for example, on the portico of the caryatides of the Erechtheum—and did not exist as a structure in the temple of Diana at Ephesus.
Neither is it found in the Lycian tombs, which are reproductions in the rock of timber structures based on early Ionian work. The entablature is an evolution of the primitive lintel, which spans two posts, supporting the ends of the roof rafters; the entablature together with the system of classical columns occurs outside classical architecture. It is used to complete the upper portion of a wall where columns are not present, in the case of pilasters or detached or engaged columns it is sometimes profiled around them; the use of the entablature, irrespective of columns, appeared after the Renaissance. Classical order Classical architecture Subdivisions of the entablature: Architrave Frieze Cornice
In localised Celtic polytheism practised in Great Britain, Sulis was a deity worshipped at the thermal spring of Bath. She was worshipped by the Romano-British as Sulis Minerva, whose votive objects and inscribed lead tablets suggest that she was conceived of both as a nourishing, life-giving mother goddess, as an effective agent of curses wished by her votaries; the exact meaning of the name Sulis is still a matter of debate among linguists, but one possibility is "Eye/Vision", cognate with Old Irish súil "eye, gap" derived from a Proto-Celtic word *sūli- which may be related to various Indo-European words for "sun". Sulis was the local goddess of the thermal springs that still feed the spa baths at Bath, which the Romans called Aquae Sulis, her name appears on inscriptions discovered at Bath, with only a single instance outside of Britain at Alzey, Germany. This is not surprising, as Celtic deities preserved their archaic localisation, they remained to the end associated with a specific place a cleft in the earth, a spring, pool or well.
The Greeks referred to the local pre-Hellenic deities in the local epithets that they assigned, associated with the cult of their Olympian pantheon at certain places. The Romans tended to lose sight of these specific locations, except in a few Etruscan cult inheritances and ideas like the genius loci, the guardian spirit of a place; the gilt bronze cult statue of Sulis Minerva "appears to have been deliberately damaged" sometime in Antiquity by barbarian raiders, Christian zealots, or some other forces. About 130 curse tablets addressed to Sulis, have been found in the sacred spring at the Roman baths in Bath; the text on the tablets offered to Sulis relates to theft. It is evident, from the localized style of Latin used, that a high proportion of the tablets came from the native population. In formulaic legalistic, language the tablets appeal to the deity, Sulis, to punish the known or unknown perpetrators of the crime until reparation be made. Sulis is requested to impair the physical and mental well-being of the perpetrator, by the denial of sleep, by causing normal bodily functions to cease or by death.
These afflictions are to cease only when the property is returned to the owner or disposed of as the owner wishes by its being dedicated to the deity. One message found on a tablet in the Temple at Bath reads: "Docimedis has lost two gloves and asks that the thief responsible should lose their minds and eyes in the goddess' temple." The tablets were written in code, by means of letters or words being written backwards. While most texts from Roman Britain are in Latin, two scripts found here, written on pewter sheets, are in an unknown language which may be Brythonic, they are the only examples of writing in this language found. At Bath, the Roman temple is dedicated as the primary deity of the temple spa. Through the Roman Minerva syncresis mythographers have inferred that Sulis was a goddess of wisdom and decisions. Sulis was not the only goddess exhibiting syncretism with Minerva. Senua's name appears on votive plaques bearing Minerva's image, while Brigantia shares many traits associated with Minerva.
The identification of multiple Celtic gods with the same Roman god is not unusual. On the other hand, Celtic goddesses tended to resist syncretism. Dedications to “Minerva” are common in both Great Britain and continental Europe without any Celtic epithet or interpretation. Based on her name's etymology, as well as several other characteristics, such as the association with sight, civic law, epithets relating to light, Sulis has been interpreted as a solar deity, at least in pre-Roman times; some researchers have further suggested a role as the de facto Celtic solar deity, the associated Sulevia and similar names being the goddess's attestations elsewhere. Sulis has a number of modern-day worshipers among the Pagan communities; as of 1998, some people still deposited offerings in the waters of the Roman baths. Solar deity Celtic deities Water and religion Celtic animism Solsbury Hill Media related to Sulis at Wikimedia Commons
In ancient Rome and balneae were facilities for bathing. Thermae refers to the large imperial bath complexes, while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome. Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centres not only for bathing, but socializing, reading as well. Roman bath-houses were provided for private villas, town houses, forts, they were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more by an aqueduct. The water would be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms; the design of baths is discussed by Vitruvius in De Architectura. Thermae, balineae and balineum may all be translated as "bath" or "baths", though Latin sources distinguish among these terms. Balneum or balineum, derived from the Greek βαλανεῖον signifies, in its primary sense, a bath or bathing-vessel, such as most persons of any consequence among the Romans possessed in their own houses, hence the chamber which contained the bath, the proper translation of the word balnearium.
The diminutive balneolum is adopted by Seneca to designate the bathroom of Scipio, in the villa at Liternum, is expressly used to characterize the modesty of republican manners as compared with the luxury of his own times. But when the baths of private individuals became more sumptuous, comprised many rooms, instead of the one small chamber described by Seneca, the plural balnea or balinea was adopted, which still, in correct language, had reference only to the baths of private persons, thus Cicero terms the baths at the villa of his brother Quintus balnearia. Balneae and balineae, which according to Varro have no singular number, were the public baths, but this accuracy of diction is neglected by many of the subsequent writers, by the poets, amongst whom balnea is not uncommonly used in the plural number to signify the public baths, since the word balneae could not be introduced in a hexameter verse. Pliny in the same sentence, makes use of the neuter plural balnea for public, of balneum for a private bath.
Thermae meant baths of warm water. Writers, use these terms without distinction, thus the baths erected by Claudius Etruscus, the freedman of the Emperor Claudius, are styled by Statius balnea, by Martial Etrusci thermulae. In an epigram by Martial—subice balneum thermis—the terms are not applied to the whole building, but to two different chambers in the same edifice. A public bath was built around three principal rooms: the caldarium, the tepidarium and the frigidarium; some thermae featured steam baths: the sudatorium, a moist steam bath, the laconicum, a dry hot room much like a modern sauna. By way of illustration, this article will describe the layout of Pompeii's Old Baths adjoining the forum, which are among some of the best-preserved Roman baths; the references are to the floor plan pictured to the right. The whole building comprises one for men and the other for women, it has six different entrances from the street, one of which gives admission to the smaller women's set only. Five other entrances lead to the men's department, of which two, communicate directly with the furnaces, the other three with the bathing apartments.
Passing through the principal entrance, a, removed from the street by a narrow footway surrounding the building and after descending three steps, the bather would find a small chamber on his left with a water closet, proceed into a covered portico, which ran round three sides of an open court. These together formed the vestibule of the baths; this atrium was the exercise ground for the young men, or served as a promenade for visitors to the baths. Within this court the keeper of the baths, who exacted the quadrans paid by each visitor, was stationed; the room f, which runs back from the portico, might have been appropriated to him. In this court, advertisements for the theatre, or other announcements of general interest, were posted up, one of which, announcing a gladiatorial show, still remains. At the sides of the entrance were seats. A passage leads into the apodyterium, a room for undressing in which all visitors must have met before entering the baths proper. Here, the bathers removed their clothing, taken in charge by slaves known as capsarii, notorious in ancient times for their dishonesty.
The apodyterium was a spacious chamber, with stone seats along three sides of the wall. Holes are still visible on the walls, mark the places where the pegs for the bathers' clothes were set; the chamber was lighted by a glass window, had six doors. One of these led to the tepidarium and another to the frigidarium, with its cold plunge-bath (referred to as loutron, natatorium, baptisterium or puteus.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying a thin coating of gold to solid surfaces such as metal, porcelain, or stone. A gilded object is described as "gilt". Where metal is gilded, it was traditionally silver in the West, to make silver-gilt objects, but gilt-bronze is used in China, called ormolu if it is Western. Methods of gilding include hand application and gluing of gold leaf, chemical gilding, electroplating, the last called gold plating. Parcel-gilt objects are only gilded over part of their surfaces; this may mean that all of the inside, none of the outside, of a chalice or similar vessel is gilded, or that patterns or images are made up by using a combination of gilt and ungilted areas. Gilding gives an object a gold appearance at a fraction of the cost of creating a solid gold object. In addition, a solid gold piece would be too soft or too heavy for practical use. A gilt surface does not tarnish as silver does. Herodotus mentions that the Egyptians gilded wood and metals, many such objects have been excavated.
Certain Ancient Greek statues of great prestige were chryselephantine, i.e. made of ivory. Extensive ornamental gilding was used in the ceiling coffers of the Propylaea. Pliny the Elder informs us that the first gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of Carthage, under the censorship of Lucius Mummius, when the Romans began to gild the ceilings of their temples and palaces, the Capitol being the first place on which this process was used, but he adds that luxury advanced on them so that in little time you might see all private and poor people, gild the walls and other parts of their dwellings. Owing to the comparative thickness of the gold leaf used in ancient gilding, the traces of it that remain are remarkably brilliant and solid. Fire-gilding of metal goes back at least to the 4th century BC, was known to Pliny, Vitruvius and in the Early Mediaeval period to Theophilus. In Europe, silver-gilt has always been more common than gilt-bronze, but in China the opposite has been the case.
The ancient Chinese developed the gilding of porcelain, taken up by the French and other European potters. Modern gilding is applied by various processes. More traditional techniques still form an important part of framemaking and are sometimes still employed in general woodworking, cabinet-work, decorative painting and interior decoration and ornamental leather work, in the decoration of pottery and glass. Mechanical gilding includes all the operations in which gold leaf is prepared, the processes to mechanically attach the gold onto surfaces; the techniques include burnishing, water gilding and oil-gilding used by wood gilders. "Overlaying" or folding or hammering on gold foil or gold leaf is the simplest and most ancient method, is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey and the Old Testament. The Ram in a Thicket of about 2600–2400 BCE from Ur uses this technique on wood, with a thin layer of bitumen underneath to help adhesion; the next advances involved two simple processes. The first involves gold leaf, gold, hammered or cut into thin sheets.
Gold leaf is thinner than standard paper today, when held to the light is semi-transparent. In ancient times it was about ten times thicker than today, half that in the Middle Ages. If gilding on canvas or on wood, the surface was first coated with gesso. "Gesso" is a substance made of chalk mixed with glue. Once the coating of gesso had been applied, allowed to dry, smoothed, it was re-wet with a sizing made of rabbit-skin glue and water or boiled linseed oil mixed with litharge and the gold leaf was layered on using a gilder's tip and left to dry before being burnished with a piece of polished agate; those gilding on canvas and parchment sometimes employed stiffly-beaten egg whites, and/or Armenian bole as sizing, though egg whites and gum both become brittle over time, causing the gold leaf to crack and detach, so honey was sometimes added to make them more flexible. Other gilding processes involved using the gold as pigment in paint: the artist ground the gold into a fine powder and mixed it with a binder such as gum arabic.
The resulting gold paint, called shell gold, was applied in the same way as with any paint. Sometimes, after either gold-leafing or gold-painting, the artist would heat the piece enough to melt the gold ensuring an coat; these techniques remained the only alternatives for materials like wood, the vellum pages of illuminated manuscripts, gilt-edged stock. Chemical gilding embraces those processes in which the gold is at some stage of chemical combination; these include: In this process the gold is obtained in a state of fine division, applied by mechanical means. Cold gilding on silver is performed by a solution of gold in aqua regia, applied by dipping a linen rag into the solution, burning it, rubbing the black and heavy ashes on the silver with the finger or a piece of leather or cork. Wet gilding is effected by means of a dilute solution of gold chloride in aqua regia with twice its quantity of ether
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior. Away from tectonic plate boundaries, it is about 25–30 °C/km of depth near the surface in most of the world. Speaking, geo-thermal refers to the Earth but the concept may be applied to other planets; the Earth's internal heat comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion, heat produced through radioactive decay, latent heat from core crystallization, heat from other sources. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, uranium-235, thorium-232. At the center of the planet, the temperature may be up to 7,000 K and the pressure could reach 360 GPa; because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists believe that early in Earth history, before isotopes with short half-lives had been depleted, Earth's heat production would have been much higher. Heat production was twice that of present-day at 3 billion years ago, resulting in larger temperature gradients within the Earth, larger rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics, allowing the production of igneous rocks such as komatiites that are no longer formed.
Temperature within the Earth increases with depth. Viscous or molten rock at temperatures between 650 to 1,200 °C are found at the margins of tectonic plates, increasing the geothermal gradient in the vicinity, but only the outer core is postulated to exist in a molten or fluid state, the temperature at the Earth's inner core/outer core boundary, around 3,500 kilometres deep, is estimated to be 5650 ± 600 Kelvin; the heat content of the Earth is 1031 joules. Much of the heat is created by decay of radioactive elements. An estimated 45 to 90 percent of the heat escaping from the Earth originates from radioactive decay of elements located in the mantle. Gravitational potential energy released during the accretion of the Earth. Heat released during differentiation. Latent heat released as the liquid outer core crystallizes at the inner core boundary. Heat may be generated by tidal forces on the Earth; the resulting earth tides dissipate energy in Earth's interior as heat. There is no reputable science to suggest that any significant heat may be created by the Earth's magnetic field, as suggested by some contemporary folk theories.
In Earth's continental crust, the decay of natural radioactive isotopes makes a significant contribution to geothermal heat production. The continental crust is abundant in lower density minerals but contains significant concentrations of heavier lithophilic minerals such as uranium; because of this, it holds the most concentrated global reservoir of radioactive elements found in the Earth. In layers closer to Earth's surface occurring isotopes are enriched in the granite and basaltic rocks; these high levels of radioactive elements are excluded from the Earth's mantle due to their inability to substitute in mantle minerals and consequent enrichment in melts during mantle melting processes. The mantle is made up of high density minerals with higher concentrations of elements that have small atomic radii such as magnesium and calcium; the geothermal gradient is steeper in the lithosphere than in the mantle because the mantle transports heat by convection, leading to a geothermal gradient, determined by the mantle adiabat, rather than by the conductive heat transfer processes that predominate in the lithosphere, which acts as a thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle.
Heat flows from its sources within the Earth to the surface. Total heat loss from the Earth is estimated at 44.2 TW. Mean heat flow is 101 mW/m2 over oceanic crust; this is 0.087 watt/square meter on average, but is much more concentrated in areas where the lithosphere is thin, such as along mid-ocean ridges and near mantle plumes. The Earth's crust acts as a thick insulating blanket which must be pierced by fluid conduits in order to release the heat underneath. More of the heat in the Earth is lost through plate tectonics, by mantle upwelling associated with mid-ocean ridges; the final major mode of heat loss is by conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs in the oceans due to the crust there being much thinner and younger than under the continents. The heat of the Earth is replenished by radioactive decay at a rate of 30 TW; the global geothermal flow rates are more than twice the rate of human energy consumption from all primary sources. Heat from Earth's interior can be used as an energy source, known as geothermal energy.
The geothermal gradient has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient Roman times, more for generating electricity. As the human population continues to grow, so does energy use and the correlating environmental impacts that are consistent with global primary sources of energy; this has caused a growing interest in finding sources of energy that are renewable and have reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In areas of high geothermal energy density, current technology allows for the generation of electrical power because of the corresponding high temperatures. Generating electrical power from geothermal resources requires no fuel while providing true baseload energy at a reliability rate that exceeds 90%. In order to extract geothermal energy, it is necessary to efficiently transfer heat from a
Tourism in England
Tourism plays a significant part in the economic life of England. England's long history and pervasive culture, spread worldwide through the English language and colonialism, make it a popular tourist destination. Bath: A spa town, famous for its Georgian architecture and crescents, Bath Abbey, the Roman baths, numerous Jane Austen connections such as the Pump Rooms. Brighton: Brighton is a seaside resort which includes two piers, West Pier and Brighton Pier, is home to the Royal Pavilion. Bristol: Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge is a famous landmark. Cambridge: Home of the world-renowned University of Cambridge. Canterbury: Renowned for its cathedral, the Mother Church of England, as well as other medieval buildings and Roman remains. Chester: Important Roman and medieval walled city with an amphitheatre and 11th-century Benedictine Abbey, now the Cathedral. Renowned for its covered medieval shop'rows', racecourse and Chester Zoo. Dover: A major port with access to the continent. Well known for its white cliffs, which include wartime tunnels, to a lesser extent for its castle.
Durham: A famous university city renowned for its cathedral and castle. Exeter: City, home to Exeter Cathedral and Rougemont Castle. Haworth: Home of the Brontë Sisters and popular with Japanese tourists, as Wuthering Heights has a cult following in Japan. Kingston upon Hull: The birthplace of William Wilberforce. Home to The Deep, the world's only submarium and the location of England's smallest window at the George Hotel; the poet Philip Larkin worked at the local university. Nearby is the Humber Bridge, the world's longest single-span suspension bridge for 16 years from its opening in July 1981 to 1998. Hull was UK City of Culture in 2017. Lincoln: A medieval city, home to Lincoln Cathedral and to Lincoln Castle, where a copy of the Magna Carta is kept. Liverpool: The 2008 European Capital of Culture, a major commercial port and World Heritage Site, home to two cathedrals, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra and famous as the home of The Beatles. Liverpool has more listed buildings, registered historic parks and art galleries than any other city in the UK outside London.
The home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton. The first city in the world to be linked by passenger railway it is famous for The Grand National, its musical and literary heritage. Norwich: City renowned for its castle and cathedral; the latter has the second-tallest spire in the country. Nottingham: The city and Nottingham Castle are famed worldwide for their links with the legend of Robin Hood. Sherwood Forest is nearby. Oxford: Home of the University of Oxford. Plymouth: A naval dockyard with a listed heritage area, the Barbican, which includes the National Marine Aquarium and the Mayflower Steps. Home to Smeaton's Tower, a former lighthouse now used as a viewpoint. Portsmouth: A naval dockyard with famous ships on display, including the Mary Rose, HMS Victory. Home to Gunwharf Quays retail centre, with its iconic Spinnaker Tower. Salisbury: Home of Salisbury Cathedral, which has the tallest spire in the country. Nearby is the prehistoric site of Stonehenge, administered by English Heritage.
Shrewsbury: Medieval walled town situated within a loop of the River Severn. Famous for its many timber-framed buildings and stone bridges, as the birthplace of Charles Darwin. Stratford-upon-Avon: The birthplace of William Shakespeare, with numerous historic sites associated with Shakespeare, as well as contemporary theatres performing his works. York: Famous for York Minster cathedral; the location of the National Railway Museum and a wealth of preserved medieval streets and buildings, such as the Merchant Adventurers' Hall and the Shambles. Other places in England are of historical interest; the city of Manchester is the second most visited city by foreign tourists in England after London. Many foreign tourists visit the neighbouring countries and Wales – see tourism in Scotland and tourism in Wales. Domestic tourists, foreign tourists who have specific interests in art, history etc. visit the following: Birmingham: A major city, with an orchestra, major exhibition venues and art galleries.
Of historical interest for its significant role in the industrial revolution and the jewellery industry. Gloucester: A Roman city with a cathedral, famous for the tomb of Edward II, seventh Plantagenet king of England. Hadrian's Wall: The Roman wall built in Northumberland by order of the Emperor Hadrian. Hereford: A cathedral city, famous for the chained library in the cathedral, the Mappa Mundi Ironbridge: The cradle of the industrial revolution and the site of Iron bridge, the world's first major bridge to be made of cast iron. Manchester: A culturally pre-eminent city, once famous for its industry. Known for the Hallé orchestra and many museums, art galleries and its Victorian and Edwardian era architecture; the city was host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games and is home to two Premier League football clubs, Manchester City and Manchester United. Manchester is known for being the world's first industrialised city, is well noted for its shopping, music, social history and nightlife. Wi