Romanichal Travellers Romnichals, Rumnichals or Rumneys are a Romani sub-group in the United Kingdom and other parts of the English-speaking world. Romanichal Travellers are thought to have arrived in England in the 16th century, they are closely related to the Welsh Kale, Scottish Lowland Travellers, Finnish Kale as well the Norwegian & Swedish Romanisæl Travellers. The word "Romanichal" is derived from Romani chal, where chal is Angloromani for "fellow". Romanichal Travellers are found on the island of Great Britain, with nearly all living in England, as well as communities of Romanichal Travellers existing in Southern Wales and the Scottish Borders; the Romanichal diaspora emigrated from Great Britain to other parts of the English-speaking world. Based on some estimates, there are now more people of Romanichal descent in the United States than in Britain, they are found in smaller numbers in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. There exists a small Romanichal community in Malta who are descended from British Romanichal migrants who moved there during colonial times.
In Great Britain, there is a sharp North-South divide between Romanichal Travellers. Southern Romanichal Travellers speak with the Southern Angloromani dialect and accent, whilst Northern Romanichal Travellers speak with the Northern Angloromani dialect and accent; the main difference between Northern Romanichal and Southern Romanichal is their accent and slight differences vocabulary within the two dialects. The culture is the same although due to differences in accents and vocabulary, two regional Romanichal identities have formed; the Romani people in England are thought to have spoken the Romani language until the 19th century, when it was replaced by English and Angloromani, a creole language that combines the syntax and grammar of English with the Romani lexicon. All Romanichals speak English. There are two dialects of Southern Angloromani and Northern Angloromani; these two dialects along with the accents that accompany them have led to two regional Romanichal Traveller identities forming, these being the Southern Romanichal identity and the Northern Romanichal Traveller identity.
Many Angloromani words have been incorporated into English in the form of British slang. The Romani people have origins in India Rajasthan and began migrating westwards from the 11th century; the first groups of Romani people arrived in Great Britain by the end of the 16th century, escaping conflicts in Southeastern Europe. In 1506 there are recorded Romani persons in Scotland, arrived from Spain and to England in 1512. Soon the leadership passed laws aimed at stopping the Romani immigration and at the assimilation of those present. During the reign of Henry VIII, the Egyptians Act banned Romanies from entering the country and required those living in the country to leave within 16 days. Failure to do so could result in confiscation of property and deportation. During the reign of Mary I the act was amended with the Egyptians Act, which removed the threat of punishment to Romanies if they abandoned their "naughty and ungodly life and company" and adopted a settled lifestyle, but it increased the penalty for noncompliance to death.
In 1562 a new law offered Romanies born in England and Wales the possibility of becoming English subjects if they assimilated into the local population. Despite persecution and this new option, the Romani were forced into a marginal lifestyle and subjected to continuous discrimination from the state authorities and many non-Romanies. In 1596, 106 men and women were condemned to death at York just for being Romani, nine were executed. Samuel Rid authored two early works about them in the early 17th century. From the 1780s the anti-Romani laws were repealed, although not all; the identity of the Romanichals was formed between the years 1660 and 1800, as a Romani group living in Britain. England began to deport Romanichals as early as 1544, principally to Norway, a process, continued and encouraged by Elizabeth I and James I; the Finnish Kale, a Romani group in Finland, maintain that their ancestors had been a Romani group who travelled from Scotland, thereby supporting the idea that they and the Scandinavian Travellers/Romani are distantly related to present-day Scottish Romani and English Romanichals.
In 1603 an Order in Council was made for the transportation of Romanichal to Newfoundland, the West Indies, France and the Low Countries. Other European countries forced the further transport of the Romani of Britain to the Americas. Many times those deported in this manner did not survive as an ethnic group, because of the separations after the round up, the sea passage and the subsequent settlement as slaves, all destroying their social fabric. At the same time, voluntary emigration began to the English overseas possessions. Romani groups which survived continued the expression of the Romani culture there. In the years following the American War of Independence, Australia was the preferred destination for Romanichal transportation, due to its use as a penal colony; the exact number of British Romani deported to Australia is unknown. It has been suggested that three Romanichal were present on the First Fleet, one of whom was thought to be James Squire who founded Australia's first commercial brewery in 1798, whose grandson James Far
The Romani, colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan and Punjab regions of modern-day India. Genetic findings appear to confirm that the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago." Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma." They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe Central and Southern Europe. The Romani originated in northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago, they have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. The ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century.
The Romani are known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies, which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States. Brazil includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. In migrations since the late 19th century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million; the total number of Romani people is at least twice as high.
Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia. French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Catalan gitano, Italian gitano, Portuguese cigano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian", Hungarian fáreónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane, Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian cigan, Albanian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, Turkish çigan, Azerbaijani çıqan, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Lithuanian čigonai, Latvian čigāni, Georgian ციგანი.
Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Albanian Jevg, gabel, Magjup Azerbaijani qaraçı Arabic Nawar and Zott. Egyptian Arabic ghager Rom means husband in the Romani language, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, loman, romaça. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma. In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning'man of the Roma ethnic group' or'man, husband', with the plural Roma; the feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders. Romani is the feminine adjective; some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group. Sometimes and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e. rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.
The rr spelling is common in certain institutions, or used in certain countries, e.g. Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians. In the English language, Rom is a noun and an adje
Romani people in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Romani people in Bosnia and Herzegovina are the largest of the 17 national minority in the country, although—due to the stigma attached to the label—this is not reflected in statistics and censuses. The exact number of Roma persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina is uncertain. Due to the social stigma attached to the label, many members of the community refuse to self-identify as such in official surveys and censuses, their number is thus underestimated. The 2013 census recorded 12,583 Bosnian-Herzegovinian residents of self-declared Romani ethnicity; the July 2012 estimates of the Council of Europe counted a minimum of 40,000 and a maximum of 76,000 Roma in BiH, with an average of 58,000, i.e. the 1.54% of the total population. This would still make Bosnia and Herzegovina the country in the Western Balkans with the lowest percentage of Roma population. A partial survey by the BiH Ombudsman through Roma associations recorded around 50,000 Roma living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 35,000 in the Federation BiH, 3,000 in Republika Srpska, 2,000–2,500 in the Brčko District — without counting the Roma population in the Sarajevo Canton.
The Needs Assessment process conducted in 2010 by the state-level BiH Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees directly identified 16,771 Roma persons in BiH. The MHRR estimates that there are at least 25,000 to 30,000 Roma resident in BiH, although they acknowledge that up to 39 percent of Roma did not participate in the registration in some districts. According to the Ministry, around 42 percent of the Romani population in BiH is below 19 years old. 0.44%According to the 1991 census, there were 8,864 Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina or 0.2 percent of the population. Yet, the number was much higher, as 10,422 Bosnians stated that Romani was their native language. Kali Sara and other local Roma NGOs put the number of Roma in BiH at between 80,000 and 100,000. Important Roma communities in BiH are living in Brčko, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Prijedor and Teslić; the largest number of Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina live in the Tuzla Canton, of which a sizeable proportion in the municipality of Tuzla, as well as in Živinice, Lukavac.
The Sarajevo Canton hosts around 7,000 Roma families in the municipality of Novi Grad, Sarajevo. The Zenica-Doboj Canton hosts between 7,700 and 8,200 Roma, of which 2,000–2,500 in the Zenica Municipality, 2,160 in Kakanj, 2,800 in Visoko. 2,000–2,500 Roma live in the Central Bosnia Canton in Donji Vakuf and Travnik. In the Una-Sana Canton there are between 2,000 -- 2,200 Roma, of. In the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton there are between 2,200–2,700 Roma, of which 450 in Konjic and 250 in Mostar. 2,000–2,500 Roma live in the Brčko District. In Republika Srpska live around 3,000–11,000 Roma, most of which in Gradiška, Banja Luka, Derventa. There have been Romani people in Herzegovina for more than 600 years. Roma are deemed to have arrived in the territory of today's Bosnia and Herzegovina by the 14th–15th centuries, to have adopted Islam as the majority confession during the times of Ottoman rule. Roma were stigmatised and had to live in settlements outside city boundaries. Rousseau, as French consul in Bosnia and Herzegovina, estimated in 1866 a number of 9,965 or 1.1 percent of the population were Romani.
Johann Roskiewicz estimated in 1867 the number of the "Gypsies" in Bosnia at 9,000 and in Herzegovina at 2,500, resulting in a total of 11,500 Romani. Attitudes towards Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina hardened during the Austro-Hungarian forty-years rule due to rumours that Roma lived off immoral earnings; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica mentions 18,000 Romani in Herzegovina. The worst period for Bosnian Roma came with World War Two, when Bosnia and Herzegovina was included in the Nazi-aligned Independent State of Croatia, it is estimated that 28,000 Roma perished in the conflict, in concentration and extermination camps such as Jasenovac. In Socialist Jugoslavia, the situation of Roma improved considerable, as they became recognised as a “national minority”, came to enjoy a large degree of security and welfare. During the war in Bosnia of 1992–1995, the Roma suffered mistreatment by all conflict parties, being considered as agents of the enemy, or forcefully conscripted. Over 30,000 Bosnian Roma were expelled based on ethnic cleansing.
Roma were subject to inhumane conditions in concentration camps and entire communities were destroyed. Several Roma from Kosovo moved to Bosnia and Herzegovina during socialist times as well as again during the Kosovo war. Kosovo Roma still face issues with civil documentations due to the lack of recognition of Kosovo by Bosnia and Herzegovina and the lack of Bosnia and Herzegovina has markedly tackled the situation of lack of civil registration documents and risks of statelessness, thanks to cooperation between the state authorities and NGOs, reducing the number of Roma persons without documents from some 3,000 to 57 in 2017; this result remains to be made sustainable, due to the risks of administrative complications linked to cases of temporary migration and the lack of recognition of documents for children born abroad. Many Roma in BiH still live in informal settlements, without access to water and electricity, as well as collective centres for IDPs; the Ministry of Human Rights and Refugees, in cooperation with municipalities and thanks to EU funds is buil
Romani people in Turkey
The Romani people in Turkey are an ethnic minority. There are about 500,000 Romani in Turkey; the Romani people in Turkey originate from Northern India from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: The language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines. More Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi, it shares many phonetic features with Marwari. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. There are records of the presence of the Romani people from the 9th century in Asia Minor, called by the Greek, Athinganoi.
The Romani People in Turkey have their own Oral tradition who said there Ancestor's Çangar/Changar came once from India as musicians, they arrived from Persia. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, Romani settled in Rumelia under the Ottoman rule. Sulukule in Istanbul is the oldest Romani settlement in Europe, record since 1054, in Edirne record since 1068. Live in East Thrace, there are three subgroups, the majority are Şopar, Çerge, who believed to be descendants of India, the Firavun. Romani People in Turkey speak Turkish as there first language, romani language is not longer in practise. Marriages with non Romani People are not seldom; the descendants of the Ottoman Romani today are known as Xoraxane Romani. They are of practise male Khitan. In Edirne, the Kakava festival is held all year. In modern Turkey, Xoraxane Romani do not have a legal status of ethnic minority because they are traditionally adherents of the Islamic faith, adherents of which, regardless of ethnicity or race, are considered part of the ethnic majority in Turkey.
This goes as far back as the Treaty of Lausanne, in which Section III "Protection of Minorities" put an emphasis on non-Muslim minorities. A group of Turkish Romani appears in the 16th century Ottoman Constantinople of the video game Assassin's Creed: Revelations. Sibel Can, Turkish folk pop and classical music singer Didem, Turkish belly dancer and singer Kibariye, Turkish Arabesque-pop singer Özcan Purçu, Turkish politician Hüsnü Şenlendirici, Turkish musician Selim Sesler, Turkish clarinet virtuoso of Romani heritage Ankaralı Turgut, Turkish musician Minorities in Turkey Abdal of Turkey Muslim Roma Media related to Romani people in Turkey at Wikimedia Commons Council of Europe, report about the Roma in Turkey
Archaeology of the Romani people
Archaeology of the Romani people refers to the science of archaeology as applied in relation to the Romani people, an ethnic group dispersed across the world, known under several different names. The Romani people has a long history, most hails from the Indian subcontinent. Throughout said history, the diverse Roma population has faced significant persecution – antiziganism – in many parts of the world, continues to do so today. Due to the Romani people's frequent status as outsiders in regards to mainstream society and a constant minority, lacking any form of nation state and in turn facing structural bias and neglect from many national and local governments and authorities, the research done into Romani history and culture has been either lacking or non-existent. In modern times when this issue being resolved in some areas, the field of Romani archaeology remains unexplored. For example, the prominent Hungarian archaeologist Eszter Bánffy, director of the Römisch-Germanische Kommission of the German Archaeological Institute, has written that in all of post-Cold War era Eastern Europe, she has not found a single archaeologist of Romani heritage, nor anyone interested in researching let alone excavating possible Romani archaeological sites.
While the French sociologist Jean-Pierre Liégeois, director of the Gypsy Research Centre, has asserted that due to their highly mobile lifestyle and frequent societal discrimination, the Romani have left behind no such archaeological sites, there have been some limited field surveys and excavations of Romani-related sites. This is the case in Sweden and Norway, where the Norwegian and Swedish Travellers arrived in the early 16th century. Two sites in particular have gone through several stages of excavation, with a third excavation project beginning in 2015. One is Snarsmon, a Romani village close to the Norwegian border in Tanum Municipality, active as a sanctuary from the 1860s until the first years of the 20th century. Surveys began in 2003, with yearly excavations between 2004 and 2007. Done in the style of community archaeology, participants – other than professional archaeologists – included both local inhabitants of non-Romani origin, as well as members from several Traveller organizations and one Roma cultural association.
One result of this project was the establishment in 2012 of the first Swedish museum exhibition about Traveller history, located in the town of Uddevalla, featuring some of the objects found during the excavations. The second Swedish site is Krämarstaden a Romani village, located near Finnerödja in Laxå Municipality; the village was established in the first years of the 20th century, abandoned in the beginning of the 1920s. Core surveys began at the same time as those in Snarsmon, with two phases of archaeological excavation taking place in 2013 and 2014, which much like the previous project involved professional archaeologists and other scientists, local inhabitants, Swedish Travellers. In August 2015, excavations began in Skarpnäck; the camp was built in 1959 by the Swedish state as a temporary solution, until apartments could be arranged for the Romani, who had just been given full civic rights. The camp soon became permanent as the administrative process was dragged out, its inhabitants – about thirty people – living in tents and two home-built cottages, exposed to the weather.
The two-year project, titled I stadens utkant, is financed by the Swedish National Heritage Board, is a cooperative project between the Swedish History Museum, the cultural association É Romani Glinda, Mångkulturellt Centrum in Botkyrka, Stiftelsen Kulturmiljövård. It will result in a book and an excavation report, in addition to certain finds forming part of the "Sweden's History" exhibition at the Swedish History Museum. Several other archaeological sites belonging to the Romani people and the Scandinavian Travellers exist in Sweden as well as Norway, some of which were surveyed and mapped out in the transnational Scandinavian Traveller Map project. One of these, Tattardalen in Kungälv Municipality, is a ruined farmstead dating back to the 1600s, is therefore the oldest Scandinavian site connected to the Travellers. Another example of Romani-related archaeology is a June 2010 excavation of the "Caird’s Cave" in Rosemarkie, Scotland, a site inhabited by Scottish Gypsy and Traveller groups.
In addition to archaeology directly relating to Romani sites, there have been some research done into the archaeogenetics and "linguistic archaeology" of the Romani people. An example of this is the discovery of a skeleton in a Anglo-Saxon cemetery under Norwich Castle in Norfolk, which – as reported by British Archaeology – was genetically identified as a possible Romani man. Contemporary archaeology Ethnoarchaeology Timeline of Romani history
The Gypsies in Spain known as gitanos, belong to the Iberian Kale group, with smaller populations in Portugal and in southern France. They tend to speak Caló, which encompasses a range of regional dialects of Spanish with numerous Romani loan words and mannerisms. To varying degrees, they identify with Andalusian culture and music due to the large and culturally significant gitano population present in that region. Data on ethnicity is not collected in Spain, although the Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the term "gitano" evolved from the word "egiptano", the Old Spanish demonym for someone from "Egipto". "Egiptano" was the regular Spanish language adjective for someone from Egypt, however, in Middle and Modern Spanish the irregular adjective "egipcio" supplanted "egiptano" to mean Egyptian, while "gitano" went on to refer to Romanis in Spain. The etymological meaning of the term "gitano", was "Egyptian".
The use of the Spanish word meaning "Egyptian" to refer to Romanis in Spain evolved in the same way that the English word "Gypsy" evolved from the English adjective "Egyptian" to refer to Romanis. Both terms are due to some Romanis, a people originating in the northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent, upon their first arrivals to Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries, claiming to be Egyptians for a more favourable treatment by local Europeans, or being mistaken as Egyptians by local Europeans. While it is now known that Romanis are of northwestern Hindustani origin, many Romanis did enter Europe via a generations-long migration which included Egypt as one of their last stops before their arrival into Europe, it is for this same reason that in the Albanian language variations of the Albanian term for "Egyptian" are still used to refer to a Romani people of Albania, which in English are still ambiguously referred to as Balkan Egyptians. This group of Romanis in Albania are of northwestern Hindustani origin, are not related to the people of Egypt.
Gitano identity is complex in Spain for a variety of reasons which are examined below. It can be safely said that both from the perspective of gitano and non-gitano Spaniards, individuals considered to belong to this ethnicity are those of full or near-full gitano descent and who self-identify. A confusing element is Roma culture at a popular level; this has occurred to the point where Spaniards from other regions of Spain can mistake elements of one for the other. The clearest example of this is flamenco music and Sevillanas, art forms that are Andalusian rather than gitano in origin but, having been marked by gitanos in interpretative style, is now associated to this ethnicity by many Spaniards; the fact that the largest population of gitanos is concentrated in Southern Spain has led to a confusion between gitano accents and those typical of Southern Spain though many Kale populations in the northern half of Spain do not speak Andalusian Spanish. Indeed, the boundaries among gitano and non-gitano ethnicities are so blurred by intermarriage and common cultural traits in the south of the country, that self-identification is on occasion the only real marker for ethnicity.
Few Spaniards are aware, for example, that Andalusian singer and gitano popular icon Lola Flores was, in fact, not of gitano ethnicity and did not consider herself as such. The mistake can be attributed to her being a Flamenco singer of humble origin, with vaguely South Asian physical traits and a strong Andalusian accent, as well as to her having married into a Gitano family; the term "gitano" has acquired among many a negative socio-economic connotation referring to the lowest strata of society, sometimes linking it to crime and marginality and being used as a term of abuse. In this, one can be Gitano "by degree" according to how much one fits into pre-conceived stereotypes or social stigmas. On the other hand, the exaltation of Roma culture and heritage is a large element of wider Andalusian folklore and Spanish identity. Gitanos, rather than being considered a "foreign" or "alien" minority within the country are perceived as "deep" or "real Spain", as is expressed by the term "España Cañí" which means both "Gypsy Spain" and "Traditional" or "Folkloric Spain".
This is the result of the period of romantic nationalism which followed the Spanish war of independence, during which the values of the Enlightenment arriving from Western Europe were rejected and Gypsies became the symbol of Spanish traditionalism and racial consciousness. Evidently, all this results in a strong distinction between gitanos and Rom immigrants from Eastern Europe, who are identified by the wider population according to their country of origin rather than by their actual Rom ethnicity; the Romani people originate from northwestern Hindustan from the northwestern Indian state of Rajasthan and the Punjab region shared between India and Pakistan. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in the Indian subcontinent: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indic languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts, daily routines and numerals. More Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi.
It shares many phonetic features with Marwari. Linguistic evaluation