Neustadt an der Weinstraße
Neustadt an der Weinstraße is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. With 54,000 inhabitants as of 2002, it is the largest town called Neustadt; the town itself lies in the western park of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region between the Haardt mountains, the eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest, the western edge of the Upper Rhine Plain in the middle of the Palatinate wine region, an area, around 10 km wide and 85 km long. The Speyerbach river flows through the town from west to east as does the Rehbach, which separates from the Speyerbach within the town at the Winzinger Wassergescheid before emptying into the River Rhine several kilometres further north than the Speyerbach; the borough, with its incorporated parishes, measures 22.5 km from west to east and 9.5 km from north to south. Its highest point is 619 m above sea level at the Hohe Loog House at the top of the Hohe Loog mountain and its lowest is 108 m above NN in the village of Geinsheim. Over time the original town and its surrounding settlements and farmsteads have grown together, blurring the original boundaries of the town.
Today these have become the town quarters of Branchweilerhof in the southeast, the Hambacher Höhe to the southwest, the Afrikaviertel and the Schöntal to the west. These quarters do not have any particular privileges and are not incorporated districts, although some voting precinct borders match part of the boundaries; the best-known quarter is Winzingen, first recorded in 774 and thus much older than the Neustadt or "new town" founded in the early 13th century. It was a wine growing village. In 1892 it was incorporated into the Neustadt an der Haardt. Since the town has grown beyond Winzingen to the east. Inclusive all its incorporated subdistricts, Neustadt covers an area of 11,713.5 hectares. Of that, 5,020.0 ha is woodland, 2,216.0 ha are vineyards, 2,300.0 ha are used for other agricultural purposes, 1,607.0 is built up and 50.0 ha are industrial and retail areas. In 1969 the villages of Diedesfeld, Gimmeldingen, Hambach, Königsbach, Lachen-Speyerdorf and Mußbach were incorporated into the borough, followed in 1974 by Duttweiler.
These villages lie between ten kilometres from the main town. They are constituted subdistricts, are known as Ortsteil and have a parish chair to whom some of the functions of the former mayors have been transferred. Neustadt's neighbouring municipalities running clockwise from the north are the small town of Deidesheim the municipalities of Ruppertsberg, Meckenheim, Haßloch and Maikammer, the small town of Lambrecht and the municipality of Lindenberg. Neustadt has an equable climate, like that of the whole of Anterior Palatinate: warm summers during which most of the precipitation falls, albeit the annual total of 500 mm is quite low, mild, yet drier winters. Annual precipitation figures are in the lower quartile of those recorded in Germany; the driest month is March. However, they vary only and are evenly distributed throughout the year. However, this climate chart is from a weather station at 161 m above NN in the subdistrict of Haardt above the town, 25 metres lower. So the values differ, with temperatures being rainfall higher.
The chart shows an annual average temperatures of 10.1 °C to 18.4 °C in the summer months dropping 1.7 °C during the winter. Its annual precipitation measured 614 mm; the oldest traces of settlement and archaeological finds indicate that Celts used to live in the area of the present town. They have left behind ringworks, clay pots and weapons that date to the time around 150 B. C; the Romans took possession of the land around 20 A. D. Around 400 it was taken by the Alemanni who were superseded in turn around 500 A. D. by the Germanic Franks. There are no precise details for the centuries after the end of Roman rule, but it is known that villages existed before the actual town of Neustadt was founded: Winzingen, today a town quarter, was mentioned in 774; the subdistricts of Mußbach, Lachen-Speyerdorf, Geinsheim and Hambach are considerable older than the main town. In general it is fair to say that the history of Neustadt is linked to that of the Palatinate region. Just a few decades after its foundation in the early 13th century, Neustadt was granted town rights on 6 April 1275 based on those given to Speyer.
In the Late Middle Ages Neustadt was divided into four town quarters, whose names indicate the status and occupations of their inhabitants or give important local information: In the Lauerviertel next to the Speyerbach worked the tanners. The Kesselringviertel was named after an influential family of the 14th century. In the Frauenviertel were ecclesiastical possessions under the patronage of Saint Mary's; the Jewish community lived in the Judenviertel. Towards the end of the 15th century, other quarters were established outside the town fortifications: the Stadtgasserviertel, the Kirschgartenviertel and the Ägyptenvorstadt. In the Peasants' Uprising, rebellious peasant bands entered the town unopposed on 6 May 1525. During the Reformation, Louis the Pacific ruled the Palatinate until 1544 and strove for re
Zweibrücken is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river. The name Zweibrücken means'two bridges'. Older forms of the name include Middle High German Zweinbrücken, Latin Geminus Pons and Bipontum, French Deux-Ponts, all with the same meaning; the town was the capital of the former Imperial State of Palatinate-Zweibrücken owned by the House of Wittelsbach. The ducal castle is now occupied by the high court of the Palatinate. There is a fine Gothic Protestant church, Alexander's church, founded in 1493 and rebuilt in 1955. From the end of the 12th century, Zweibrücken was the seat of the County of Zweibrücken, the counts being descended from Henry I, youngest son of Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken; the line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard II, who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the Count Palatine of the Rhine, held the other half as his feudal domain. Louis, son of Stephen, founded the line of the counts palatine of Zweibrücken. In 1533, the count palatine converted Palatinate-Zweibrücken to the new Protestant faith.
In 1559, a member of the line, Duke Wolfgang, founded the earliest grammar school in the town, which lasted until 1987. When Charles X Gustav, the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, succeeded his cousin, Queen Christina of Sweden, on the Swedish throne, Palatinate-Zweibrücken was in personal union with Sweden, a situation that lasted until 1718. Starting in 1680, Louis XIV's Chambers of Reunion awarded Zweibruecken and other localities to France, but under the 1697 Treaty of Rijswijk, "The Duchy of Zweibruecken was restored to the King of Sweden, as Count Palatine of the Rhine."In 1731, Palatinate-Zweibrücken passed to the Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken branch of the counts palatine, from where it came under the sway of Bavaria in 1799. It was occupied by France in 1793 and on 4 November 1797, Zweibrücken became a canton centre in department of Mont Tonnerre. At the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, the French annexation of Zweibrücken was confirmed; the town of Zweibrücken became part of the Palatine region of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
At the ducal printing office at Zweibrücken the fine series of the classical editions known as the Bipontine Editions was published. The last prominent social event before the First World War was the inauguration of the Rosengarten by Princess Hildegard of Bavaria in June 1914; as a consequence of the First World War, Zweibrücken was occupied by French troops between 1918 and 1930. In the course of the Kristallnacht in 1938, Zweibrücken's synagogue was destroyed. On the outbreak of the Second World War the town was evacuated in 1939-1940, as it lay in the ‘Red Zone’ on the fortified Siegfried Line. Shortly before the end of the war, on 14 March 1945, the town was nearly destroyed in an air raid by the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the loss of more than 200 lives. On 20 March, American ground troops reached Zweibrücken; the town became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. In 1993, the town underwent a major change. With the departure of the Americans, the military area became free, which corresponded altogether to a third of the entire urban area.
Unemployment increased to 21%, leading to a decrease in demand in the retail trade of 25%. 1895–1904 Wolff 1905–1905 Freudenberg 1905–1932 Roesinger 1932–1945 Karl Ernst Collofong 1945–1959 Ignaz Roth 1959–1969 Oskar Munzinger 1969–1979 Helmut Fichtner 1980–1992 Werner von Blon 1993–1999 Hans Otto Streuber 1999–2004 Jürgen Lambert 2004–2012 Helmut Reichling 2012–2018 Kurt Pirmann since 2018 Marold Wosnitza Weaving and the manufacture of machinery, cigars, boots and soap were the chief industries before World War II. Nowadays Terex cranes and bulldozers and John Deere harvesting equipment are the chief industries; the Hochschule Kaiserslautern, one of the largest universities in the Rhineland-Palatinate, with more than 6,000 students is located in Zweibrücken. On the outskirts of the town, Zweibrücken Air Base was for many years home to U. S. airmen and their families. Prior to being a USAFE base, the base was operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force, it was known as part of # 1 Canadian Air Division with headquarters in Metz, France.
During the years 1953 to 1968, it was the home to 413, 427 and 434 Fighter Squadrons flying F-86 Sabre jets, 440 Squadron, which flew the CF-100 Canuck the CF-104 Starfighter. The RF-4C was stationed at Zweibruecken AB from the 1970s to 1991 under the 38th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron of the 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing; these were used in Desert Storm. The Short C-23 Sherpa, a small prop-driven transport plane flew out of the base in the 1980s under the 10th Military Airlift Squadron, a tenant Military Airlift Command unit; the squadron's mission was to deliver high-priority aircraft parts to bases in USAFE to ensure a maximum number of aircraft were combat-ready. Today Zweibrücken Air Base has been transformed into the modern Zweibrücken Airport, an international airport with flights to Palma de Mallorca, Gran Canaria, Rhodos and Fuerteventura, Istanbul On the other side of the town was Kreuzberg Kaserne, home to vari
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Bishopric of Speyer
The Bishopric of Speyer, or Prince-Bishopric of Speyer, was an ecclesiastical principality in what are today the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg. It was secularized in 1803; the prince-bishop resided in Speyer, a Free Imperial City, until the 14th century when he moved his residence to Uddenheim in 1723 to Bruchsal, in large part due to the tense relationship between successive prince-bishops and the civic authorities of the Free City Protestant since the Reformation. The prince-provostry of Wissemburg in Alsace was ruled by the prince-bishop of Speyer in a personal union; the bishopric of Speyer belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. One of the smallest principalities of the Holy Roman Empire, it consisted of more than half a dozen separate enclaves totalling about 28 German square miles on both sides of the Rhine, it included the towns of Bruchsal as well as Deidesheim, Herxheim bei Landau, Lauterburg. Around 1800 the bishopric included about 55,000 people.
A diocese of Speyer has existed since the 3rd or 4th century. It was first mentioned in historical documents in 614. Up to 748 it was a suffragant bishopric of the archdiocese of Trier, from until the secularisation of the prince-bishopric in 1803, of the archdiocese of Mainz; the history of the Bishopric of Speyer began at the latest in the late 7th century when the bishop of Speyer received royal domains in the neighboring Speyergau. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the diocese received additional lands, including gifts by emperor Otto I. In 1030 the building of the cathedral was begun. In 1061 the cathedral was consecrated. In 1086 emperor Henry IV granted the bishopric the remaining parts of the county of Speyergau. From 1111 the citizens of the city of Speyer began to loosen their bonds to the rulership of the bishop. In 1230 a Bürgermeister was mentioned for the first time. In 1294 Speyer became a Free Imperial City; the bishop moved his palace in 1371 to Udenheim. At the beginning of the 17th century bishop Philipp Christoph von Sötern expanded the fortress of Philippsburg.
The prince-bishops reigned from there from 1371 to 1723. Afterwards the prince-bishop moved his seat to Bruchsal. From 1681 to 1697, at the end of the War of the Grand Alliance, the fortress of Philippsburg on the left-bank went to France. In 1801/1802, the remaining left-bank territories of Speyer were conquered by French troops in the course of the French Revolution; the right-bank territories went to margraves of Baden. This ended the secular responsibilities of the bishop of Speyer; the secularized bishopric continued ecclesiastically as the Diocese of Speyer. The French part of the former prince-bishopric was divided between Bavaria and Hesse Darmstadt in 1815. For a list of prince-bishops, see Bishop of Speyer. Speyer Cathedral
Speyer Cathedral the Imperial Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption and St Stephen, in Latin: Domus sanctae Mariae Spirae in Speyer, Germany, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Speyer and is suffragan to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamberg. The cathedral, dedicated to St. Mary, patron saint of Speyer and St. Stephen is known as the Kaiserdom zu Speyer. Pope Pius XI raised Speyer Cathedral to the rank of a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church in 1925. Begun in 1030 under Konrad II, with the east end and high vault of 1090–1103, the imposing triple-aisled vaulted basilica of red sandstone is the "culmination of a design, influential in the subsequent development of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries"; as the burial site for Salian and Habsburg emperors and kings the cathedral is regarded as a symbol of imperial power. With the Abbey of Cluny in ruins, it remains the largest Romanesque church, it is considered to be "a turning point in European architecture", one of the most important architectural monuments of its time and one of the finest Romanesque monuments.
In 1981, the cathedral was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List of culturally important sites as "a major monument of Romanesque art in the German Empire". In 1025, Conrad II ordered the construction of the Christian Western world's largest church in Speyer, supposed to be his last resting place. Construction began 1030 on the site of a former basilica which stood on an elevated plateau right by the Rhine but safe from high water. Along with Santiago de Compostela, Cluny Abbey, Durham Cathedral, it was the most ambitious project of the time; the red sandstone for the building came from the mountains of the Palatine Forest and is thought to have been shipped down the channelled Speyerbach, a stream running from the mountains into the Rhine at Speyer. Neither Conrad II, nor his son Henry III, were to see the cathedral completed. Conrad II was buried in the cathedral while it was still under construction; the graves were placed in the central aisle in front of the altar. Nearly completed, the cathedral was consecrated in 1061.
This phase of construction, called Speyer I, consists of a Westwerk, a nave with two aisles and an adjoining transept. The choir was flanked by two towers; the original apse rectangular on the outside. The nave was covered with a flat wooden ceiling but the aisles were vaulted, making the cathedral the second largest vaulted building north of the Alps, it is considered to be the most stunning outcome of early Salian architecture and the "culmination of a design, influential in the subsequent development of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries". Around 1090, Conrad's grandson, Emperor Henry IV, conducted an ambitious reconstruction in order to enlarge the cathedral, he had the eastern sections demolished and the foundations enforced to a depth of up to eight metres. Only the lower floors and the crypt of Speyer I remained intact; the nave was elevated by five metres and the flat wooden ceiling replaced with a groin vault of square bays, one of the outstanding achievements of Romanesque architecture.
Each vault extends over two bays of the elevation. Every second pier was enlarged by adding a broad pilaster or dosseret, which formed a system of interior buttressing. Engaged shafts had appeared around 1030 in buildings along the Loire from where the technique spread to Normandy and the Rhineland; the only other contemporary example of such a bay system is in the church of San Vincente, Spain. The "double-bay system" of Speyer functioning as a support for the stone vaults was copied in many monuments along the Rhine; the addition of groin vaults made the incorporation of clerestory windows possible without weakening the structure. "The result is an interior of monumental power, albeit stark and prismatic when compared with contemporary French buildings, but one which conveys an impression of Roman gravitas, an impression singularly appropriate for a ruler with the political pretensions of Henry IV."In the course of these modifications the cathedral was equipped with an external dwarf gallery, an arcaded gallery recessed into the thickness of the walls, and, a natural development of the blind arcade.
Such blind arcades were used extensively as decorations, lining internal and external walls of many Romanesque churches. At the east end of Speyer Cathedral the dwarf gallery and the blind arcades were composed into "one of the most memorable pieces of Romanesque design"; the dwarf gallery encircles the top of the apse, underlining its rounded form, runs all around the structure below the roofline. This feature soon became a fundamental element in Romanesque churches. "The cathedral re-emerged in a more sculptural style typical of the prime of the Romanesque period." "The transept, the square of the choir, the apse, the central tower and the flanking towers were combined in a manner and size surpassing anything done before. All surfaces and edges rise without stages; the major elements within the combination remain independent.... Speyer became a model for many other church buildings but was unsurpassed in its magnificence."The expanded cathedral, Speyer II, was completed in 1106, the year of Henry's IV death.
With a length of 444 Roman feet and a width of 111 Roman feet it was one of the largest buildings of
Freising Bishops' Conference
The Freising Bishops' Conference was founded in 1850. In it the bishops of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in southern Bavaria, with the suffragans of Regensburg and Augsburg as well as the Franconia Archdiocese of Bamberg with the suffragans of Würzburg, Eichstätt and Speyer are represented; the bishops of these dioceses meet since 1867 twice a year at the Freising cathedral hill, its leader, the Archbishop of Munich and Freising. The territory of the diocese of Speyer, although now part of the federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, the boundaries of the Province of Bamberg are unchanged since 1920/1945 - with the exception of the assignment of Thuringia areas of the diocese of Würzburg in the diocese of Erfurt -, why the Palatinate canonically continues to be a part of Bavaria; the Freising Bishops' Conference has the mission to promote common pastoral duties to coordinate the church's work and provide a platform for mutual consultation. Unlike the German Bishops' Conference, supported by the Bavarian bishops in 1933, it has no decision making powers.
Würzburg Bishops' Conference http://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/artikel/artikel_44418 http://www.erzbistum-muenchen.de/Page000813.aspx