Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
West Midlands (Regional) League
It has three divisions, the highest of which is the Premier Division, which sits at step 6 of the National League System, or the tenth level of the overall English football league system. The league currently acts as a feeder to the Midland Football League Premier Division, approximately fifty teams compete in the league each season, with new members regularly joining from a number of lower, more local leagues. In the late 1880s, Birmingham and the region boasted many of the countrys strongest football teams. On 31 May 1889 a meeting place at Birminghams Grand Hotel with the view to forming a Birmingham & District League. A total of 17 clubs were invited but only 13 attended, of which 12 were selected to form the new league, the one club which sent a representative to the meeting but was not invited to take part in the league, for unknown reasons, was Worcester Rovers. Although Kidderminster Olympic topped the table, no championship was awarded as a number of fixtures had not been completed. A number of clubs which had enjoyed success in the Birmingham Combination also joined the league, the Combinations committee then attempted to re-open the merger talks but, having just bolstered its ranks with six new members, the League was not interested. A year later, all of the Combinations 14 remaining clubs, with the exception of West Bromwich Albions A team, left to join the League, which effectively absorbed its former rival. The 40 member clubs were split into Northern and Southern divisions, at the end of the 1957–58 season, Burton Albion and Nuneaton Borough left to join an expanding Southern League, followed a year later by Hinckley Athletic. In an attempt to consolidate the league decided to all remaining reserve teams. Four years later it changed its name to the West Midlands League to more accurately reflect its catchment area, for the 1965–66 season the league was able to revert to a two-division structure when it rebranded its existing single division the Premier Division and added a new Division One. By 1976, a flow of teams joining from smaller regional leagues led to Division One being split into Divisions One and One, revised a year later to Divisions One. The Alliance Premier League was formed in 1979, pushing the Regional League further down the English football league system, reflecting the demographics of the West Midlands area, a number of British Asian teams joined the league, including Sikh Hunters, Englands first ever all-Sikh team. The league currently has no title sponsor, previously it has been sponsored by Sport Italia, the Wolverhampton-based Express & Star newspaper, and Black Country brewery Bankss. In the 2014–15 season,55 teams are competing in the league, some of the teams in the lower two divisions are reserve teams of clubs playing at a higher level. Each division is contested on a double round-robin basis, with each playing each of the other teams in the division once at home. Three points are awarded for a win, one for a draw, goal difference is used to separate teams on the same points, having replaced goal average at the start of the 1978–79 season. Since the 1994–95 season the Regional League, along with the Midland Football Combination, has served as one of the two official feeders to the Midland Football Alliance
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media, electronics and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail, sea and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season. The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns, Vikings and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Bristol and Avon Association Football League
The Bristol and Avon Association Football League is a football competition based in England. In July 2011 the league expanded to two divisions, the Premier Division and Division One, but has since contracted back to just one division and it sits at level 21 of the English football league system, making it one of the lowest level leagues in the football pyramid. It is a feeder to the Bristol and District League and is affiliated to the Somerset County FA, in the 2015–16 season, Little Stoke United were the league champions. The league was founded as the Bristol Church of England Association Football League in the 1910–11 season and it had three divisions, Simons, St Werburghs and St Marks won the inaugural seasons titles. Among the clubs joined the league in those early years were Avonmouth St Andrews. In the 1960s the league had five senior and three divisions, in which the youth teams of local Football League clubs Bristol City. There were also a few clubs from South Gloucestershire such as RWP, Henfield Youth, the league adopted its current name in 1973. George – the Roman Glass section of the club Backwell United – now playing in the Somerset County League as Ashton & Backwell United, in addition the reserve side of Longwell Green Sports played in the Bristol & Avon League. Sun Life along with RWP have progressed to the Gloucestershire County League, Premier League and FA Cup Final referee Steve Dunn began his career in the league. The league used to hold their meetings in the old Temple Colston School in the centre of Bristol, the meetings were presided over by the late Jack Jenkins, a charismatic and forceful Chairman. Their names live on in the form of the cup competitions – the Jack Jenkins Memorial Cup. The leagues centenary dinner was held on 29 October 2010 at which Norman Hunter was the guest speaker, from 2002 until 2011 the league ran only one division but it was expanded again to two divisions for the 2011–12 season. The league would never again have as many as 111 teams, the full constitution for the league, as detailed in the 1965–66 League Handbook, was as follows, Division One Avon Athletic |Blagdon |B. R. S. A. |Castle Green |Congresbury |Dundry Athletic |Fishponds A |Hanham Forest |Harptree United |Henfield Youth |Kenegal United |Lakeside Sports |Lockleaze C. A, |Norton Hill Rangers |St. Pauls Division Two Badminton Road Methodist |Filwood Park |Hanham Mills |Henbury O. B. Reserves |Mardons Stoke Rangers |Nicholas Wanderers Reserves |Oldbury Court |Pilning Athletic |Redcliffe Bay |Russell Town |St. Gregorys Youth |St James |Staple Hill |Totterdown Y. M. C. A. |Waring United Division Three Argyle United |Arnside |Brentry Lodge |Bristol Corinthians |Downend Athletic |Eagle House |John Harveys |Knowle Methodist Y. C, |Maywood Athletic |Olveston United |Ridgeway Rovers |R. W. P. |St Bedes United |St Stephens Youth Club |Southcliffe United |Wyndham United Division Four Athletico |Clevedon Sports |Kingswood Rangers |Kingswood Y. C, |Made for Ever |Nicholas Wanderers Youth |Oldbury Court Reserves |Pilning Y. C. |Ridgeway Rovers Reserves |St. Ambrose Colts |Shaftesbury Crusade |Somerdale Y. C, Division Five Bedminster Road |Bristol Corinthians Reserves |Bristol Spartak |Broomhill Y. C
Clevedon Town F.C.
Clevedon Town Football Club are an English semi-professional football club based in the village of Kenn outside of Clevedon, Somerset. The club is affiliated to the Somerset County Football Association and is an FA chartered Standard club They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division, Clevedon FC was formed in 1880, making the club one of the oldest clubs in the West Country. They were founder members of the Western League in 1892 although their stay only lasted three seasons, after dropping back into local football they re-joined the Western League in the 1910–11 season. They initially played at Dial Hill, still the home of the cricket club, but they moved to a new site at Old Street in 1895. After the War the club returned to the Western League. However the club became known for their runs in the FA Amateur Cup. This cup success, however, was not matched in the league and Clevedon spent several years in Division 2 before resigning, for financial reasons, the clubs name was later changed to Clevedon Town to reflect their new status. Clevedon joined the ranks in 1974 when Ray Mabbutt, father of future Spurs star Gary Mabbutt became their first paid player. The 1980s also saw the club pick up their first Somerset Premier Cup in the 1986–87 season, the protest was upheld and the tie ordered to be replayed. In their first season at their new home in 1992–93, the gained promotion to the Southern League for the first time. Promotion to the Premier Division followed in 1998 and, although Town were relegated again in 2000–01, in 2006 they reached the first round proper of the FA Cup but went down 4–1 to Football League opposition Chester City. The club at the end of the 2009–10 season suffered relegation, Clevedon Town have a fierce rivalry with neighbours Weston-super-Mare, who are situated in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset. However, the rivalry has been put on the back-burner as of late since Weston-super-Mare was promoted to the Southern League Premier Division in 2002–03 after winning promotion at Clevedon Town 1–0, the two have not played in the same league since. Clevedon Town play their games at The Hand Stadium, Davis Lane, the Hand Stadium took its name from the Hand family, successive generations of which were involved in running the club for nearly 100 years. The facility includes a pitch, training facilities, a 300-seater stand, tiered terracing around the whole ground. The complex also includes function/conference facilities as well as Vibe, Clevedons only nightclub, the record attendance of the Hand Stadium is 2,261, when the club played Chester City in a First Round FA Cup tie on 11 November 2006. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players that have achieved success in other sports
Willand Rovers F.C.
Willand Rovers Football Club is a football club based in Willand, near Exeter, in Devon. They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division and play at the Stan Robinson Stadium, the club is affiliated to the Devon County Football Association Willand Rovers Football Club was formed in 1946, after the financial collapse of Willand Wanderers FC, during the Second World War. The club moved to their present home of The Stan Robinson Stadium, in the 1950s and were playing in the Devon and Exeter Football League. The club in 1990 was relegated to the Senior Division of the Devon, however, the club went back to the premier division for the 1991–92 season. For the start of the 1992–93 season they were among the members of the Devon League. They went on to win the winning that league twice before gaining promotion to the Western League Division One in 2001. Willand Rovers made it to the Les Phillips Cup Final in 2006, losing to Corsham Town and they reached the Fifth Round of the FA Vase in 2009–10. Willand Rovers play their games at The Stan Robinson Stadium, Silver Street, Willand, Cullompton. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, richard Pears Headley Steele Official Club website
Ashton & Backwell United F.C.
They are currently members of the Western League Division One and play at Backwell Recreation Ground. The club is affiliated to the Somerset County FA, the club was established in 1911 as Backwell United and played in various local leagues, although activities were suspended during both World Wars. At this time played in the Bristol Church of England League, progressing to the Bristol. This was denied, however, owing to the local authoritys refusal to grant planning permission for floodlights to be erected, the club went to appeal, which they won, and floodlights were in place for the 1993–94 season, allowing the club to progress to Premier Division football. Performance has been steady over the years and the first team reached the 5th round of the FA Vase in the 2004–05 season. For the 2005–06 season a change of manager and an exodus of experienced players resulted in a last-place finish and they first entered the FA Cup in the 1994–95 season. Ashton & Backwell United play their games at The Lancer Scott Stadium, West Town Road, Backwell, Somerset. Bristol City -3 July 2013, The Lancer Scott Stadium Note, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official Site Backwell United at the Football Club History Database