John Joseph Scanlan
John Joseph Scanlan was the second Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu in the United States. Born in Iniscarra in County Cork, Scanlan trained at All Hallows College and was ordained a priest on June 22, 1930 for the Archdiocese of San Francisco. On July 8, 1954, Scanlan was appointed Titular Bishop of Cenae. On September 21 of that year, Scanlan's episcopal consecration took place. On November 10, 1967, Scanlan was appointed Apostolic Administrator of Honolulu and took charge of the administration of the diocese. On March 6, 1968, he was appointed the Bishop of the Diocese of Honolulu. On June 30, 1981, Scanlan continued to be active as Bishop Emeritus, he died in California on January 31, 1997 and was buried in the crypt at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace alongside the remains of missionary Bishop Louis Maigret. Entry at Catholic-Hierarchy.org
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu
The Catholic Diocese of Honolulu in Latin Dioecesis Honoluluensis, is an ecclesiastical territory or particular church of the Catholic Church in the United States. The diocese comprises the entire state of the unincorporated Hawaiian Islands; the diocese is suffragan to and a part of the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of San Francisco, which includes the suffragan dioceses of Las Vegas, Reno, Salt Lake City, San Jose, Santa Rosa and Stockton. The patrons of the Diocese of Honolulu are the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of Malia O Ka Malu or Our Lady Queen of Peace, Saint Damien of Molokaʻi, Saint Marianne of Molokaʻi; the diocese is governed by the Bishop of Honolulu. His canonical seat or cathedra is located at the Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace. With his clergy, the bishop ministers to a culturally diverse population in the following languages: Hawaiian, it is one of the most diverse and one of the largest dioceses in the United States, in terms of territorial area which spans statewide and includes unpopulated Hawaiian Islands.
Pope Gregory XVI had divided Oceania into two vicariates apostolic. The evangelization of the Vicariate Apostolic of Oriental Oceania was entrusted to the Picpus Fathers recently established by Pierre Coudrin; the Vicariate Apostolic of Occidental Oceania was entrusted to the Society of Mary and Marists, founded in 1836 at Lyon by Jean-Claude-Marie Colin. Shortly after the disappearance at sea of the Vicar Apostolic of Oriental Oceania, Msgr. Rouchouze and a company of missionaries on the Marie Joseph in 1843, the Vatican canonically erected from its territories the Vicariate Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. Similar vicariates apostolic were created for Tahiti and the Marquesas. Blessed Pius IX changed its name in 1848 to the Vicariate Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands. Venerable Pope Pius XII elevated the vicariate apostolic to the dignity of a diocese on January 25, 1941, as it remains today; the first Catholic mission to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was established by the creation of the Prefecture Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands by Pope Leo XII and the appointment of Alexis Bachelot as its first and only prefect, a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a religious institute called the Picpus Fathers, founded by Pierre Coudrin during the French Revolution.
The first Picpus Fathers departed from Bordeaux aboard the La Comète on November 21, 1826 and stopped in Valparaíso in Chile on February 8, 1827. The Picpus Fathers resumed their trip on February 25, they entered port at Honolulu Harbor on July 7. Having been refused entry by Protestant advisors to the king, the Picpus Fathers did not disembark from their ship until July 9, the Feast of Our Lady of Peace. Among the first Picpus Fathers were Abraham Armand and Alexis Bachelot of France, as well as Patrick Short of the United Kingdom, they were joined by six lay brothers. It has been claimed that Fathers Armand and Short concelebrated the first Mass in the Hawaiian Islands on Bastille Day, July 14, 1827, in honor of their religious institute's French heritage, but this is untrue, an anachronism: concelebration of masses was not practiced at the time, since France was being ruled by the restored Bourbon monarchy, "Bastille Day" would not be marked as a national holiday, they performed the first baptism on November 30.
The Picpus Fathers were quick to plunge into the Hawaiian society. They learned the local language, went into the Native Hawaiian community and began preaching to them, they taught the lessons of Jesus from the gospels. Hundreds of Native Hawaiians chose to receive the sacraments of baptism and Eucharist. Among the first converts were William Pitt Kalanimoku, baptized aboard the French vessel L'Uranie by Abbe de Quelen which arrived in 1819, four months after the death of Kamehameha the Great; the royal governors of Oʻahu and Liliha. They would both become pivotal members of the Catholic underground. Christian missionaries were influential in shaping the modern society of the kingdom after the deaths of Kamehameha I and Kamehameha II; the missionaries Congregationalists from New England, baptized the queen regent Kaʻahumanu and persuaded her to create religious policy favoring the suppression of the Catholic Church in Hawaiʻi. Kamehameha III enacted its expulsion from the kingdom. Fathers Bachelot and Short were forcibly boarded onto the brig Waverly by the chiefs loyal to Kaʻahumanu and they left Honolulu Harbor on December 24, 1831.
They landed off the coast of California and worked in the California Missions near the present-day City of Los Angeles. Native Hawaiian converts of the Catholic Church claimed to have been imprisoned and tortured after the physical expulsion of their missionary priests; the persecution was prescribed, according to the Bishop Museum, by the Protestant ministers claiming that such treatment was ordained by God. Commodore John Downes of the United States Navy frigate USS Potomac expressed American disappointment of the king's decision resulting in the brief end of physical harm for the converts. In 1835, both the vicar apostolic and prefect apostolic working from Valparaíso dispatched Columba Murphy, a religious brother from Ireland affiliated with the Picpus Fathers, to evaluate the situation in the Hawaiian Islands. While other Picpus Fathers were denied entry into the kingdom, the king permitted Murphy to disembark from his ship due to his investigative role and the fact that Murphy, a mere
Étienne Jérôme Rouchouze
Étienne Jérôme Rouchouze SS. CC. was a French Catholic missionary in the Eastern Pacific. For the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, he served as Vicar Apostolic and Titular Bishop of Nilopolis from 1833 to 1843 of the Vicariate Apostolic of Oriental Oceania, from which were derived the Archdiocese of Pape‘ete, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu and the Diocese of Taiohae o Tefenuaenata in the Marquesas Islands; as a missionary bishop, Msgr. Rouchouze resided in Valparaíso, Chile and in Honolulu, his motto was Per aspera in astera. Prior to his episcopal ministry, Pope Gregory XVI, on 27 November 1825, created the Prefecture Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. Father Alexis Bachelot was subsequently appointed its first prefect on 3 December 1825. Msgr. Rouchouze was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Oriental Oceania and Titular Bishop of Nilopolis on 14 June 1833 with ordinary jurisdiction over the Hawai‘i prefecture apostolic, he was subsequently consecrated to the episcopate in Rome, on 22 December 1833 by the Prefect of the Propaganda Fide, Cardinal Carlo Maria Pedicini.
On 29 June 1834, in Golden Square in London, Msgr. Rouchouze served as principal co-consecrator in the episcopal ordination of Msgr. John Bede Polding, O. S. B. Titular Bishop of Hierocaesarea and Vicar Apostolic elect of New Holland. Rouchouze left Le Havre on 29 October 1834 and arrived in Valparaíso, Chile on 19 February 1835. After staying a few months, he went on to Mangareva in the Gambier Islands on 9 May 1835, he baptized the island's king Maputeoa and his family on 25 August 1836. On 4 April 1839, Msgr. Rouchouze returned to blessed the first stone for the St. Michael's Cathedral, Rikitea in Mangareva, he said the first pontifical Mass in the Marquesas at Tahuata on 6 February 1839. He arrived in Honolulu on 14 May 1840. On 8 December 1842 the ship Marie-Joseph was blessed in Saint Malo in Brittany. Shortly thereafter, Msgr. Rouchouze, accompanied by thirteen brothers and ten sisters, left Saint Malo for Oceania on the Marie-Joseph. A nun died at sea. Unwilling to bury her at sea, they buried her there.
On 19 February 1843 his twenty-two missionaries left the island on the Marie-Joseph. The party stopped off in Florianópolis in Brazil to bury the body of Sister Caliste Le Gris, who had died on board. Evaristo, a Mangarevan youth, fell ill and died while they were in Brazil; the ship was last sited off the Falkland Islands on 13 March 1843. Rouchouze and his companions were presumed to have perished at sea. GCatholic Garrett, John. To Live Among the Stars: Christian Origins in Oceania. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. ISBN 978-2-8254-0692-2. Laval, Honoré. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Mangareva: ère chrétienne, 1834-1871. Paris: Musée de l'Homme. Kirk, Robert W.. Paradise Past: The Transformation of the South Pacific, 1520-1920. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-6978-9. Wiltgen, Ralph M.. The Founding of the Roman Catholic Church in Oceania, 1825 to 1850. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60899-536-3. Yzendoorn, Reginald. History of the Catholic Mission in the Hawaiian Islands.
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James Joseph Sweeney
James Joseph Sweeney was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the first Bishop of Honolulu, serving from 1941 until his death in 1968. Sweeney was born in California, to John Joseph and Catherine Sweeney, he received his early education at St. James Boys School from 1907 to 1913, he attended Saint Patrick Seminary in Menlo Park. He was ordained a priest for the Archdiocese of San Francisco on June 24, 1925 by Archbishop Edward Hanna at the Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption in San Francisco, he served as assistant pastor until 1931 when he was appointed the archdiocesan director of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. On November 22, 1929, Pope Pius XI conferred the title of "Right Reverend Monsignor" on Father Sweeney. On May 20, 1941, he was appointed the first bishop of the newly erected Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, he was consecrated on July 25 of that year. Bishop Sweeney saw the Honolulu see through World War II, statehood, he died on his 70th birthday in 1968 in San Francisco.
His funeral liturgy was held at his home parish of Saint Paul in San Francisco. At his request, he was buried with his parents in a family crypt in Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma, California
Louis Désiré Maigret
Louis Désiré Maigret, SS. CC. Served as the first vicar apostolic of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. Born in Saint-Pierre-de-Maillé, Maigret was ordained to the priesthood as a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary on September 23, 1828 at the age of 24; as part of his missionary work, Father Maigret sailed to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi to l.p. build its Catholic community of native Hawaiians. The diocese sent him as a missionary to Pohnpei in Micronesia in December 1837 on the schooner Notre Dame de Paix, he was the first missionary. In his company were "several Mangarevans and Tahitians," some of whom remained on Pohnpei and left descendants, he departed on 29 July 1838 for Valparaiso after seven unsuccessful months. When the Vicar Apostolic of Oriental Oceania, Msgr. Etienne Jerome Rouchouze, SS. CC. was lost at sea on board the ill-fated Marie Joseph in early 1843, the Holy See appointed Father Maigret as the first vicar apostolic of the Sandwich Islands on September 11, 1846 at the age of 42.
He was ordained as a bishop of the titular see of Arathia on November 28, 1847 at the age of 43. As bishop Maigret oversaw the construction of what would become his most lasting legacy, the Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace. After his death, Maigret was entombed in the crypt below the sanctuary
Libert H. Boeynaems
Libert H. Boeynaems, formally Libert Hubert John Louis Boeynaems, SS. CC. was the fourth vicar apostolic of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands — now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. He was born in Antwerp, the son of John and Leopoldina Boeynaems, he was educated at the Jesuit college of Antwerp and the Seminary at Mechelen and finished his scholasticate at the University of Leuven. Boeynaems was ordained to the priesthood as a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary on September 11, 1881; as part of his missionary work, Boeynaems sailed to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i arriving in Honolulu on November 29, 1881, to become a pastor to the fledgeling Catholic community of native Hawaiians on the island of Kaua‘i in the district encompassing Līhu‘e to Hanalei. He ministered to those on Kaua‘i in the district encompassing Līhu‘e to Mana. During his first few years in Honolulu, Boeynaems was a witness to the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, proclamation of the Republic of Hawai‘i and establishment of the United States Territory of Hawai‘i.
In 1895 he was transferred to Maui. In December, 1902, the Holy See appointed. On April 8, 1903, he was appointed Vicar Apostolic and was subsequently consecrated titular Bishop of Zeugma in Syria by Archbishop Montgomery in Saint Mary's Cathedral in San Francisco on July 25, 1903. On April 11, 1915, Msgr. Boeynaems consecrated Saint Agnes-in-the-Palms at Kaka‘ako, a former Protestant church at the intersection of Kawaiahao and Kamani streets in Honolulu, to serve the growing population of Portuguese and native Hawaiians in the Kaka‘ako district. After his death, he was buried at the Honolulu Catholic Cemetery in downtown Honolulu near Thomas Square at the intersection of Ward Avenue and King Street