Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Eastern Orthodox and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Majority of historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes. Several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they lack precision, are too general, or are outdated.
These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts political scientists, as the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". While the eastern geographical boundaries of Europe are well defined, the boundary between Eastern and Western Europe is not geographical but historical and cultural; the Ural Mountains, Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains are the geographical land border of the eastern edge of Europe. In the west, the historical and cultural boundaries of "Eastern Europe" are subject to some overlap and, most have undergone historical fluctuations, which makes a precise definition of the western geographic boundaries of Eastern Europe and the geographical midpoint of Europe somewhat difficult; the East–West Schism divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Western Europe according to this point of view is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. Eastern Europe is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, like Belarus, Greece, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of 4 decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic; the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East-West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media or sometimes for statistical purposes.
Another definition was used during the 40 years of Cold War between 1947 and 1989, was more or less synonymous with the terms Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, has entries for "23 EU languages", plus the languages of candidate countries. Of these, those in italics are classified as "Eastern Europe" in this source. UNESCO, EuroVoc, National Geographic Society, Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, STW Thesaurus for Economics place the Baltic states in Northern Europe, whereas the CIA World Factbook places the region in Eastern Europe with a strong assimilation to Northern Europe, they are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight regional cooperation forum whereas Central European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group.
The Northern Future Forum, the Nordic Investment Bank, the Nordic Battlegroup, the Nordic-Baltic Eight and the New Hanseatic League are other examples of Northern European cooperation that includes the three countries collectively referred to as the Baltic states. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations of Armenia and Georgia are included in definitions or histories of Eastern Europe, they are located in the transition zone of Western Asia. They participate in the European Union's Eastern Partnership program, the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, are members of the Council of Europe, which specifies that all three have
Baron Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, better known as Julius Evola, was an Italian philosopher and esotericist. He has been described as a "fascist intellectual," a "radical traditionalist," "antiegalitarian, antiliberal and antipopular," and as having been "the leading philosopher of Europe's neofascist movement."Evola is popular in fringe circles because of his extreme metaphysical and supernatural beliefs, his extreme traditionalism and misogyny. He himself termed his philosophy "magical idealism." Many of Evola's theories and writings were centered on his hostility toward Christianity and his idiosyncratic mysticism and esoteric religious studies, this aspect of his work has influenced occultists and esotericists. Evola justified rape because he saw it "as a natural expression of male desire." This misogynistic outlook stemmed from his extreme right views on gender roles, which demanded absolute submission from women. According to the scholar Franco Ferraresi, "Evola's thought can be considered one of the most radical and consistent anti-egalitarian, anti-liberal, anti-democratic, anti-popular systems in the twentieth century.
It is a singular blend of several schools and traditions, including German idealism, Eastern doctrines and the all-embracing Weltanschauung of the interwar conservative revolutionary movement with which Evola had a deep personal involvement". Historian Aaron Gillette described Evola as "one of the most influential fascist racists in Italian history", he admired SS head Heinrich Himmler. Evola spent World War II working for the Sicherheitsdienst. During his trial in 1951, Evola denied being a fascist and instead referred to himself as a "superfascist". Concerning this statement, historian Elisabetta Cassina Wolff wrote that "It is unclear whether this meant that Evola was placing himself above or beyond Fascism". Evola was the "chief ideologue" of Italy's radical right after World War II, he continues to influence contemporary neo-fascist movements. Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola was born in Rome to a minor aristocratic family of Sicilian origins, he was a baron. Little is known about his early upbringing except.
Evola studied engineering in Rome, but did not complete his studies because he "did not want to be associated in any way with bourgeois academic recognition and titles such as doctor and engineer."In his teenage years, Evola immersed himself in painting—which he considered one of his natural talents—and literature, including Oscar Wilde and Gabriele d'Annunzio. He was introduced to philosophers such as Otto Weininger. Other early philosophical influences included Max Stirner. Evola served in World War I as an artillery officer on the Asiago plateau, he was attracted to the avant-garde and after the war, Evola associated with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's Futurist movement. He became a prominent representative of Dadaism in Italy through his painting and collaboration on the published journal, Revue Bleue. In 1922, after concluding that avant-garde art was becoming commercialized and stiffened by academic conventions, he reduced his focus on artistic expression such as painting and poetry. Evola died on 11 June 1974 in Rome.
In 1928, Evola wrote an attack on Christianity titled Pagan Imperialism, which proposed transforming fascism into a system consistent with ancient Roman values and the ancient mystery traditions. Evola proposed that fascism should be a vehicle for reinstating the caste system and aristocracy of antiquity. Although Evola invoked the term "fascism" in this text, his diatribe against the Catholic Church was criticized by both the fascist regime and the Vatican itself. A. James Gregor argued that the text was an attack on fascism as it stood at the time of writing, but noted that Benito Mussolini made use of it in order to threaten the Vatican with the possibility of an "anti-clerical fascism". On account of Evola's sentiment, the Vatican-backed right wing Catholic journal Revue Internationale des Sociétés Secrètes published an article in April 1928 entitled "Un Sataniste Italien: Julius Evola."The Mystery of the Grail discarded Christian interpretations of the Holy Grail. Evola wrote that the Grail "symbolizes the principle of an immortalizing and transcendent force connected to the primordial state...
The mystery of the Grail is a mystery of a warrior initiation." He held that the Ghibellines, who fought the Guelph for control of Northern and Central Italy in the thirteenth century, had within them the residual influences of pre-Christian Celtic and Nordic traditions that represented his conception of the Grail myth. He held that the Guelph victory against the Ghibellines represented a regression of the castes, since the merchant caste took over from the warrior caste. In the epilogue to this text, Evola argued that the fictitious The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, regardless of whether it was authentic or not, was a cogent representation of modernity; the historian Richard Barber said, "Evola mixes rhetoric, prejudice and politics into a strange version of the present and future, but in the process he brings together for the first time interest in the esoteric and in conspiracy theory which characterize much of the Grail literature." In The Doctrine of Awakening, Evola argued that the Pāli Canon could be held to represent true Buddhism.
His interpretation of Buddhism is. He believed that Buddhism revealed the essence of an "Aryan" tradition that had become corrupt
The Floralia was a festival in ancient Roman religious practice in honor of the goddess Flora, held April 27 during the Republican era, or April 28 in the Julian calendar. The festival included the "Games of Flora" which lasted for six days under the empire; the festival had a pleasure-seeking atmosphere. In contrast to many festivals which had a patrician character, the games of Flora were plebeian in nature. Flora is one of the most ancient goddesses of Roman religion and was one of fifteen deities to have her own state-supported high priest, the flamen Florialis. A goddess of flowers and fertility, she received sacrifices in the sacred grove of the Arval Brothers, an archaic priesthood, her altar at Rome was said to have been established by the Sabine king Titus Tatius during the semi-legendary Regal period. Flusalis was a month on the Sabine calendar, Varro counted Flora among the Sabine deities; the Temple of Flora was built in Rome upon consultation with the Sibylline Books shortly after a drought that occurred around 241–238 BCE.
The temple was located near the Circus Maximus on the lower slope of the Aventine Hill, a site associated with the plebeians of Rome. Games were instituted for the founding day of the temple, were held only until continued crop damage led to their annual celebration beginning in 173. Flora Rustica had another temple on the Quirinal Hill, the Temple of Flora Rustica, which may have been the location of the altar erected by Tatius; the games of Flora were presented by the plebeian aediles and paid for by fines collected when public lands were encroached upon. Cicero mentions his role in organizing games for Flora when he was aedile in 69 BCE; the festival opened with theatrical performances, concluded with competitive events and spectacles at the Circus and a sacrifice to Flora. In 68 CE, the entertainments at the Floralia presented under the emperor Galba featured a tightrope-walking elephant. Prostitutes participated in the Floralia as well as the wine festival on April 23. According to the satirist Juvenal, prostitutes fought in mock gladiator combat.
Many prostitutes in ancient Rome were slaves, free women who worked as prostitutes lost their legal and social standing as citizens, but their inclusion at religious festivals indicates that sex workers were not outcast from society. Ovid says that hares and goats—animals considered fertile and salacious—were ceremonially released as part of the festivities. Persius says that the crowd was pelted with vetches and lupins symbols of fertility. In contrast to the Cerealia, when white garments were worn, multi-colored clothing was customary. There may have been nocturnal observances, since sources mention measures taken to light the way after the theatrical performances. A rite called the Florifertum is described by one source as involving the bearing of wheat ears into a shrine, it is unclear whether the offering was made to Flora or to Ceres, or whether if made to Flora it occurred on April 27 or May 3. Ovid describes a florifertum in honor of Juno Lucina on March 1, a date celebrated as the dies natalis of Mars in whose conception Flora played a role.
May Queen Rosalia, a festival of roses celebrated throughout the Roman Empire Encyclopædia Romana: Floralia
Caucasian Neopaganism is a category including movements of modern revival of the autochthonous religions of the indigenous peoples of the Caucasus. It has been observed by scholar Victor Schnirelmann among the Abkhaz and the Circassians; the Abkhaz native religion, or Abkhaz Neopaganism, is the contemporary Neopagan re-emergence of the ethnic religion of the Abkhaz people in Abkhazia, a revitalisation which started in the 1980s. The most important holy sites of the religion are the Seven Shrines of Abkhazia, each one having its own priestly clan, where rituals and prayers began to be solemnly restored from the 1990s onward. According to the 2003 census, 8% of the population of Abkhazia adheres to Abkhaz Paganism. On the 3rd of August 2012 the Council of Priests of Abkhazia was formally constituted in Sukhumi; the possibility to make the Abkhaz native religion one of the state religions was discussed in the following months. Adyghe Habze Circassian Habze or "Habza" spelled "Khabze" or "Khabza" called Habzism, defines the Pagan ethnic religion and worldview of the Adyghe or Circassians, an ethnic group of North Caucasian stock inhabiting areas of Caucasia: the republic of Adygea, the bordering republics of Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria, all three within the domains of Russia.
The Adyghe native religion was influenced by Hellenic religion and philosophy at the time of Greek colonisation in the Caucasus. The belief system takes its name from the homonymous Circassian epic Adyghe Habze orally transmitted, which has contributed to the shaping of Adyghe values over the centuries. Although Islamised, the period of the Soviet Union contributed to a severe weakening of Islam in the area, among the Adyghe-Circassians. With the fall of the Soviet regime, the revival of Habzism as a Neopagan phenomenon was supported by Adyghe intellectuals as part of a rise in nationalism and cultural identity in the 1990s, more as a thwarting force against Wahhabism and Islamic fundamentalism; the movement has developed a following in Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria, according to 2012 statistics. On 29 December 2010 a prominent Kabard-Circassian ethnographer and Habze advocate, Arsen Tsipinov, was killed by radical Muslims, who warned him months earlier to stop publicizing the rituals of the original Circassian Pagan faith.
Vainakh religion Baltic Neopaganism Ossetian Neopaganism Slavic Neopaganism Uralic Neopaganism Schnirelmann, Victor: “Christians! Go home”: A Revival of Neo-Paganism between the Baltic Sea and Transcaucasia. Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2002. Т. М. Катанчиев. Адыгэ кхабзэ как кабардинское обыхное право. Эль-Фа, 2001 Habze Portal Circassian Association of California Adyghe Khasa
Zalmoxianism or Zamolxianism is a Neopagan movement in Romania which promotes the rebuilding of an ethnic religion and spirituality of the Romanians through a process of reconnection to their ancient Dacian and Thracian roots. The religion takes its name from Zalmoxis or Zamolxe, at the same time the name of the primordial god and the archetype of the enlightened man in Paleo-Balkan mythology. Scholars Bakó and Hubbes have defined Zalmoxianism, like the other ethnic religious revivals of Europe, as a reconstructionist ethno-paganism; the reconstruction of ancient Dacian and Thracian religion and mythology has been connected with the field of dacology. Amongst contemporary supporters of Zalmoxianism, the emigrant dacologist Octavian Sărbătoare proposed to make it the official religion of Romania; the "Gebeleizis Association", though far from being the only Zalmoxian group in Romania, has been the most studied formation. It has 500 members split into 15 branches; the core values of the organisation are expressed by its motto "One Family, One Nation, One Territory".
"Gebeleizis" was the same as Zalmoxis among the Thracians. Another group is the Zamolxe, based in Bucharest, they worship the old Thraco-Dacian pantheon of gods, claim that the name "Zalmoxis" comes from zamol, meaning "earth". Hungarian Neopaganism Slavic Neopaganism Protochronism László-Attila Hubbes. Romanian Ethno-Paganism: Discourses of Nationalistic Religion in Virtual Space. In Native Faith and Neo-Pagan Movements in Eastern Europe. Kaarina Aitamurto, Scott Simpson. Acumen Publishing, 2013. ISBN 1844656624 Rozália Klára Bakó, László-Attila Hubbes. Religious Minorities' Web Rhetoric: Romanian and Hungarian Ethno-Pagan Organizations. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, vol. 10, issue 30, Winter 2011: 127-158. ISSN 1583-0039 Societatea Gebeleizis Spiritualitate Daco-Românească Octavian Sarbatoare; the Foundations of Zamolxiana New Religious Movement, 2014. ISBN 9780992446819
Adonism is a Neopagan religion founded in 1925 by the German esotericist Franz Sättler, who went by the pseudonym of Dr. Musalam. Although Sättler claimed that it was the continuation of an ancient pagan religion, it has been recognised by academics as being "instead the single-handed creation of a gifted and educated man", this figure being Sättler himself. Adonism is a polytheistic religion, revolving around a belief that there are five principal gods: Belus, Adonis and Molchos. Adonis is the most prominent of these in the group's theology, being a benevolent figure that Sättler equated with the Christian figure of Satan. In contrast to Adonis, Molchos is believed by Adonists to be malevolent, to be responsible for the enslavement of humanity through monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Islam: the religion therefore has "a pronounced anti-Christian bias". Born into the Bohemian region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Sättler proved himself to be a talented linguist, gaining a doctorate in the subject and publishing the world's first Persian-German dictionary.
Subsequently travelling across much of Europe, he was imprisoned by the French during the First World War, where he first came across Theosophy and the occult, topics which interested him. Becoming an intelligence agent for the Czechoslovak government, he was again arrested and imprisoned, this time in Germany, whilst imprisoned here he began formulating some of his esoteric ideas and writing books on the subject. Released in the mid-1920s, he went on to begin propagating Adonism through the foundation of his Adonistic Society. Sättler would face legal trouble and a public scandal due to his beliefs in the 1930s, leading to him renaming the Society the Alliance of Orion, before it was shut down by the Nazi government in 1939. Sättler himself disappeared in the early years of the following decade, with some believing that he was executed by the Nazi authorities. Scholar Hans Thomas Hakl stated that "The influence of Adonism... on the German magical scene is substantial. It influenced the German magus Friedrich Wilhelm Quintscher... and the Fraternitas Saturni, the most interesting occult fraternity in modern Germany".
Many of the group's adherents have claimed that Adonism was an influence on the German magician Franz Bardon, although this remains debatable as Bardon's magical beliefs differed to "a noticeable degree". Hakl would compare Sättler with two of his contemporaries in the European occult movement of the early twentieth century, the Englishman Aleister Crowley and the Armenian George Gurdjieff, but noted that he never received the posthumous fame that these two experienced. Sättler erroneously claimed that Adonism was an ancient religion, followed by the Chaldeans, Persians and Greeks, he made the claim that it survived in part amongst the Yezidis of the Middle East, among the people of Nuristan. It was in this latter city that he claimed that there was a large temple, the "Bit Nur", where he claimed the original ancient Adonist scriptures were kept. Other than Sättler’s claims however, there is no evidence that Nuristan or the Bit Nur have existed. Sättler claimed that it was in this temple that he first learned about Adonism, where he was given the name of Dr Mussalam.
Adonism is a polytheistic religion, believing in a number of different gods, of which there are five principal deities. Adonists believe that the first two of these were the primordial god Belus and his consort Biltis, that they emerged from Chaos. According to Adonistic beliefs and Biltis had a child, a malevolent deity and who created a world populated with deformed monsters. Adonis created our world, basing humanity upon the likeness of both himself and his sister, however Molchos killed Adonis out of jealousy, taking control of the world. Being resurrected by Dido, Adonis went on to try to protect humanity from Molchos' machinations, for instance telling one human, a man called Noah, to build a wooden ark to save him and the other animal species from the Great Flood. Molchos, was not finished in his attempts to harm humanity. Aside from attacking them with plagues and sickness, he sent false prophets such as Moses, Zarathustra and Muhammad to convert people to his monotheistic worship under such names as Jehovah and Allah.
Within these religions that venerate Molchos, such as Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam, Adonists believe that Adonis, the creator and benefactor of humanity was demonised as such figures as Satan and Iblis. Through the domination of these monotheistic religions, Adonists believe that Molchos maintained control of the world, but that in 2000 CE, Adonis will face Molchos in a final battle, defeating him and bringing about a Golden Age, which will last until the universe is once more subsumed under Chaos; the primary way in which Adonis and Dido are celebrated in Adonistic religious practice is by the sensual enjoyment of sexual intercourse, both of the heterosexual and homosexual varieties. Indeed, Sättler summarised his faith by remarking that "Adonism is worship of the Devil with an erotic background." He was therefore a prominent proponent of sexual reform in early nineteenth-century Germany, holding to beliefs that would be accepted in the last decades of that century. Adonism holds to a great belief in tolerance for other