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Roman Martyrology

The Roman Martyrology is the official martyrology of the Catholic Church. Its use is obligatory in matters regarding the Roman Rite liturgy, but dioceses and religious institutes may add duly approved appendices to it, it provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII decreed a revision of the Julian calendar, creating a new system, now called, after him, the Gregorian calendar; the Roman Martyrology was first published in 1583. A second edition was published in the same year; the third edition, in 1584, was made obligatory. The main source was the Martyrology of Usuard, completed by the "Dialogues" of Pope Gregory I and the works of some of the Fathers, for the Greek saints by the catalogue known as the Menologion of Sirlet, its origins can be traced back to the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, based on calendars of Roman and Syrian provenance, but to which were added names of many saints from other areas, resulting in a number of duplications, fusions of different saints into one, other mistakes.

Soon, in 1586 and again in 1589, revised editions were published with corrections by Caesar Baronius along with indications of the sources on which he drew, in 1630 Pope Urban VIII issued a new edition. 1748 saw the appearance of a revised edition by Pope Benedict XIV, who worked on the corrections: he suppressed some names, such as those of Clement of Alexandria and Sulpicius Severus, but kept others, objected to, such as that of Pope Siricius. Subsequent changes until the edition of 2001 were minor, involving some corrections, but the addition of the names of newly canonized saints; the Second Vatican Council decreed: "The accounts of martyrdom or the lives of the saints are to accord with the facts of history." This required years of study, after which a revised edition of the Roman Martyrology was issued in Latin in 2001, followed in 2004 by a revision that corrected some typographical errors in the 2001 edition and added 117 people canonized or beatified between 2001 and 2004, as well as a considerable number of ancient saints not included in the previous edition.

"The updated Martyrology contains 7,000 saints and blesseds venerated by the Church, whose cult is recognized and proposed to the faithful as models worthy of imitation." As an official list of recognised saints and beati, inclusion in the Roman Martyrology authorises the recognition of saints in the following ways: On any weekday that admits celebration of the optional memorial of a saint, the Mass and the office may, if there is a good reason, be of any saint listed in the Martyrology for that day. A church building may be dedicated to a saint; such commemorations in honour of a person who has only been beatified are only permitted in the diocese or religious order where the cult of that person is authorised, unless special permission is obtained from the Holy See. The entry for each date in the Martyrology is to be read on the previous day. Reading in choir is recommended, but the reading may be done otherwise: in seminaries and similar institutes, it has been traditional to read it after the main meal of the day.

Prior to the Second Vatican Council, where the 1962 liturgical books are used as authorised by Summorum Pontificum, the Martyrology is read at the canonical Hour of Prime. If the Martyrology is read in the post-Vatican II form, this is done after the concluding prayer of Lauds, the Hour that preceded Prime. If the Martyrology is read outside of the Liturgy of the Hours, as for instance in the refectory, the reading begins with the mention of the date, optionally, by mention of the phase of the moon; the actual text of the Martyrology entry is read, ending with the versicle and response taken from Psalm 116: "Pretiosa in conspectu Domini – Mors Sanctorum eius". A short Scripture reading may follow, which the reader concludes with "Verbum Domini", to which those present respond: "Deo gratias". A prayer, for which texts are given in the Martyrology, is recited, followed by a blessing and dismissal. If the Martyrology is read within the Liturgy of the Hours, the same form is used, but without the optional Scripture reading.

Reading of the Martyrology is omitted during the Paschal Triduum, viz. Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday. On certain dates of the liturgical year, the Martyrology prescribes special announcements to be made before or after the commemoration of saints: On Christmas Eve, the long Proclamation of the Birth of Christ known as the Christmas Proclamation and the Kalenda, precedes the list of saints for December 25, as well as Mass. On Easter Sunday, the Martyrology not having been read during the Paschal Triduum, a proclamation of the Resurrection of Christ precedes the day's saints. General Roman Calendar List of Old Covenant saints in the Roman Martyrology Martyrology Version up to Benedict XIV's revisions

Dorothy G. Shepherd

Dorothy G. Payer Shepherd was a museum curator and historian specialising in medieval textiles and ancient Near Eastern and Islamic art. During the Second World War she served with the Monuments, Fine Arts, Archives program. Shepherd finished her undergraduate degree in Oriental Civilizations from the University of Michigan in 1939 and following this with a master's degree in 1940. In 1944 she was awarded her PhD from New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts. From 1942 to 1944 she worked as an assistant curator of decoration at what is now the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum. Between 1945 and 1947 she travelled to London, Luxembourg and Berlin with the Office of War Information for the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Division of the U. S. Military Government in Germany. After returning to the USA in 1947 Shepherd worked as the assistant curator of Textiles at the Cleveland Museum of Art. In 1954 she was promoted to the curator of textiles and Near Eastern art, a position she held until retiring in 1981.

She was one of few women museum curators in the United States in the 1960s. Shepherd taught Near Eastern art as adjunct professor at Case Western Reserve University. Shepherd published on medieval textiles, ancient Near Eastern and early Islamic art introducing to scholarship new acquisitions by her institutions, her foundational chapter on Sasanian art for the Cambridge History of Iran covers architecture, rock reliefs, textiles and glassware. An endowed fellowship at the Institute of Fine Arts is named in her memory. 1964 "Sasanian Art in Cleveland" The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 66-92 1966 “Iran Between East and West” in East and West in Art, edited by Theodore Bowie, pp. 84–105. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1983 "Sasanian Art" in The Cambridge History of Iran volume 3, edited by Ehsan Yarshater, chapter 29, pp. 1055–1112. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7

G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 7 is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase involved in phototransduction. This enzyme catalyses the phosphorylation of cone photopsins in retinal cones during high acuity color vision in the fovea. GRK7 is a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, is named G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7. GRK7 is found in mammalian retinal cone cells, where it phosphorylates light-activated photopsins, members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors that recognize light of various wavelengths. Phosphorylated, light-activated photopsin binds to the cone arrestin protein arrestin-4 to terminate the light-activated signaling cascade; the related GRK1 known as rhodopsin kinase, serves a similar function in retinal rod cells subserving dim light black-and-white peripheral vision outside the fovea. The post-translational modification of GRK7 by geranylgeranylation and α-carboxyl methylation is important for regulating the ability of the enzyme to recognize color opsins in cone outer segment disk membranes.

Arrestin-1 bound to rhodopsin in retinal rods prevents rhodopsin activation of the transducin protein to turn off photo-transduction completely. While cone visual transduction is much less well characterized, it is expected that arrestin-4 bound to GRK7-phosphorylated color photopsin prevents opsin activation of the transducin protein to turn off photo-transduction completely; this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

George Leslie Adkin

George Leslie Adkin was a New Zealand farmer, archaeologist, photographer and environmentalist. As an amateur scholar he made a significant contribution to the study of natural sciences in New Zealand. George Leslie Adkin, known as Leslie Adkin, was born in Wellington, New Zealand, the first child of seven of William George Adkin, a draper and his wife, Annie Denton; the Adkin family moved to Levin to farm and Leslie was to complete his schooling by boarding at Wellington College. During his time as a boarding student Adkin developed an interest in collecting plants and rocks and learnt to process his own photographs, his enthusiasm for photography never faltered during his lifetime and his large collection of negatives form a visual diary of his life and activities. After completing secondary school Adkin returned to the family farm in Levin, he combined his interest in geology with tramping and explored the Tararua ranges making the first recorded crossing from Levin to Masterton. His maternal grandfather, George Denton, introduced him to the Wellington Philosophical Society and from 1910 he began to submit papers.

His second paper recorded his belief that the five high Tararua valleys had been formed by glaciation. The debate this paper only served to encourage Adkin and he became more meticulous in his research. In 1913 Adkin took over part of his father's farm. Adkin married Elizabeth Maud Herd, an accomplished violinist and painter, on 14 December 1914, they went on to have two children and Clyde. Adkin continued to record his family life in his photography. Although farming was his main occupation he continued to explore and helped start up the Levin-Waiopehu Tramping Club; when the sport of tramping became popular in the 1920s he became the acknowledged authority on the northern Tarauas. Adkin continued his research into geology but discoveries of archeological sites led him into archeology and ethnology. In 1926, Adkin provided photographs for Te Hekenga, an account of Māori life in Horowhenua and with the help of local Māori, he described and mapped hundreds of Māori sites between the Manawatu and Otaki rivers.

Adkin followed the advice of a close friend, Elsdon Best, joined the Polynesian Society and contributed his ethnological articles to the Polynesian Society Journal. When Adkin's son, took over the farm in 1946, Adkin moved to Wellington and joined the New Zealand Geological Survey, he in Wellington, where he produced bibliographies and papers on the geomorphology of the southern North Island. His 1948 book, gave accounts of Horowhenua place names and controversial essays about the history of New Zealand's Māori occupation. Adkin was a passionate environmentalist, he was an early critic of bush-felling on the uplands and recognised the threat of newly emergy earthmoving technology to both natural and archeological sites. He served in many organisations that contributed to the rise of the New Zealand conservation movement including the Levin Native Flora Club, the New Zealand Ecological Society, The Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand and the National Historic Places Trust. Adkin died at Wellington on 21 May 1964.

His photographic negatives, extensive diaries and archeological artifacts are held by the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa while his albums, manuscripts and drawings are held by the Alexander Turnbull Library. Dreaver, Anthony.'Adkin, George Leslie 1888 - 1964'. Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 22 June 2007 National Library of New Zealand Online Exhibition Self-Taught Scientists Works associated with George Leslie Adkin in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

Chicken Divan

Chicken Divan is a chicken casserole served with broccoli and Mornay sauce. It was named after the place of its invention, the Divan Parisien Restaurant in the New York City Chatham Hotel where it was served as the signature dish in the early twentieth century, its creator was a chef named Lagasi. In French, the word divan refers to great hall; the dish is now prepared with regular Parmesan cheese and remains one of the most classic American casserole dishes today. A "quick" version can be made with prepared mayonnaise and canned soup; some versions are topped in a manner similar to that of funeral potatoes. says it "was made by the chefs of the Divan Parisien restaurant of the New York Chatham Hotel. It is considered that the dish was given this name to imply elegance and attract attention of the restaurant's owners, it was a signature dish of the restaurant in the early twentieth century, though the exact chefs who contributed to its making are not known. But we do know the chef, his name was Anthony Lagasi, he received an award from the hotel for the creation of the dish."

List of casserole dishes List of regional dishes of the United States

European route E27

The European route E27 is a road in Europe, part of the United Nations International E-road network, running from Belfort, France to Aosta, Italy. Between these two cities, most of the route passes through French-speaking Switzerland, including a section along the eastern shore of the Lake Geneva, a mountain section that peaks at just above 1,900 metres in the Great St Bernard Tunnel. Much of the route has not been upgraded to autoroute quality. However, major improvements in recent years have occurred in the region of the Franco-Swiss frontier and on the continuation to Delémont, with further extension of the motorway section south of Delémont ongoing. Progress is slow because of the mountainous terrain. Apart from the Swiss capital, the towns and cities linked by the E27 tend to be medium sized or smaller. Much of route is dominated by mountainous landscapes, with a correspondingly high profile tourist trade: mountain valley agriculture or viticulture are in evidence where the topography permits.

Several sections of the E27 are more than averagely occupied by tunnels and viaducts