After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Origin of the Romanians
Several well-supported theories address the issue of the origin of the Romanians. The Romanian language definitely descends from the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken in the Roman provinces north of the Jireček Line in Late Antiquity. According to the theory, migrations from the Balkan Peninsula to the lands north of the Danube contributed to the survival of a Romance-speaking population in those territories. Romanians, known by the exonym Vlachs in the Middle Ages, Eastern Romance now has four variants, which are former dialects of a Proto-Romanian language. Daco-Romanian, the language of Romania, is the most widespread of the four variants. Speakers of the Aromanian language live in scattered communities in Albania, Greece, another two, by now nearly extinct variants, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, are spoken in some villages in Macedonia and Greece, and in Croatia, respectively. Political and ideological considerations, including the dispute between Hungary and Romania over Transylvania, have colored these scholarly discussions, thereafter the process of Romanization expanded to Maramureş, Moldavia and other neighboring regions due to the free movement of people across the former imperial borders.
The spread of Christianity contributed to the process, since Latin was the language of liturgy among the Daco-Romans, although for a millennium migratory peoples invaded the lands now forming Romania, a sedentary Romance-speaking population survived. These lands remained the center of Romanization after the Slavs began to assimilate the Latin-speaking population of the Balkans in the 6th century. Archaeology probably remains the best source of information about the constitution of the largest population in southeast Europe. The Romanization of Dacia and the birth of a Daco-Roman people can be considered the first stage in the process of the formation of the Romanian people. It continued until the early 6th century, as long as the empire, still in power along the Danube and in Dobrudja, the continual circulation of people and goods across the river and back certainly facilitated this. Following the collapse of the frontiers around 620, some of this population moved south to regions where Latin had not been widely spoken.
Others took refuge in the Balkan Mountains where they adopted an itinerant form of sheep- and their mobile lifestyle contributed to their spread in the mountainous zones. The Romanians ancestors came into contact with sedentary Slavic-speaking communities in the 10th century at the latest. They adopted Old Church Slavonic liturgy in the First Bulgarian Empire and they were first employed as border guards along the southeastern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary and settled in other sparsely inhabited regions as well. Although sheep-breeding remained their principal activity for centuries, their permanent settlements are documented from the 1330s. Whereas whole Romania is entwined with conclusive geographical names which excludes any form of continuity there, the Balkan Vlachs northward migration ensured that these centers remained in close contact for centuries
Union of Transylvania with Romania
The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on December 11918 by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia. The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day occurring on December 1, the holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and marks the unification not only of Transylvania, but of the provinces of Banat and Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom. These other provinces had all joined with the Kingdom of Romania earlier in 1918, the planned border followed a line some 20-40 kilometres west of the present Hungarian-Romanian border, but joined river Tisza in the South, thus granting the whole of Banat to Romania. The offensive is soon halted by Austrian-Hungarian and German forces, in return, with a combined push from Transylvania and from Bulgaria, the Central Powers occupy Wallachia, including Bucharest. The Romanian capital temporarily moves to Iaşi, December 1916 - The German offensive is stopped along the Mărăşeşti-Galaţi line. May–July 1917 - Romanian troops halt a German offensive and push back to the last trench line.
December 9,1917 - Romania sign armistice with Central Powers January 1918 - US President Woodrow Wilson condemns any secret treaties, March 26–28,1918 - A Congress of Nationalities of Austria-Hungary takes place in Rome. A motion is passed, demanding the recognition of the right of nation to constitute into a national state. April 91918 - Bessarabia, after an independence from Russia. Romanian and some minority deputies vote for, while the majority of the minorities representatives abstain,2 Ukrainian and 1 Bulgarian deputies vote against. The declaration is co-signed by the prime-minister Alexandru Marghiloman for the Romanian government, may 181918 - A Peace Treaty is signed between the Central Powers and the Kingdom of Romania, to replace the five-month-old armistice. Romania recovers its pre-war territory occupied by the Central Powers in December 1916, except for Dobruja, the treaty is not ratified by Romania, in the hope that the tide of the war would turn the other way. The Central Powers, in accordance to the treaty, begin to pull out its troops from the occupied Wallachia.
It is recognized as the exponent of the interests of the Romanian nation of Austria-Hungary by France, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Italy, the four powers of the Entente. September 2,1918 - A Congress of Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croatians, a resolution demanding the division of the Austria-Hungary and the liberation of its peoples is passed. October 12,1918 - The Executive Committee of the National Romanian Party of Austria-Hungary, to this end the National Romanian Party forms an Action Committee, seated in Arad, and presided by Vasile Goldiş. The Manifesto fails to achieve its goal, being regarded as a step that comes way too late, National Councils spring up throughout Austria-Hungary, and prefer to negotiate directly with the Entente powers, rather than with the failing Central Government. Iuliu Maniu, a preeminent Transylvanian politician, gathers in Vienna 70,000 Transylvanian soldiers from the Austrian-Hungarian Army, october 31,1918 - A new government, led by Károlyi Mihály, is formed in Budapest, with the democrat Oszkár Jászi as Minister of Nationalities
Founding of Moldavia
The founding of Moldavia began with the arrival of a Vlach voivode, Dragoș, soon followed by his people from Maramureș to the region of the Moldova River. Dragoș established a polity there as a vassal to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 1350s and it remained a principality until 1859, when it united with Wallachia, initiating the development of the modern Romanian state. Moldavia developed in the lands between the Carpathian Mountains and the Dniester River, which had been dominated by nomadic Turkic peoples—the Pechenegs, the Mongols promoted international commerce, and an important trade route developed along the Dniester. The circulation of Hungarian and Bohemian coins shows that there were close contacts between the basin of the Moldova and Central Europe in the early 14th century. The Vlachs presence in that territory is documented from the 1160s. Their local polities were first mentioned in the 13th century, the Mongols defeated the Qara-Ulagh, or Black Vlachs, in 1241, the Moldavian region—the lands between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River—acquired a territorial identify in the 14th century.
A new material culture—the Dridu culture—spread in the lands along the Lower Danube, Tivercians Waladj, and Blaghā are ethnic groups connected with the Vlachs, or Romanians, of the region of the Carpathians. Victor Spinei wrote that a runestone which was set up around 1050 contains the earliest reference to Romanians living east of the Carpathians and it refers to Blakumen who killed a Varangian merchant at an unspecified place. A competing group, the Magyars, left the Pontic steppes for the Carpathian Basin after a coalition of the Pechenegs, the Pechenegs took control of the territory, but most Dridu settlements survived their arrival. Only the fortifications were destroyed in the 10th or early 11th centuries, new settlements appeared along the lower course of the Prut. The local inhabitants burial rites radically changed, inhumation replaced cremation and his narrative shows that the Quara-Ulagh, or Black Vlachs, lived in the Eastern or Southern Carpathians. Giovanni di Plano Carpini, an envoy to the Great Khan of the Mongols.
Victor Spinei, Vlad Georgescu and other historians identify the duke as a Vlach ruler, because his name is similar to the Hungarian word for Vlach, but the name may have been a version of Oleg. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed the Blac, or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs territory is uncertain. Rubruck described Blakia as Assans territory south of the Lower Danube, archaeological finds—kilns to produce pottery and furnaces to puddle iron ore—identify towns that were important economic centers of the Golden Horde. At Orheiul Vechi, the ruins of a mosque and a bath were excavated, the local inhabitants used high quality ceramics, similar to those found in other parts of the Golden Horde. The Mongols supported international commerce, which led to the formation of a Mongol road from Kraków along the Dniester, almost 5000 Mongol coins from the first half of the 14th century have been excavated in the same region.
At the mouth of the Dniester, Cetatea Albă developed into an important emporium and it was established by Genoese merchants in the late 13th century
Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. The acquisition was among the Empires last territorial acquisitions in Europe, the newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name previously used for the southern plains, between the Dniester and the Danube rivers. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the assembly declared independence, and union with the Kingdom of Romania. The legality of acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union. Axis-aligned Romania briefly recaptured the region in 1941 during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, in 1947, the Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut was internationally recognised by the Paris Treaty that ended World War II.
Part of the Gagauz-inhabited areas in the southern Bessarabia was organised in 1994 as a region within Moldova. According to the interpretation, the name Bessarabia derives from the Wallachian Basarab dynasty. Recent research has however cast doubt on this view, as the name was first applied to the territory by Western cartographers, showing up in local sources only in the second half of the 17th century. Furthermore, the use of the term to refer to the Moldavian lands near the Black Sea was explicitly rejected as a confusion by the early Moldavian chronicler Miron Costin. The confusion may have been caused by Polish references to Wallachia as Bessarabia, according to Dimitrie Cantemir, the name originally applied only to the part of the territory south of the Upper Trajanic Wall, somewhat bigger than current Budjak. The name Bessarabia may literally mean Bessi slaves after the Thracian tribe which was expelled by Trajan north of the Danube. The region is bounded by the Dniester to the north and east, the Prut to the west and the lower River Danube and it has an area of 45,630 km2.
The area is mostly hilly plains with flat steppes and it is very fertile, and has lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beet, wheat, tobacco, wine grapes and they raise sheep and cattle. Currently, the industry in the region is agricultural processing. The regions main cities are Chișinău, Izmail and Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, historically called Cetatea Albă / Akkerman, other towns of administrative or historical importance include, Khotyn and Kilia, and Lipcani, Soroca, Bălți, Ungheni, Bender/Tighina and Cahul. In the late 14th century, the newly established Principality of Moldavia encompassed what became known as Bessarabia
Despite their cosmopolitanism and often-Western education, the Phanariotes were aware of their Hellenism, according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos Philotheou Parerga, We are a race completely Hellenic. They emerged as a class of moneyed Greek merchants during the half of the 16th century. They dominated the administration of the patriarchate, often intervening in the selection of hierarchs, many members of Phanariot families occupied high political and administrative posts in the Ottoman Empire. During the war, Phanariotes influenced decisions by the Greek National Assembly, between 1711–1716 and 1821, a number of Phanariotes were appointed Hospodars in the Danubian Principalities, the period is known as the Phanariote epoch in Romanian history. Phanar was repopulated with Greeks from Mouchlion in the Peloponnese and, after 1461, the roots of Greek ascendancy can be traced to the Ottoman need for skilled, educated negotiators as their empire declined and they relied on treaties rather than force.
With the Ottomans traditionally ignoring Western European languages and cultures, officials were at a loss, the Porte assigned those tasks to the Greeks, who had a long mercantile and educational tradition and the necessary skills. The Phanariotes and Hellenized families primarily from Constantinople, occupied high posts as secretaries, as a result of Phanariote and ecclesiastical administration, the Greeks expanded their influence in the 18th-century empire while retaining their Greek Orthodox faith and Hellenism. This had not always been the case in the Ottoman realm, a Slavic presence in Ottoman administration gradually became hazardous for its rulers, since the Slavs tended to support Habsburg armies during the Great Turkish War. By the 17th century the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was the religious and administrative ruler of the empires Orthodox subjects, all formerly-independent Orthodox patriarchates, including the Serbian Patriarchate renewed in 1557, came under the authority of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Most of the Greek patriarchs were drawn from the Phanariotes, two Greek social groups emerged, challenging the leadership of the Greek Church, the Phanariotes in Constantinople and the local notables in the Helladic provinces. Greek merchants and clergy of Byzantine aristocratic origin, who acquired economic and political influence and were known as Phanariotes. The position of the Patriarchate in the Ottoman state encouraged Greek renaissance projects centering on the resurrection and revitalization of the Byzantine Empire. The Patriarch and his church dignitaries constituted the first centre of power for the Greeks in the Ottoman state, the wealth of the extensive Greek merchant class provided the material basis for the intellectual revival featured in Greek life for more than half a century before 1821. Greek merchants endowed libraries and schools, on the eve of the Greek War of Independence, the three most important centres of Greek learning were in the commercial centres of Chios and Aivali.
The first Greek millionaire of the Ottoman era was Michael Şeytanoğlu Kantakouzenos, during the 18th century, the Phanariotes were a hereditary clerical−aristocratic group who managed the affairs of the patriarchate and the dominant political power of the Ottoman Greek community. They became a significant political factor in the empire and, as agents, played a role in the affairs of Great Britain, France. They engaged in trade, controlling the crucial wheat trade on the Black Sea. The Phanariotes expanded their activities into the Kingdom of Hungary
Romania in the Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages in Romania started with the withdrawal of the Roman troops and administration from Dacia province in the 270s. In the next millennium a series of peoples, most of whom only controlled two or three of the nearly ten historical regions that now form Romania, during this period and culture underwent fundamental changes. Town life came to an end in Dacia with the Roman withdrawal, fine vessels made on fast potters wheels disappeared and hand-made pottery became dominant from the 450s. Burial rites changed more than once from cremation to inhumation and vice versa until inhumation became dominant by the end of the 10th century, the East Germanic Goths and Gepids, who lived in sedentary communities, were the first new arrivals. The Goths dominated Moldavia and Wallachia from the 290s, and parts of Transylvania from the 330s and their power collapsed under attacks by the nomadic Huns in 376. The Huns controlled Eastern and Central Europe from around 400, thereafter the regions west of the Carpathian Mountains – Banat, Crişana, and Transylvania – and Oltenia were dominated by the Gepids.
Within a century, the lands east of the mountains became important centers of the Antes and Sclavenes and place names of Slavic origin prove the one-time presence of Early Slavs in the regions west of the Carpathians. The nomadic Avars subjugated the Gepids in 568 and dominated the Carpathian Basin up until around 800, the Bulgars established a powerful empire in the 670s which included Dobruja and other territories along the Lower Danube. Bulgaria officially adopted the Eastern Orthodox variant of Christianity in 864, an armed conflict between Bulgaria and the nomadic Hungarians forced the latter to depart from the Pontic steppes and began the conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 895. Their invasion gave rise to the earliest reference, recorded some centuries in the Gesta Hungarorum, the same source makes mention of the presence of the Székelys in Crişana around 895. The first contemporaneous references to Romanians – who used to be known as Vlachs – in the regions now forming Romania were recorded in the 12th and 13th centuries, references to Vlachs inhabiting the lands to the south of the Lower Danube abound in the same period.
Banat, Crişana and Transylvania were integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century and these regions were subject to plundering raids by the nomadic Pechenegs and Cumans, who dominated the lowlands east of the mountains. Hungarian monarchs promoted the immigration of Western European colonists to Transylvania from the 1150s, the colonists descendants, who were known as Transylvanian Saxons from the early 13th century, received collective privileges in 1224. Because of the settlement of the Saxons in their former territories, the emergence of the Mongol Empire in the Eurasian Steppes in the first decades of the 13th century had lasting effects on the history of the region. The Mongols subjugated the Cumans in the 1230s and destroyed many settlements throughout the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 and 1242, bringing the Early Middle Ages to an end. Contacts between the Roman Empire – which developed into the largest empire in the history of Europe – and these regions were inhabited by Dacians and other peoples whose incursions posed a threat to the empire.
The Romans initially attempted to secure their frontiers by various means, they decided that the annexation of the lands of these fierce barbarians was the best measure. The territory of the Getae between the river Danube and the Black Sea was the first region to be incorporated into the empire and it was attached to the Roman province of Moesia in 46 AD
Treaty of San Stefano
The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78. The treaty provided for the creation of an autonomous Principality of Bulgaria following almost 500 years of Ottoman domination, the day the treaty was signed,3 March 1878, is celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria. However, the enlarged Bulgaria envisioned by the treaty alarmed neighboring states as well as France, as a result, it was never implemented, being superseded by the Treaty of Berlin following the Congress of the same name that took place three months later. San Stefano Peak on Rugged Island in the South Shetland Islands, the treaty established the autonomous self-governing Principality of Bulgaria, with a Christian government and the right to keep an army. Though still de jure tributary to Turkey, the Principality de facto functioned as independent nation, a prince elected by the people, approved by Turkey, and recognized by the Great Powers was to take the helm of the country. A council of Bulgarian noblemen was to draft a constitution, Ottoman troops were to withdraw from Bulgaria, while Russian troops would remain for two more years.
Serbia annexed the cities of Niš and Leskovac in Moravian Serbia, Turkey recognized the independence of Romania. Romania gained Northern Dobruja from Russia and ceded Southern Bessarabia in a forced exchange, in exchange for the war reparations, the Porte ceded Armenian and Georgian territories in the Caucasus to Russia, including Ardahan, Batum, Olti and Alashkert. Additionally, it ceded Northern Dobruja, which Russia handed to Romania in exchange for Southern Bessarabia, the Straits — the Bosporus and the Dardanelles — were declared open to all neutral ships in war and peacetime. These reasons prompted the Great Powers to obtain a revision of the treaty at the Congress of Berlin, Austria-Hungary was disappointed with the treaty as it failed to expand its influence in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The implications of the treaty led to the formation of the League of Prizren. According to British historian A. J. P. Taylor, writing in 1954, If the treaty of San Stefano had been maintained, the British, except for in his wilder moments, had expected less and were therefore less disappointed.
Salisbury wrote at the end of 1878 We shall set up a rickety sort of Turkish rule again south of the Balkans, but it is a mere respite. There is no vitality left in them, history of Bulgaria The Preliminary Treaty of Peace, signed at San Stefano - Full text, in English. Full text of the San Stefano Preliminary Treaty Bulgaria in the borders after the Treaties of Constantinople, San-Stephano, London and Neuilly
Regulamentul Organic was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1834–1835 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia. The document partially confirmed the government and set up a common Russian protectorate which lasted until 1854. The Regulament itself remained in force until 1858, conservative in its scope, it engendered a period of unprecedented reforms which provided a setting for the Westernization of the local society. The Regulament offered the two Principalities their first common system of government, the Ottomans enforced a tighter control on the region, effected under Phanariote hospodars. Ottoman rule over the region remained contested by competition from Russia, at the same time, the Porte made several concessions to the rulers and boyars of Moldavia and Wallachia, as a means to ensure the preservation of its rule. A compromise was achieved through their support for Tudor Vladimirescu. The proponent, Ionică Tăutu, was defeated in the Divan after the Russian consul sided with the conservatives.
The Russian military presence on the Principalities soil was inaugurated in the first days of the war, by late April 1828 and he recorded a mounting dissatifaction with the new rule, mentioning that peasants were especially upset by the continuous maneuvers of troops inside the Principalities borders. Overall, Russophilia in the two Principalities appears to have suffered a major blow, despite the confiscations, statistics of the time indicated that the pace of growth in heads of cattle remained steady. Furthermore, Wallachias southern border was settled on the Danube thalweg, and the state was given control over the previously Ottoman-ruled ports of Brăila, Russian occupation over Moldavia and Wallachia was prolonged pending the payment of war reparations by the Ottomans. According to the radical Ghica, General Zheltukhin defended all Russian abuse and his administration, lasting until April 1,1834, was responsible for the most widespread and influential reforms of the period, and coincided with the actual enforcement of the new legislation.
The earliest of Kiselyovs celebrated actions was the convening of the Wallachian Divan in November 1829, with the assurance that abuses were not to be condoned anymore. Regulamentul Organic was adopted in its two very similar versions on July 13,1831 in Wallachia and January 13,1832 in Moldavia and its ratification by Sultan Mahmud II was not a requirement from Kiselyovs perspective, who began enforcing it as a fait accompli before this was granted. The final version of the document sanctioned the first local government abiding by the principles of separation, new methods of bookkeeping were regulated, and the creation of national banks was projected, like the adoption of national fixed currencies, was never implemented. According to the historian Nicolae Iorga, The oligarchy was appeased, as for the peasant, he lacked even the right to administer his own commune, he was not even allowed to vote for an Assembly deemed, as if in jest, «national». Their mistrust was, in time, reciprocated by Russia, who relied on hospodars, Kiselyov himself voiced a plan for the regions annexation to Russia, but the request was dismissed by his superiors.
Beginning with the reformist administration of Kiselyov, the two countries experienced a series of changes, social, as well as cultural. Despite underrepresentation in politics, the middle class swelled in numbers, under continuous competition from the sudiți, traditional guilds faded away, leading to a more competitive, purely capitalist environment
Foundation of Wallachia
Prior to the consolidation of Wallachia, waves of nomadic peoples – the last of them being the Cumans and the Mongols – rode across the territory. The territory became an area between the Golden Horde and the Kingdom of Hungary after 1242. The Romanians in Muntenia, east of the Olt River, had to pay tribute to the Mongols, the Golden Horde’s domination decreased in the region at the end of the 13th century, and at that time the Kingdom of Hungary underwent a strong political crisis. These events enabled the incipient states of the territory to consolidate their autonomy, one Romanian tradition records that Wallachia was founded when a certain Radu Negru arrived from the Făgăraș region in the 1290s after crossing the Transylvanian Alps with a great many following him. Jean W. Sedlar wrote that more credible is the report that some Romanian lords in the Olt and Argeș valleys chose as one of their number. It was Voivode Basarab I who broke off with the Kingdom of Hungary, Basarab I received international support and the recognition of the autonomy of Wallachia due to his great military victory over King Charles I of Hungary at Posada on November 12,1330.
The Metropolitan See of Wallachia, directly subordinated to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, was set up during the reign of Basarab I’s son, the first silver and bronze coins were minted in Wallachia in 1365. Among the oldest attestations of the countries of the Vlachs on the side of the Danube. The Cumans, a Turkic tribe approached the Danube Delta shortly after 1064–1065, but this vast territory was never politically united by a strong central power. The different Cuman groups were under independent rulers or khans who meddled in the life of the surrounding areas, such as the Rus’ principalities. In attacking the Byzantine Empire, the Cumans were assisted by the Vlachs living in the Balkan Mountains who showed them the mountain paths where no imperial guard was set up. In 1185, the Balkan Vlachs, together with the Bulgarians and they created, with the help of the Cumans and the Vlachs living on the left bank of the Danube, a new state, the Second Bulgarian Empire between the Balkan Mountains and the Danube.
The new state was called Vlachia or Vlachia and Bulgaria in Western sources, for example, in 1204 the pope elevated the head of the Bulgarian church to the rank of primas of all Bulgaria and Vlachia. Vlachia as a designation for northern Bulgaria only disappeared from the sources after the middle of the 13th century. In 1211, King Andrew II of Hungary settled the Teutonic Knights in the region of Braşov in order to put an end to the frequent incursions of the Cumans into Transylvania. The knights were given all the territory they could conquer beyond the Carpathian Mountains as a fief to be held from the king of Hungary, according to a royal charter of 1222, the knights’ military power stretched across the Carpathians all the way to the Danube. That the Teutonic Knights won several victories beyond the snowy mountains, the Teutonic Knights were forced out of the territory in 1225 by King Andrew II, who claimed that they had ignored his authority. The Mongols entered Europe in 1223 when they defeated a joint Rus’-Cuman army at the river Kalka, some Cuman groups, after their defeat of the Mongols, become willing to adopt Christianity
Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, with a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europes 16th-largest country. Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period and its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Persians, Romans, Goths and Huns. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State, the following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, in December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgarias transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgarias population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised, most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are industry, power engineering. The countrys current political structure dates to the adoption of a constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic, animal bones incised with man-made markings from Kozarnika cave are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, the latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation. Some of these first gold smelters produced the coins and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure and this site offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria, and kept it until 479 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control, by this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria. From the 6th century the easternmost South Slavs gradually settled in the region, in 680 Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska