A tribus, or tribe, was a division of the Roman people, constituting the voting units of a legislative assembly of the Roman Republic. The word is derived from tribuere, to divide or distribute. According to tradition, the first three tribes were established by Romulus, each was divided into ten curiae, or wards, although the curiae continued throughout Roman history, the three original tribes that they constituted gradually vanished from history. This number was reduced to twenty at the beginning of the Roman Republic, but as the Roman population and its territory grew, fifteen additional tribes were enrolled, the last in 241 BC. Although the comitia tributa lost most of its functions under the Empire. The first three tribes are said to have established by Romulus, the founder and first King of Rome. Following the Rape of the Sabine Women, the Sabines under Titus Tatius attacked Rome, after fierce fighting, the Sabine women themselves interceded, stepping between their husbands and their fathers to prevent further bloodshed.
Peace was concluded, with Romulus and Tatius ruling jointly, and a large Sabine population relocating to Rome, the only curiae whose names are now known were, Calabra, Foriensis, Tifata, Titia and Velitia. The members of the curiae were known as curiales, each curia was attended by a priest, or curio, who assisted by another priest, known as the flamen curialis, undertook the religious obligations of the ward. Each had its own place of meeting, known as a curia, when the various curiae were assembled for voting, they formed the comitia curiata, the oldest legislative assembly of the Roman Republic. One of the curiones was appointed or elected curio maximus, under the kings, the comitia curiata was summoned by the king or by an interrex, who would present questions upon which the comitia might vote. Under Servius Tullius, the rights to declare war and to decide appeals were transferred to the comitia centuriata, after the downfall of the Roman monarchy, questions were presented to the comitia curiata by the Roman Senate.
However, between 494 and 449 BC, most of its functions were relegated to the comitia tributa and the comitia centuriata. The higher magistrates were elected by the comitia centuriata, which presided over certain capital trials, and held the power to declare war. By the late republic, each curia was represented by one lictor. According to Livy, Servius divided the city into four regions, ten of the original rural tribes, whose names are lost to history, were destroyed in the war against Lars Porsena at the commencement of the Republic. When the Sabine Appius Claudius removed to Rome together with his clientes, in 504 BC, he was admitted to the patriciate, and assigned lands in the region around the mouth of the Anio. These settlers became the basis of the tribus Claudia, which was admitted in 495 BC, during Claudius consulship, four more tribes were added in 387 BC, Sabatina and Tromentina
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill. The first building was the oldest large temple in Rome, and it was traditionally dedicated in 509 BC, but in 83 BC it was destroyed by fire, and a replacement in Greek style completed in 69 BC. But for the building they were summoned from Greece. The two further buildings were evidently of contemporary Roman style, although of exceptional size, the first version is the largest Etruscan temple recorded, and much larger than other Roman temples for centuries after. However, its size remains heavily disputed by specialists, based on an ancient visitor it has claimed to have been almost 60 m ×60 m. Whatever its size, its influence on other early Roman temples was significant, reconstructions usually show very wide eaves, and a wide colonnade stretching down the sides, though not round the back wall as it would have done in a Greek temple. A crude image on a coin of 78 BC shows only four columns, with two further fires, the third temple only lasted five years, to 80 AD, but the fourth survived until the fall of the empire.
Much about the buildings remains uncertain. Much of what is known of the first Temple of Jupiter is from Roman tradition, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus vowed this temple while battling with the Sabines and, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, began the terracing necessary to support the foundations of the temple. Modern coring on the Capitoline has confirmed the extensive work needed just to create a building site. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy, the foundations and most of the superstructure of the temple were completed by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Livy records that before the temples construction shrines to other gods occupied the site. When the augurs carried out the rites seeking permission to them, only Terminus. Their shrines were incorporated into the new structure. Because he was the god of boundaries, Terminuss refusal to be moved was interpreted as an omen for the future of the Roman state. A second portent was the appearance of the head of a man to workmen digging the foundations of the temple and this was said by the augurs to mean that Rome was to be the head of a great empire.
Traditionally the Temple was dedicated on September 13, the year of the Roman Republic,509 BCE. It was sacred to the Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities, the man to perform the dedication of the temple was chosen by lot. The duty fell to Marcus Horatius Pulvillus, one of the consuls in that year, Livy records that in 495 BCE the Latins, as a mark of gratitude to the Romans for the release of 6,000 Latin prisoners, delivered a crown of gold to the temple
Veii was, in ancient times, an important Etruscan city 16 km north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the comune of Rome, many other sites associated with and in the city-state of Veii are in Formello, immediately to the north. Formello is named after the channels that were first created by the Veians. Veii was the richest city of the Etruscan League and on the border of Etruria. It was alternately at war and in alliance with the Roman Republic for over 300 years and it eventually fell in the Battle of Veii to Roman general Camilluss army in 396 BC. Veii continued to be occupied after its capture by the Romans, the site of Veii is a tuff elevation of 190 hectares. The Valchetta flows a few miles eastward to join the Tiber River on the side of Labaro along the Via Flaminia. Veii might be considered to be on the bank of the Tiber. Its proximity to the Tiber and the route to the interior. The site is now an area, part of the Parco di Veio established by the regional authority of Lazio in 1997.
The largest visible monument is the temple of Apollo of 510 BC, also and tombs have been found cut into the rock. Tombs were cut into tuff. but tumuli were not, the most famous is the Grotta Campana, uncovered in 1843, a chamber tomb with the oldest known Etruscan frescoes. There are additionally long tunnels leading into the mound of the city, the walls of Veii, of which small sections remain, bordered the two intersecting streams using the streambeds as a ditch, with a wall across the plateau closing the triangle. Veii is well known for its statuary including the Apollo of Veii of 510 BC, every Etruscan stronghold was built on an elevation, and Veii was no exception. An archaeological site, Piazza dArmi, marks the location today, the settlement and the growth of the city by conurbation can be traced by demographic analysis of the cemeteries and settlements on and around the plateau. The earliest evidence of dates from the 10th century BC in the Late Bronze Age. Small settlements were scattered over an area than the plateau.
In the 9th century BC, the Early Iron Age, the finds are localized to the plateau but appear to be associated with independent settlements, each with its own cemetery
The First and Third Samnite Wars were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the south of Rome and the north of the Lucanians. The first of these wars was the result of Romes intervening to rescue the Campanian city of Capua from a Samnite attack. The second one was the result of Romes intervention in the politics of the city of Naples and developed into a contest over the control of much of central, the third war involved a struggle over the control of this part of Italy. The Samnites were one of early Romes most formidable rivals, by the time of the first of these wars, the southward expansion of Rome’s territory had reached the River Liris, which was the boundary between Latium and Campania. This river is now called Garigliano and it is the boundary between the regions of Lazio and Campania. In those days the name Campania referred to the plain between the coast and the Apennine Mountains which stretched from the River Liris down to the bays of Naples, the northern part of this area was inhabited by the Sidicini, the Aurunci and the Ausoni.
The central and southern part was inhabited by the Campanians, who were people who had migrated from Samnium and were related to the Samnites. The Samnites were a confederation of four tribes who lived on the mountains to the east of Campania and were the most powerful people in the area, the Samnites and Sidicini spoke Oscan languages. Their languages were part of the Osco-Umbrian linguistic family which included Umbrian, the Lucanians who lived to the south were Oscan speakers. Diodorus Siculus and Livy report that in 354 BC Rome and the Samnites concluded a treaty, modern historians have proposed that the treaty established the river Liris as the boundary between their spheres of influence, with Romes lying to its north and the Samnites to its south. This arrangement broke down when the Romans intervened south of the Liris to rescue the Campanian city of Capua from an attack by the Samnites. Livy is the only preserved source to give an account of the war which has become known in modern historiography as the First Samnite War.
In addition, the Fasti Triumphales records two Roman triumphs dating to this war and some of the described by Livy are mentioned by other ancient writers. According to Livy, the First Samnite War started not because of any enmity between Rome and the Samnites, but due to outside events, the spark came when the Samnites without provocation attacked the Sidicini, a tribe living north of Campania with their chief settlement at Teanum Sidicinum. Unable to stand against the Samnites, the Sidicini sought help from the Campanians, Livy continues, the Samnites defeated the Campanians in a battle in Sidicine territory and turned their attention toward Campania. First they seized the Tifata hills overlooking Capua and, having left a force to hold them. There they defeated the Campanians in a battle and drove them within their walls. This compelled the Campanians to ask Rome for help, at Rome, the Campanian ambassadors were admitted to an audience with the Senate
For the poem by Ovid, see Fasti, for the inscribed versions of the calendar, see Roman calendar. In ancient Rome, the fasti were chronological or calendar-based lists, or other records or plans of official. After Romes decline, the word continued to be used for similar records in Christian Europe. Public business, including the business of the Roman state, had to be transacted on dies fasti. The fasti were the records of this business, in addition to the words general sense, there were fasti that recorded specific kinds of events, such as the fasti triumphales, lists of triumphs celebrated by Roman generals. The divisions of time used in the fasti were based on the Roman calendar, the yearly records of the fasti encouraged the writing of history in the form of chronological annales, which in turn influenced the development of Roman historiography. Fasti is the plural of the Latin adjective fastus, most commonly used as a substantive, the word derives from fas, meaning that which is permitted, that is, that which is legitimate in the eyes of the gods.
Fasti dies were the days on which business might be transacted without impiety, in contrast to dies nefasti, days on which assemblies, the word fasti itself came to denote lists organized by time. The temporal structure distinguished fasti from regesta, which were simple lists of property, or assets, such as land or documents and they came to be denominated magni, great, by way of distinction from the bare calendar, or fasti diurni. The word fasti thus came to be used in the sense of annals or historical records. Michelangelo, who designed the complex of three palaces on the hill, restored the tables of the fasti, the Palazzo today is one of the Capitoline Museums, which serve a double duty as museums and city government buildings. The fasti are located in the Sala della Lupa, the room as the bronze wolf. More pieces discovered after the Renaissance were placed with it, the fasti consulares were discovered as 30 marble fragments in the forum. With them were 26 fragments of Acta Triumpharum, since called the fasti triumphales, both lists were restored as distinct records.
Pope Paul III had authorized the mining of stone for St. Peters in 1540, the pope was following the widespread convention that prevailed in the Renaissance of ripping up the structures of the past to reuse in building structures they considered even more magnificent. The scholars were collaborating to save what they could, a resident colony of quarrymen did not pause in the slightest but went on dismantling buildings. All trace of structures in that part of the forum vanished between August 15 and September 14,1546, the stone was sold to cutters for reuse or to lime burners for the creation of cement. None of these proceedings were in any way archaeological, cardinal Farnese assigned the scholars to watch the diggings
Ferentino is a town and comune in Italy, in the province of Frosinone, Lazio,65 kilometres southeast of Rome. It is situated on a hill 400 metres above sea level, ferentinum was a town of the Hernici, it was captured from them by the Romans in 364 BC and took no part in the rising of 306 BC. The inhabitants became Roman citizens after 195 BC, and the became a municipium. It lay just above the Via Latina and, being a strong place, from 1198 to 1557 it was the seat of the Papal rectorate of Campagna and Marittima province. Strong in textiles and handicraft, after World War II Ferentino experienced a heavy industrial growth, Ferentino still possesses remains of ancient fortifications. Two gates, the Porta Maggiore, a double gate constructed entirely of blocks of tuff. Outside this gate, the testament of Aulus Quinctilius Priscus inscribed in the rock, the highest part of the town, the acropolis, is fortified also, it has massive retaining walls similar to those of the lower town. At the eastern corner, under the present episcopal palace, the construction is more careful.
The windows lighting these chambers come immediately above the cornice, the whole of this construction probably belongs to one period. It contains a fine ciborium in the Cosmatesque style and a 12th-century mosaic pavement, the Gothic church of Santa Maria Maggiore, in the lower town, has a very fine exterior, the interior, the plan of which is a perfect rectangle, has been spoiled by restoration. Other religious edifices include the Benedictine church of San Valentino and the Romanesque monastery of SantAntonio Abate, the latters heart is preserved in the small convent church of the Clarisse. Ekaterinburg, Russia San Severino Marche, Italy Rockford, United States This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Ferentino. org City, history and sightseeing Il Cartello - an artists collective promoting a number of cultural activities in Ferentino Purcell, N. R. Talbert, T. Elliott. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
Latins (Italic tribe)
The Latins, sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the region known to the Romans as Old Latium, that is. The Latins were an Indo-European people who migrated into the Italian peninsula during the late Bronze Age. Their language, belonged to the Italic branch of Indo-European and their material culture, known as the Latial culture, was a distinctive subset of the Iron Age Villanovan culture that appeared in parts of the Italian peninsula after 1000 BC. Latino-Faliscians occupied the Tyrrhenian coast between the current Lazio and Calabria and overlapped and mingled with the oldest Neolithic peoples and they had cremation burials and possessed advanced metallurgical techniques. Major tribes included and Falisci in Lazio and Italii in Calabria, Ausones and Opici in Campania and these included common festivals and religious sanctuaries. The rise of Rome as by far the most populous and powerful Latin state from c.
600 BC led to relations with the other Latin states. In the period of the Tarquin monarchy, it appears that Rome acquired political hegemony over the other states, after the fall of the Roman monarchy in c. This system progressively broke down after c. 390 BC, when Romes aggressive expansionism led to conflict with other Latin states, in 341–338 BC, the Latin states jointly fought the Latin War against Rome in a final attempt to preserve their independence. The war resulted in 338 BC in a decisive Roman victory, the other Latin states were either annexed or permanently subjugated to Rome. It has been suggested that the name Latium derives from the Latin word latus, referring, by extension, if this is true, Latini originally meant men of the plain. The Latins belonged to a group of Indo-European tribes, conventionally known as the Italic tribes, on this model, it appears likely that the West Italic group were the first wave and largely displaced by, the East Italic group. This is deduced from the locations of the surviving West Italic niches.
Besides Latin, putative members of the West Italic group are Faliscan, the West Italic languages were thus spoken in limited and isolated areas, whereas the East Italic group comprised the Oscan and Umbrian dialects spoken over much of central and southern Italy. However, the chronology of Indo-European immigration remains elusive, as does the relative chronology between of the Italic IE languages and the languages of the peninsula, notably Etruscan. Most scholars consider that Etruscan is a survival, part of a Mediterranean linguistic substratum. Some authors believe that, before the spread of Gaulish language in the plain of the river Po from c, Etruscan could equally have been introduced by migrants. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus preserves the tradition that the Tyrrhenoi originated in Lydia in Anatolia, the tribe spoke the Latin language, a member of the western branch of the Italic languages, in turn a branch of the Indo-European family of languages
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare, in the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas, the name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally comfortable, wilhelm Deecke said. its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak. The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the part of Italy. They are mostly verdant, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande is partially covered by Calderone glacier and it has been receding since 1794. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form foothills on which most of peninsular Italys cities are located.
The mountains tend to be named from the province or provinces in which they are located, for example, as the provincial borders have not always been stable, this practice has resulted in some confusion about exactly where the montane borders are. Often but not always a feature can be found that lends itself to being a border. The Apennines are divided into three sectors, northern and southern, a number of long hiking trails wind through the Apennines. Of note is European walking route E1 coming from northern Europe and traversing the lengths of the northern, the Grand Italian Trail begins in Trieste and after winding through the Alpine arc traverses the entire Apennine system and Sardinia. The northern Apennines consist of three sub-chains, the Ligurian, Tuscan-Emilian, and Umbrian Apennines, the Ligurian Apennines border the Ligurian Sea in the Gulf of Genoa, from about Savona below the upper Bormida River valley to about La Spezia below the upper Magra River valley. The range follows the Gulf of Genoa separating it from the upper Po Valley, the northwestern border follows the line of the Bormida River to Acqui Terme.
There the river continues northeast to Alessandria in the Po Valley, the upper Bormida can be reached by a number of roads proceeding inland at a right angle to the coast southwest of Savona, the chief one being the Autostrada Torino-Savona. They ascend to the Bocchetta di Altare, sometimes called Colle di Cadibona,436 m, a bronze plaque fixed to a stone marks the top of the pass. In the vicinity are fragments of the old road and three ruins of former fortifications, at Carcare, the main roads connect with the upper Bormida valley before turning west. The Scrivia, the Trebbia and the Taro, tributaries of the Po River, the range contains dozens of peaks. Toward the southern end the Aveto Natural Regional Park includes Monte Penna, nearby is the highest point of Ligurian Apennines, Monte Maggiorasca at 1,780 m
In 495 BC Livy records that they entered into a treaty with the Volsci against ancient Rome. They long maintained their independence, and in 486 BC were still enough to conclude an equal treaty with the Latins. The oldest Latin inscriptions of the district are earlier than the Social War, a couple of inscriptions show that the Hernican language was a member of the Sabellian group. Hernici Mounts This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus. His literary style was Atticistic — imitating Classical Attic Greek in its prime, Dionysius opinion of the necessity of a promotion of paideia within education, from true knowledge of Classical sources, endured for centuries in a form integral to the identity of the Greek elite. At some time he moved to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, during this period, he gave lessons in rhetoric, and enjoyed the society of many distinguished men. The date of his death is unknown, in the 19th century, it was commonly supposed that he was the ancestor of Aelius Dionysius of Halicarnassus. His great work, entitled Ῥωμαϊκὴ Ἀρχαιολογία, embraced the history of Rome from the period to the beginning of the First Punic War. The first three books of Appian, Plutarchs Life of Camillus and Life of Coriolanus embody much of Dionysius, according to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of a Greek rhetorician.
But he carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work, the last two treatises are supplemented by letters to Gn. Latin orators and rhetoricians adopted Dionysius method of imitatio and discarded Aristotles mimesis, Dionysius is one of the primary sources for the accounts of the Roman foundation myth and the myth of Romulus and Remus. He was heavily relied upon for the publications of Livy. He writes extensively on the myth, sometimes attributing direct quotes to its figures, the myth spans the first 2 volumes of his Roman Antiquities, beginning with Book I chapter 73 and concluding in Book II chapter 56. Dionysius claims that the twins were born to a vestal named Ilia Silvia and her family descends from Aeneas of Troy and the daughter of King Latinus of the Original Latin tribes. Proca, her grandfather had willed the throne to his son Numitor but he was deposed by her uncle. For fear of the threat that Numitors heirs might pose, the king had Ilias brother, the truth about the crime was known by some, including Numitor, who feigned ignorance.
Amulius appointed Ilia to the Vestal priestesshood, where her vow of chastity would prevent her from producing any further male rivals, despite this, she became pregnant a few years later, claiming to have been raped. The different accounts of the conception are laid out. The sources variously relate that it was a suitor, Amulius himself, the latter is supposed to have comforted Ilia by making her grieve, and telling her that she would bear twins whose bravery and triumphs would be unmatched. Ilia hid her pregnancy with claims of illness so as to avoid her vestal duties, Amulius suspected her and employed physicians and his wife to monitor her for signs of being with child. When he did discover the truth, she was placed under armed guard, after being informed of the delivery of the twins, Amulius suspected that she had in fact given birth to triplets