Military in Vatican City
The Vatican City State is a neutral nation, which has not engaged in any war since its formation in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty. It has no formal military compact or agreement with neighbouring Italy, although responsibility for defending the Vatican City from an international aggressor is to lie with the Italian Armed Forces. Although the Vatican City State has never been at war, its forces were exposed to military aggression when it was bombed during World War II, whilst defending Vatican property in Rome during the same conflict. Although the former Papal States were defended by a large Papal Army, a majority of these forces were disbanded when the Papal States ceased to exist in 1870. Prior to the disbandment, the Esercito Pontificio comprised two regiments of locally recruited Italian infantry, two Swiss regiments, a battalion of Irish volunteers and dragoons, plus the international Catholic volunteer corps the Papal Zouaves, formed in 1861 to oppose Italian unification. Following defeat and abolition of the States by the Kingdom of Italy, four small Papal units were retained, but restricted their activity to the Vatican in Rome.
Upon the 1929 formation of the Vatican City State, a unique form of sovereignty was defined. Under this agreement sovereignty is vested in the much more ancient Holy See, an ecclesiastical jurisdiction; the Vatican City State has never had independent armed forces, but it has always had a de facto military provided by the armed forces of the Holy See: the Pontifical Swiss Guard, the Noble Guard, the Palatine Guard, the Papal Gendarmerie Corps. In practical terms, these armed forces have operated chiefly within the Vatican City State and the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo, not in the many other extraterritorial properties of the Holy See, except during the time of World War Two when troops of the Palatine Guard were deployed to all Papal properties in and around Rome; as part of a major reform in 1970 by Pope Paul VI, two of the units were disbanded, one was retained, one was restructured into a civilian police service. The Palatine Guard was formed in 1850 by Pope Pius IX, through amalgamation of two older units of the Papal Army.
The corps was formed as an infantry unit. It saw active service during the token resistance to the occupation of Rome by Italian government troops in 1870, it survived into the period of the Vatican City State, as a de facto Vatican military unit from 1929 to 1970. In September 1943, when German troops occupied Rome in response to Italy's conclusion of an armistice with the Allies, the Palatine Guard was charged with protecting Vatican City, various Vatican properties in Rome, the pope's summer villa at Castel Gandolfo; the guardsmen patrolled the walls and courtyards of Vatican City, stood guard at the entrances to papal buildings around Rome. On more than one occasion this service resulted in violent confrontations with Italian fascist police units working with the German authorities to arrest political refugees who were hiding in buildings protected by the Vatican. In September 1939 the Palatine Guard numbered 500 men; the Corps returned to its smaller size, to chiefly ceremonial duties. It was abolished on 14 September 1970 by Pope Paul VI.
The Noble Guard was formed in 1801 by Pope Pius VII. The regiment was formed as a heavy cavalry unit, it was part of the Pope's personal guard, providing a mounted escort for the Pope when he travelled in his carriage. The Guard performed special missions within the Papal States until their abolition, continued to function at the Vatican with a limited mounted escort role, it survived into the period of the Vatican City State, as a de facto Vatican military unit from 1929 to 1970. During World War Two members of the unit mounted guard outside the papal apartments by night and day, guardsmen armed with pistols provided close protection to Pope Pius XII when he took his daily walks in the Vatican Gardens. During its period as a Vatican City State military unit, the Noble Guard never numbered above 70 men, apart from the wartime period it performed chiefly ceremonial duties; as its membership was drawn from families of noble origin it came to be seen as elitist, it was abolished on 14 September 1970 by Pope Paul VI.
The Pontifical Swiss Guard was formed in 1506 by Pope Julius II. The unit was formed as the personal bodyguard of the Pope. At various points in its history the Swiss Guard has seen active service, but following the 1870 abolition of the Papal States it returned to its chief role as a bodyguard, with a limited ceremonial role, survived into the period of the Vatican City State, as a de facto Vatican military unit from 1929; the Swiss Guard continues to fulfil the bodyguard function, provides security at the Apostolic Palace and the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo. In cooperation with the Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City it controls access to the entrances to the city-state. Since the attempted assassination of the Pope in 1981 the Swiss Guard has undertaken more rigorous training, a far more active
Secretariat of State (Holy See)
The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the central papal governing bureaucracy of the Catholic Church. It is headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State and performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See; the Secretariat is divided into three sections, the Section for General Affairs, the Section for Relations with States, since 2017, the Section for Diplomatic Staff. The origins of the Secretariat of State go back to the fifteenth century; the apostolic constitution Non Debet Reprehensibile of 31 December 1487 established the Secretaria Apostolica comprising twenty-four Apostolic Secretaries, one of whom bore the title Secretarius Domesticus and held a position of pre-eminence. One can trace to this Secretaria Apostolica the Chancery of Briefs, the Secretariat of Briefs to Princes and the Secretariat of Latin Letters. Pope Leo X established another position, the Secretarius Intimus, to assist the Cardinal who had control of the affairs of State and to attend to correspondence in languages other than Latin, chiefly with the Apostolic Nuncios.
From these beginnings, the Secretariat of State developed at the time of the Council of Trent. For a long time, the Secretarius Intimus called Secretarius Papae or Secretarius Maior, was always a prelate endowed with episcopal rank, it was only at the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent X that someone a Cardinal and not a member of the Pope's family was called to this high office. Pope Innocent XII definitively abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew, the powers of that office were assigned to the Cardinal Secretary of State alone. On 19 July 1814, Pope Pius VII established the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, expanding the Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum established by Pius VI in 1793. With the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio of 29 June 1908, Saint Pius X divided the Sacred Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in the form fixed by the Codex Iuris Canonici of 1917 and he specified the duties of each of the three sections: the first was concerned with extraordinary affairs, while the second attended to the ordinary affairs, the third, until an independent body, had the duty of preparing and dispatching pontifical Briefs.
With the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae of 15 August 1967, Pope Paul VI reformed the Roman Curia, implementing the desire expressed by the bishops in the Second Vatican Council. This gave a new face to the Secretariat of State, suppressing the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs the third section, transforming the former first section, the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, into a body distinct from the Secretariat of State, though related to it, to be known as the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. On 28 June 1988, John Paul II promulgated the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, which introduced a reform of the Roman Curia and divided the Secretariat of State into two sections: the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, which incorporated the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. Pope Francis added a third unit, the Section for Diplomatic Staff, in November 2017; the head of the Secretariat of State is the Secretary of State, a cardinal.
The Cardinal Secretary of State is responsible for the diplomatic and political activity of the Holy See, in some circumstances representing the Pope himself. The Section for General Affairs handles the normal operations of the Church including organizing the activities of the Roman Curia, making appointments to curial offices, publishing official communications, papal documents, handling the concerns of embassies to the Holy See, keeping the papal seal and Fisherman's Ring. Abroad, the Section for General Affairs is responsible for organizing the activities of nuncios around the world in their activities concerning the local church; the Section for General Affairs is headed by an archbishop known as the Substitute for General Affairs, or more formally, Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State. The current Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State is Archbishop Edgar Peña Parra. There have been 10 substitutes since 1953: Nicola Canali Federico Tedeschini Giovanni Battista Montini Angelo Dell'Acqua Giovanni Benelli Giuseppe Caprio Eduardo Martínez Somalo Edward Idris Cassidy Giovanni Battista Re Leonardo Sandri Fernando Filoni Giovanni Angelo Becciu Edgar Peña Parra The deputy to the Substitute for General Affairs deputy chief of staff, is called the Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State.
The current Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State is Monsignor Paolo Borgia. Eduardo Martínez Somalo Giovanni Battista Re Crescenzio Sepe Leonardo Sandri James Michael Harvey Pedro Lopez Quintana Gabriele Giordano Caccia Peter Bryan Wells Paolo Borgia (4 March
Alperin v. Vatican Bank
Alperin v. Vatican Bank was an unsuccessful class action suit by Holocaust survivors brought against the Vatican Bank and the Franciscan Order filed in San Francisco, California on November 15, 1999; the case was dismissed as a political question by the District Court for the Northern District of California in 2003, but was reinstated in part by the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 2005. That ruling attracted attention as a precedent at the intersection of the Alien Tort Claims Act and the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act. Part of the complaint against the IOR was dismissed in 2007 on the basis of sovereign immunity, the remainder of the claim against that defendant was dismissed on the ground that the property claim had no nexus to the United States, a decision confirmed in February 2010 by the Ninth Circuit; the case against the Franciscan Order, who by were the sole defendants, ended in March 2011 when the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court's judgment dismissing the claim, the case was not appealed further.
No part of the claim, therefore came to trial and none of the plaintiffs' allegations of fact were established in Court. The factual background as alleged in the claim was that Ustaše hiding in the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome brought a large amount of looted gold with them and that it was moved to other Vatican extraterritorial property and/or the Vatican Bank. Although this gold would be worth hundreds of thousands of 2008 US dollars, it constituted only a small percentage of the gold looted during World War II by the Nazis. According to Phayer, "top Vatican personnel would have known the whereabouts of the gold", but he gives no evidence that they did, nor does he name any; the lawsuit was made possible by a 1997 executive order of U. S. President Bill Clinton that directed all branches of the US government to open their World War II records to scrutiny; the order came in the aftermath of evidence that Swiss banks were destroying evidence of deposit records by Jews. Fourteen European nations and Argentina followed suit, but Vatican City did not.
Much of the evidence that has come to light since the executive order was not available to the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold before it disbanded, although Yugoslavia was among the recipients of restitution. The class action was brought on behalf of "all Serbs and former Soviet Union citizens, who suffered" at the hands of the Ustaše; the named plaintiffs claimed to be victims of personal or property crimes committed by the Ustaše. Four organizations that represent holocaust survivors or human rights issues were named as plaintiffs. Surviving victims of the Ustaše and their next of kin living in California brought a class action suit against the Vatican bank and others in US federal court, Alperin v. Vatican Bank. However, the total potential class, if the Court had recognised the claim, would have included "over 300,000 former slave and forced laborers, concentration camp, ghetto survivors". Causes of action included "conversion, unjust enrichment, the right to an accounting, human rights violations and violations of international law".
Subject-matter jurisdiction was asserted under federal law, California state law, international law, common law. According to plaintiffs, defendants "accepted, hypothecated, retained and profited from assets looted by the Ustasha Regime during April 1941 through May 1945 and deposited in, or converted, hypothecated, credited, exchanged, laundered or liquidated through, the IOR, OFM after the demise of the NDH-Independent State of Croatia in May 1945. 2007 U. S. Dist. LEXIS 95529, ND CA 2007; the Vatican bank was said to have laundered and converted "the Ustaša treasury, making deposits in Europe and North and South American, distributing the funds to exiled Ustaša leaders including Pavelić". Since the case was dismissed at a preliminary stage, these claims were never proved. A principal piece of evidence against the Vatican was to have been the "Bigelow dispatch", a October 16, 1946 dispatch from Emerson Bigelow in Rome to Harold Glasser, the director of monetary research for the U. S. Treasury Department.
Former OSS agent William Gowen made a deposition as an expert witness that in 1946 Colonel Ivan Babić transported 10 truckloads of gold from Switzerland to the Pontifical College. The plaintiffs sought an accounting and restitution of the Ustaše Treasury that, according to the US State Department, had been transferred illicitly to the Vatican, the Franciscan Order and other banks after the end of the war, in order to further the goals of the Ustaše regime in exile and fund the Vatican ratline; the principal movers were Fr. Krunoslav Draganovic, Fr. Dominik Mandic OFM, the war criminal Ante Pavelić; the named defendants included the Vatican Bank, but not Vatican City. The Ninth Circuit accepted for the purposes of the motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' argument that the Vatican City and the Vatican Bank are separate institutions; the other named defendants were the Order of Friars Minor, the Croatian Liberation Movement, as well as "other unknown Catholic religious organizations and known and unknown banking institutions from a variety of countries".
The Vatican Bank and Order of Friars Minor filed separate motions to dismiss. The Vatican's lawyers did not contest the allegation that a large shipment of gold arrived by truck in Rome in 1946
Vatican Historical Museum
The Vatican Historical Museum is one of the sections of the Vatican Museums. It was founded in 1973 at the behest of Pope Paul VI, was hosted in environments under the Square Garden. In 1987 it was moved to the main floor of the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran and opened in March 1991; the Vatican Historical Museum has a unique collection of portraits of the Popes from the sixteenth century to date, the memorable items of the Papal Military Corps of the 16–17th centuries and old religious paraphernalia related to rituals of the papacy. On display on the lower floor are the papamobili; the Lateran Palace, next to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran to its left within the courtyard of the church with a common entry gate, is a large apartment complex of the Pope. Domenico Fontana was the architect of this palace, built to his design in 1586. Right at the entrance the staircase is a massive and impressive structure with the ceiling decorated with frescoes, it had been refurbished by Pope Paul IV into ten halls.
The hall known as the Conciliation, was provided with allegories related to the papacy of Sixtus V. The other halls were named Constantine, Hall of Apostles, Popes Room and so forth; the fresco decorations were on themes of the History of Rome, episodes of the Bible related to Daniel, Solomon and others, related to the Gospel. Several colourful tapestries and Goblins added to the aesthetic elegance of the halls. Before the History Museum decided to relocate here to a more luxurious locale, none of the rooms had been allowed to be used for any general public purpose. Since 1991, these rooms have been used as exhibition or display rooms for the exhibits moved from the Vatican Museums; the museum has been arranged into two wings. The principal wing is the museum of all artistic and historic importance starting with the paintings of the history of the Papal States, portraits of Popes till date, memorabilia of the Papal Military Corps including the navy, documents related to ceremonial orders of Popes, the Papal household items, various ceremonial regalia and religious vessels and insignia not in use.
The second wing is an annex wing on the ground floor. Index of Vatican City-related articles Media related to Vatican Historical Museum at Wikimedia Commons
Donation of Pepin
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome. In 751, king of the Lombards, conquered what remained of the exarchate of Ravenna, the last vestige of the Roman Empire in northern Italy. In 752, Aistulf demanded the submission of a tribute of one gold solidus, per capita. Pope Stephen II and a Roman envoy, John the Silentiary, tried by negotiations and bribes to convince Aistulf to back down; when this failed, Stephen sent envoys to Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, with a letter requesting his support and the provision of a Frankish escort so that Stephen could go to Pepin to confer. At the time, the Franks were on good terms with the Lombards. In 753, John the Silentiary returned to Rome with an imperial order that Pope Stephen accompany him to meet Aistulf in the Lombard capital of Pavia; the pope duly received a safe-conduct from the Lombards. With the Frankish envoys who had by arrived, the pope and the imperial envoy set out for Pavia on 14 October 753.
The Roman magnates did not accompany them past the border. At Pavia, Aistulf denied the requests of Stephen and John to return the conquered exarchate to the empire, but he did not prevent Stephen from continuing with the Frankish envoys to the court of Pepin. John the Silentiary did not accompany them; this was the first time. Pope Stephen met Pepin the Short at Quierzy-sur-Oise in 753; the Pope was first met by Pepin's eleven-year-old son, who conveyed him to his father at Ponthion. At Quierzy the Frankish nobles gave their consent to a campaign in Lombardy. Roman Catholic tradition asserts that it was and there that Pepin executed in writing a promise to convey to the Papacy certain territories that were going to be wrested from the Lombards. No original document has been preserved, but 8th century sources quote from it and the Fragmentum Fantuzzianum relied on it. On 28 July 754 Pope Stephen anointed Pepin, as well as his two sons Charles and Carloman, at Saint-Denis in a memorable ceremony, recalled in coronation rites of French kings until the end of the ancien régime in 1792.
In return, in 756, Pepin and his Frankish army forced the Lombard king to surrender his conquests, Pepin conferred upon the pope the territories belonging to Ravenna cities such as Forlì with their hinterlands, laying the deeds and keys to the cities upon the tomb of Saint Peter, according to traditional accounts. The gift included Lombard conquests in the Romagna and in the Duchy of Spoleto and Benevento, the Pentapolis in the Marche; the Donations made the Pope for the first time as a temporal ruler. This strip of territory extended diagonally across Italy from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic. Over these extensive and mountainous territories the medieval Popes were unable to exercise effective sovereignty, given the pressures of the times, the new Papal States preserved the old Lombard heritage of many small counties and marquisates, each centered upon a fortified rocca. Pepin confirmed his Donations in Rome in 756. In 774 Pepin's son Charlemagne again confirmed and reasserted the Donation.
Some chronicles falsely claimed that he expanded them, granting Tuscany, Emilia and Corsica. Donation of Constantine, a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope
Noble Guard (Vatican)
The Noble Guard was one of the household guard units serving the Pope. It was formed by Pope Pius VII in 1801 as a regiment of heavy cavalry. Conceived as the Pope's personal guard, the unit provided a mounted escort for the Pope when he moved about Rome in his carriage and mounted guard outside his apartments in the papal palaces; the guardsmen were available for special missions within the Papal States at the behest of the pope. One of their first major duties was to escort Pius VII to Paris for the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte. A palace guard, the Noble Guard saw no active military service or combat during the several military campaigns that engaged the Papal States between 1801 and 1870. With the unification of Italy and the abolition of the Papal States in 1870, the Noble Guard restricted its activity to the buildings and grounds of the Vatican. Though nominally still a cavalry unit, the unit had little opportunity to deploy on horseback in the limited confines of the Vatican, although two mounted troopers would accompany the papal carriage when the Pope was driven around the Vatican gardens.
In 1904 mounted service was abolished and the last horses were sold off. Armed with carbines and sabers, after 1870 the guardsmen carried only a saber; the corps was always a volunteer one - its members were not paid for their service, although they received an allowance for their uniforms. Recruits were drawn from noble families in Rome, although in the twentieth century requirements were relaxed in practice to allow nobility from other regions of Italy to join the corps; the commander of the corps was called the Captain. One of the subordinate positions within the corps was that of Hereditary Standard-Bearer, responsible for carrying the standard of the Catholic Church. After 1870, the Noble Guard, now reduced to a force of fewer than 70 men, performed ceremonial duties as an honour guard. Guardsmen most appeared in public when the pope presided over ceremonies in Saint Peter's Basilica; when the pope was carried in the sedia gestatoria, Noble Guards walked alongside the papal chair. During the hours reserved for papal audiences, guardsmen stood in the antechamber of the papal apartments and, on formal occasions, on either side of the papal throne.
During the Second World War, the Noble Guard shared responsibility with the Swiss Guard for the personal security of Pope Pius XII. For the first time since 1870 pistols were issued to duty personnel. Throughout the war, Noble Guards mounted guard outside the papal apartment night and day and guardsmen followed Pius XII when he took his daily walks in the Vatican Gardens; the Noble Guard was abolished by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as part of the reforms of the Church following Vatican II. The elitist image of a privileged ceremonial corps was considered to be out of sympathy with a simpler and more inclusive era. A planned farewell audience for the guardsmen with the Pope did not take place and the property of the unit was requisitioned at short notice by the Papal Secretariat of State. Former members of the Noble Guard have a veterans' association, "La Compagnia delle Lance Spezzate". Swiss Guard Corsican Guard Palatine Guard Papal Zouaves Papal nobility Black Nobility Index of Vatican City-related articles
Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. Set up in 1931 by Guglielmo Marconi, today its programs are offered in 47 languages, are sent out on short wave, medium wave, FM, satellite and the Internet. Since its inception, Vatican Radio has been maintained by the Jesuit Order. Vatican Radio preserved its independence during the rise of Nazi Germany. Following the outbreak of World War II, a week after Pope Pius XII ordered the programming, Vatican Radio broadcast the news that Poles and Jews were being rounded up and forced into ghettos. Today, programming is produced by over two hundred journalists located in 61 different countries. Vatican Radio produces more than 42,000 hours of simultaneous broadcasting covering international news, religious celebrations, in-depth programs, music; the current general director is Father Federico Lombardi, S. J. On 27 June 2015, Pope Francis, in a motu proprio apostolic letter, established the Secretariat for Communications in the Roman Curia, which absorbed Vatican Radio effective 1 January 2017, ending the organization's 85 years of independent operation.
Vatican Radio began broadcasting with the callsign HVJ on two shortwave frequencies using 10 kilowatts of power on 12 February 1931, with the pontificial message "Omni creaturae" of Pope Pius XI. In attendance was Guglielmo Marconi and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, who would become Pope Pius XII Its first director was physicist Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, the president of the Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei. In 1933, a permanent microwave link was established between the Vatican Palace and the summer residence of the papacy, Castel Gandolfo. In 1936, the International Telecommunication Union recognized Vatican Radio as a "special case" and authorized its broadcasting without any geographical limits. On 25 December 1937 two directional antennas were added. Vatican Radio broadcast over 10 frequencies. Following a December 1939 report from Cardinal August Hlond of Poznań detailing the oppression of the Catholic Church in Poland, Pope Pius XII decided, among other measures, to use Vatican Radio to provide "information regarding the condition of the church in Poland."
The German broadcast on 21 January 1940 compared German activities to "what the Communists imposed on Spain in 1936". During World War II, Vatican Radio's news broadcasts were banned in Germany. During the war, the radio service operated in four languages. While some critics have said Pope Pius XII was too quiet regarding the Holocaust, Jacques Adler examined the transcripts of wartime broadcasts over the Vatican Radio. Adler argues that it opposed collaboration with Nazism, it appealed to Catholics to remain true to their faith's injunctions: to defend the sanctity of life and the unity of humankind. In so doing the Pope pursued a policy of spiritual resistance to Nazi racism. In 1948, services expanded to 18 languages; because of space purposes, the Holy See acquired a 400-hectare area located 18 kilometres north of Rome at Santa Maria di Galeria. The Italian Republic granted the site extraterritorial status in 1952. In 1957, a new broadcasting center was placed into operation, with a Philips 100 kW shortwave transmitter, two 10 kW shortwave transmitters, one 120 kW mediumwave transmitter, with 21 directional and one omnidirectional antenna.
The next phase involved two 100 kW transmitters aimed at Africa and Oceania, a 250 kW mediumwave transmitter for Europe, a 500 kW transmitter for the Far East and Latin America. Radio Vaticana was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. In the 21st century, Vatican Radio has experimented with digital transmission technologies and has used electronic newsletters and other new technologies to distribute its programming. Vatican Radio and CTV began their own YouTube channel in 2010, operating in four languages, operates six Twitter accounts. In May 2009 it was announced that Vatican Radio would begin broadcasting commercial advertisements for the first time in July; the decision was made so as namely 21.4 m euros a year. All advertisements would have to meet "high moral standards". Vatican Radio stopped transmitting short- and medium-wave broadcasts to North America, South America, Europe on Sunday 1 July 2012; the Vatican Press Office closed Vatican Information Service in August 2012.
In 2014 Michael Gannon, from Ireland, became the first person with Down Syndrome to work at any Vatican office, which he did as an intern at Vatican Radio. As of 2016, Vatican Radio had a staff of 355 people who produce more than 66 hours of daily programming in 45 languages on air, 38 languages on the website. Programs are broadcast via medium wave, FM and satellite. Vatican Radio has been losing between € € 30 million annually. With its absorption into the Curia's Secretariat for Communications on 1 January 2017 Vatican Radio director Msgr. Dario Viganò has indicated that he plans to pare down short-wave radio operations and institute cost control measures in the service's other broadcast operations. On 24 March 2017, Vatican Radio made its final English-language shortwave transmission to Asia after 59 years of service. Vatican Radio's English Service for Asia has continued online. During the 1930s, the station made experimental television broadcasts. However, apart from a brief experimental revival in the 1950s, it was not until the 1990s that a regular'satellite' television servic