Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism, the Western artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. In the Romantic period, music became more explicitly expressive and programmatic, dealing with the literary and philosophical themes of the time. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn and Berlioz; the late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble. Public concerts became a key part of urban middle class society, in contrast to earlier periods, when concerts were paid for by and performed for aristocrats. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Bruckner, Johann Strauss II, Liszt, Dvořák, Wagner. Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Mahler, Richard Strauss and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create more complex – and much longer – musical works.
A prominent mark of late-19th-century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck; the Romantic movement was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, it was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography and education, was in turn influenced by developments in natural history. One of the first significant applications of the term to music was in 1789, in the Mémoires by the Frenchman André Grétry, but it was E. T. A. Hoffmann who established the principles of musical romanticism, in a lengthy review of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony published in 1810, in an 1813 article on Beethoven's instrumental music.
In the first of these essays Hoffmann traced the beginnings of musical Romanticism to the works of Haydn and Mozart. It was Hoffmann's fusion of ideas associated with the term "Romantic", used in opposition to the restraint and formality of Classical models, that elevated music, instrumental music, to a position of pre-eminence in Romanticism as the art most suited to the expression of emotions, it was through the writings of Hoffmann and other German authors that German music was brought to the centre of musical Romanticism. Characteristics attributed to Romanticism: a new preoccupation with and surrender to Nature; such lists, proliferated over time, resulting in a "chaos of antithetical phenomena", criticized for their superficiality and for signifying so many different things that there came to be no central meaning. The attributes have been criticized for being too vague. For example, features of the "ghostly and supernatural" could apply to Mozart's Don Giovanni from 1787 and Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress from 1951.
In music there is a clear dividing line in musical structure and form following the death of Beethoven. Whether one counts Beethoven as a'romantic' composer or not, the breadth and power of his work gave rise to a feeling that the classical sonata form and, the structure of the symphony and string quartet had been exhausted. Schumann, Schubert and other early-Romantic composers tended to look in alternative directions; some characteristics of Romantic music include: The use of new or not so common musical structures like the song cycle, concert etude and rhapsody, alongside the traditional classical genres. Programme music became somewhat more common; the classical period used short fragmentary, thematic material while the Romantic period tended to make greater use of longer, more defined and more satisfying themes. For example, the Industrial Revolution was in full effect by the late 18th century and early 19th century; this event had a profound effect on music: there were major improvements in the mechanical valves and keys
The Romantics (film)
The Romantics is a 2010 romantic comedy film based on the novel of the same name by Galt Niederhoffer, who wrote the screenplay and directed the film. A group of seven college friends reunite after six years for a wedding. Things go awry when the maid of honor and the bride, clash over the groom, with whom Laura was once romantically involved; as Laura and Tom all try to decipher their emotions, the film explores all of the relationships of people in and around the circle of friends that met those years ago. Katie Holmes as Laura Rosen Anna Paquin as Lila Hayes Josh Duhamel as Tom McDevon Dianna Agron as Minnow Hayes Adam Brody as Jake Malin Åkerman as Tripler Elijah Wood as Chip Hayes Annabel Brooks as Sky Rosen Candice Bergen as Augusta Hayes James K. Schaffer as William Hayes Rosemary Murphy as Grandmother Hayes Warrent F. McKnight as Reverend Bartlett Liv Tyler was cast as Laura, but was replaced by Katie Holmes, who served as the film's executive producer. Filming took place from November to December 2009 in Southold, New York, Los Angeles, California.
It had its world premiere during the 2010 Sundance Film Festival. It was released in selected theaters September 10, 2010; the film was critically panned. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 15% based on reviews from 33 critics; the Romantics on IMDb The Romantics at Box Office Mojo
Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. It involved a reaction against prevailing Enlightenment ideas of the 18th century, lasted from 1800 to 1850, approximately. In early-19th-century England, the poet William Wordsworth defined his and Samuel Taylor Coleridge's innovative poetry in his Preface to Lyrical Ballads:I have said before that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin in emotion recollected in tranquility: the emotion is contemplated till, by a species of reaction, the tranquility disappears, an emotion, kindred to that, before the subject of contemplation, is produced, does itself exist in the mind; the poems of Lyrical Ballads intentionally re-imagined the way poetry should sound: "By fitting to metrical arrangement a selection of the real language of men," Wordsworth and his English contemporaries, such as Coleridge, John Keats, Percy Shelley, William Blake, wrote poetry, meant to boil up from serious, contemplative reflection over the interaction of humans with their environment.
Although many stress the notion of spontaneity in Romantic poetry, the movement was still concerned with the difficulty of composition and of translating these emotions into poetic form. Indeed, Coleridge, in On Poesy or Art, sees art as “the mediatress between, reconciler of nature and man”; such an attitude reflects what might be called the dominant theme of English Romantic poetry: the filtering of natural emotion through the human mind in order to create meaning. One of the most important concepts in Romantic poetry; the sublime in literature refers to use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary experience. Though associated with grandeur, the sublime may refer to the grotesque or other extraordinary experiences that "take us beyond ourselves.”The literary concept of the sublime became important in the eighteenth century. It is associated with the 1757 treatise by Edmund Burke; the idea of the sublime was taken up by Immanuel Kant and the Romantic poets including William Wordsworth.
Romantic poetry contrasts with neoclassical poetry, the product of intellect and reason, while romantic poetry is more the product of emotion. Romantic poetry at the beginning of the nineteenth century was a reaction against the set standards, conventions of eighteenth century poetry. According to William J. Long, “The Romantic Movement was marked, is always marked, by a strong reaction and protest against the bondage of rule and custom which in science and theology as well as literature tend to fetter the free human spirit.” Belief in the importance of the imagination is a distinctive feature of romantic poets such as John Keats, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and P. B. Shelley, unlike the neoclassical poets. Keats said, “I am certain of nothing but of the holiness of the Heart's affections and the truth of Imagination- What the imagination seizes as beauty must be truth.” For Wordsworth and William Blake, as well as Victor Hugo and Alessandro Manzoni, the imagination is a spiritual force, is related to morality, they believed that literature poetry, could improve the world.
The secret of great art, Blake claimed, is the capacity to imagine. To define imagination, in his poem "Auguries of Innocence", Blake said: To see a world in a grain of sand, And heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour. Love for nature is another important feature of romantic poetry, as a source of inspiration; this poetry involves a relationship with external nature and places, a belief in pantheism. However, the romantic poets differed in their views about nature. Wordsworth recognized nature as a living thing, teacher and everything; these feelings are developed and expressed in his epic poem The Prelude. In his poem "The Tables Turn" he writes: One impulse from the vernal wood Can teach you more of man, Of moral evil and good, Than all sages can. Shelley was another nature poet, who believed that nature is a living thing and there is a union between nature and man. Wordsworth approaches nature philosophically. John Keats is another a lover of nature, but Coleridge differs from other romantic poets of his age, in that he has a realistic perspective on nature.
He believes that nature is not the source of joy and pleasure, but rather that people's reactions to it depends on their mood and disposition. Coleridge believed that joy does not come from external nature, but that it emanates from the human heart. Melancholy occupies a prominent place in romantic poetry, is an important source of inspiration for the Romantic poets. In'"Ode to a Nightingale", Keats wrote:..........for many a time I have been half in love with easeful Death, Call’d him soft names in many a mused rhyme, To take into the air my quiet breath. Romantic poetry was attracted to nostalgia, medievalism is another important characteristic of romantic poetry in the works of John Keats and Coleridge, they were attracted to exotic and obscure places, so they were more attracted to Middle Ages than to their own age. The world of classical Greece was important to the Romantics. John Keats' poetry is full of allusions to the art and culture of Greek, as for example in "Ode on a Grecian Urn".
Most of the romantic poets used supernatural elements in their poetry. Samuel Taylor Coleridge is the leading romantic poet in this regard, "Kubla Khan" is full of supernatural elements. Romantic
Dr. Romantic is a 2016 South Korean television drama starring Han Suk-kyu as the title character with Yoo Yeon-seok and Seo Hyun-jin, it aired on SBS every Monday and Tuesday at 22:00 for 20 episodes from November 7, 2016 to January 16, 2017. The series was a commercial recorded over 20 % in ratings, it received positive reviews for Han Suk-kyu's performance. A story about Boo Yong-joo, a genius and triple-board certified surgeon, once at the top of his field and used to work at Seoul's top hospital, Geodae. After a traumatic incident, he changes his name to Kim Sa-bu, he begins working at a small hospital named Doldam, located in Gangwon Province. He guides Kang Dong-joo and Yoon Seo-jeong to become great doctors by teaching them to fight against power and money for the sake of patients. Seo Hyun-jin as Yoon Seo-jungShe has a strong desire to be recognized more than anyone, she feels guilty after the death of her boyfriend. After the accident, she disappears from Geodae hospital and is rescued by Kim Sa-bu after injuring herself.
She becomes a doctor at Doldam hospitalHan Suk-kyu as Kim Sa-bu / Boo Yong-jooHis real name is Boo Yong-joo, but he uses the name Kim Sa-bu. He is the only genius surgeon in Korea who achieved triple-board certified in general surgery, cardiac surgery and neurosurgery. After the death of his junior in Geodae hospital, he isolates himself and moves to Doldam hospital to become the Chief Surgeon there. Yoo Yeon-seok as Kang Dong-joo Yoon Chan-young as young Kang Dong-jooIntelligent and armed with excellent skills, he has strong desire to succeed but is held back due to his poor family background, he gets transferred to Doldam hospital after a failed surgery on a VIP, an opportunity for him to prove his skills.. Kim Hong-fa as Yeo Woon-youngDirector of Doldam hospital. A proud doctor but lost his motivation after the death of his wife. Jin Kyung as Oh Myung-simHead of the nurses. A woman with strong sense of being able to stand still against Kim Sa-bu. Im Won-hee as Jang Gi-taeExecutive director of Doldam hospital.
Byun Woo-min as Nam Do-ilA freelance owner of a restaurant. Kim Min-jae as Park Eun-takA nurse at Doldam hospital, he harbors a crush on Yeon-hwa. Seo Eun-soo as Woo Yeon-hwaA staff member in Doldam hospital who likes Dong-joo. After, She comes to be a doctor in Doldam hospital Choi Jin-ho as Do Yoon-wanDirector of Goedae hospital. Yang Se-jong as Do In-bumYoon-wan's son, he went to class as Dong-joo. He wants to be acknowledged by his father, he feels inferior to Dong-joo. He harbours a crush on Seo JungJang Hyuk-jin as chief surgeon Song Hyun-cheolHead of the surgeons at Geodae hospital, he has a strong desire for success. Joo Hyun as chairman ShinOwner of Jungsun Casino and the hidden Chairman of Geodae hospital. Yoon Na-moo as Senior In-soo Tae In-ho as Dr. Moon Tae-hwa Moon Ji-in as a doctor and Yoon Seo-jung's friend Hwang Chan-sung as Young Gyun Kim Hye-eun Kim Hye-soo as Dr. Lee Young-jo First script reading took place September 13, 2016 at SBS Ilsan Production Studios in Goyang, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
Filming started on September 23. In the table below, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings. Note: Episode 15 didn't air as scheduled due to SBS Gayo Daejeon. In greater Los Angeles area, the drama aired on LA 18 KSCI-TV with English subtitles, starting December 5, 2016 to February 7, 2017. In Taiwan, Romantic Doctor aired on CSTV from January 9 to January 25, 2017. In Hong Kong, the drama aired on Fantastic TV from May 15 to June 20, 2017. In Cambodia, it aired as "មន្តស្នេហ៍គ្រូពេទ្យជំនាញ" on NICE TV from May 29 to June 12. In Singapore, it aired on Mediacorp Channel U beginning Nov 25, 2017, at 9pm on Saturdays and Sundays. In the Philippines, the series aired on GMA Network under the title The Romantic Doctor from December 25, 2017 to February 15, 2018; the show aired from Mondays to Thursdays at 10 PM during the network's The Heart of Asia block. Official website
A romantic friendship, passionate friendship, or affectionate friendship is a close but non-sexual relationship between friends involving a degree of physical closeness beyond that, common in the contemporary Western societies. It may include for example holding hands, hugging, giving massages, sharing a bed, or co-sleeping, without sexual intercourse or other physical sexual expression. In historical scholarship, the term may be used to describe a close relationship between people of the same sex during a period of history when homosexuality did not exist as a social category. In this regard, the term was coined in the 20th century in order to retrospectively describe a type of relationship which until the mid-19th century had been considered unremarkable but since the second half of the 19th century had become more rare as physical intimacy between non-sexual partners came to be regarded with anxiety. Romantic friendship between women in Europe and North America became prevalent in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, with the simultaneous emergence of female education and a new rhetoric of sexual difference.
The study of historical romantic friendship is difficult because the primary source material consists of writing about love relationships, which took the form of love letters, poems, or philosophical essays rather than objective studies. Most of these do not explicitly state the nonsexual nature of relationships; the content of Shakespeare's works has raised the question of. Although twenty-six of Shakespeare's sonnets are love poems addressed to a married woman, one hundred and twenty-six are addressed to an adolescent boy; the amorous tone of the latter group, which focus on the boy's beauty, has been interpreted as evidence for Shakespeare's bisexuality, although others interpret them as referring to intense friendship or fatherly affection, not sexual love. Among those of the latter interpretation, in the preface to his 1961 Pelican edition, Douglas Bush writes: Since modern readers are unused to such ardor in masculine friendship and are to leap at the notion of homosexuality… we may remember that such an ideal exalted above the love of women, could exist in real life, from Montaigne to Sir Thomas Browne, was conspicuous in Renaissance literature.
Bush cites Montaigne, who distinguished male friendships from "that other, licentious Greek love", as evidence of a platonic interpretation. The French philosopher Montaigne described the concept of romantic friendship in his essay "On Friendship." In addition to distinguishing this type of love from homosexuality, another way in which Montaigne differed from the modern view was that he felt that friendship and platonic emotion were a masculine capacity: Seeing that the ordinary sufficiency of women cannot answer this conference and communication, the nurse of this sacred bond: nor seem their minds strong enough to endure the pulling of a knot so hard, so fast, durable. Lesbian-feminist historian Lillian Faderman cites Montaigne, using "On Friendship" as evidence that romantic friendship was distinct from homosexuality, since the former could be extolled by famous and respected writers, who disparaged homosexuality; some historians have used the relationship between Abraham Lincoln and Joshua Speed as another example of a relationship that modern people see as ambiguous or gay, but, most to have been a romantic friendship.
Lincoln and Speed shared a bed in their youth and maintained a lifelong friendship. David Herbert Donald pointed out that men at that time shared beds for financial reasons. Anthony Rotundo notes that the custom of romantic friendship for men in America in the early 19th century was different from that of Renaissance France, it was expected that men would distance themselves and physically somewhat after marriage; such distancing is still practiced today. Proponents of the romantic friendship hypothesis make reference to the Bible. Historians like Faderman and Robert Brain believe that the descriptions of relationships such as David and Jonathan or Ruth and Naomi in this religious text establish that the customs of romantic friendship existed and were thought of as virtuous in the ancient Near East, despite the simultaneous taboo on homosexuality; the relationship between King David and Jonathan, son of King Saul, is cited as an example of male romantic friendship.
For others of a similar name, see Mary Sinclair. May Sinclair was the pseudonym of Mary Amelia St. Clair, a popular British writer who wrote about two dozen novels, short stories and poetry, she was an active suffragist, member of the Woman Writers' Suffrage League. She once dressed up as a rebel Jane Austen for a suffrage fundraising event. Sinclair was a significant critic in the area of modernist poetry and prose, she is attributed with first using the term'stream of consciousness' in a literary context, when reviewing the first volumes of Dorothy Richardson's novel sequence Pilgrimage, in The Egoist, April 1918. Sinclair was born in Cheshire, her mother was religious. The family moved to Ilford on the edge of London. After one year of education at Cheltenham Ladies College, Sinclair was obliged to look after her brothers, as four of the five, all older than her, were suffering from a fatal congenital heart disease. From 1896 Sinclair wrote professionally to support herself and her mother, who died in 1901.
An active feminist, Sinclair treated a number of themes relating to the position of women and marriage. Her works sold well in the United States. Sinclair's suffrage activities were remembered by Sylvia Pankhurst. Photographs (as "Mary Sinlair" show her around the WSPU offices in Kensington. In 1912 the Women Writers' Suffrage League published her ideas on feminism. Here she de-bunked theories put forward by Sir Almroth Wright that the suffragists were powered by their sexual frustration because of the shortage of men, she said that suffrage and the class struggle were similar aspirations and the working woman should not be in competition with the ambitions of the male working class. Around 1913, she was a founding supporter of the Medico-Psychological Clinic in London, run by Dr Jessie Murray. Sinclair became interested in psychoanalytic thought, introduced matter related to Sigmund Freud's teaching in her novels. In 1914, she volunteered to join the Munro Ambulance Corps, a charitable organization that aided wounded Belgian soldiers on the Western Front in Flanders.
She was sent home after only a few weeks at the front. Her 1913 novel The Combined Maze, the story of a London clerk and the two women he loves, was praised by critics, including George Orwell, while Agatha Christie considered it one of the greatest English novels of its time, she wrote early criticism on Imagism and the poet H. D.. She reviewed in a positive light the poetry of T. S. Eliot and the fiction of Dorothy Richardson, it was in connection with Richardson that she introduced "stream of consciousness" as a literary term, generally adopted. Some aspects of Sinclair's subsequent novels have been traced as influenced by modernist techniques in the autobiographical Mary Olivier: A Life, she was included in the 1925 Contact Collection of Contemporary Writers. Sinclair wrote two volumes of supernatural fiction, Uncanny Stories and The Intercessor and Other Stories. E. F. Bleiler called Sinclair "an underrated writer" and described Uncanny Stories as "excellent". Gary Crawford has stated Sinclair's contribution to the supernatural fiction genre, "small as it is, is notable".
Jacques Barzun included Sinclair among a list of supernatural fiction writers that "one should make a point of seeking out". Brian Stableford has stated that Sinclair's "supernatural tales are written with uncommon delicacy and precision, they are among the most effective examples of their fugitive kind." Andrew Smith has described Uncanny Stories as "an important contribution to the ghost story". From the late 1920s she was suffering from the early signs of Parkinson's disease, ceased writing, she settled with a companion in Buckinghamshire in 1932. She is buried at London. Sinclair wrote non-fiction based on studies of philosophy idealism, she defended a form of idealistic monism in her book A Defence of Idealism. Sinclair was interested in parapsychology and spiritualism, she was a member of the Society for Psychical Research from 1914. Theophilus Ernest Martin Boll Miss May Sinclair: Novelist. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Pp. 101–143. The homepage of the May Sinclair Society An essay on May Sinclair, Dorothy Richardson, and'Stream of Consciousness' A 2001 essay by Leigh Wilson, from The Literary Encyclopedia Works by May Sinclair at Project Gutenberg Works by May Sinclair at Faded Page Works by or about May Sinclair at Internet Archive Works by May Sinclair at LibriVox The Cellar-House of Pervyse at Internet Archive We Brought Succour to Belgium at'A Nurse at the War' May Sinclair and the First World War at National Humanities Center May Sinclair and the First World War at National Humanities Center May Sinclair papers Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania
Romance is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards, another person, the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions. Although the emotions and sensations of romantic love are associated with sexual attraction, romantic feelings can exist without expectation of physical consummation and be subsequently expressed; the term romance originates with the medieval ideal of chivalry as set out in the literature of chivalric romance. Romantic love is a relative term that distinguishes moments and situations within intimate relationships as contributing to a deepened relational connection; the addition of "drama" to relationships of close and strong love. Anthropologist Charles Lindholm defined love as "an intense attraction that involves the idealization of the other, within an erotic context, with expectation of enduring sometime into the future"; the word "romance" comes from the French vernacular where it indicated a verse narrative.
The word was an adverb of Latin origin, "romanicus," meaning "of the Roman style". European medieval vernacular tales and ballads dealt with chivalric adventure, not bringing in the concept of love until late into the seventeenth century; the word romance developed other meanings, such as the early nineteenth century Spanish and Italian definitions of "adventurous" and "passionate," which could intimate both "love affair" and "idealistic quality." Anthropologists such as Claude Lévi-Strauss show that there were complex forms of courtship in ancient as well as contemporary primitive societies. There may not be evidence, that members of such societies formed loving relationships distinct from their established customs in a way that would parallel modern romance. Before the 18th century, many marriages were not arranged, but rather developed out of more or less spontaneous relationships. After the 18th century, illicit relationships took on a more independent role. In bourgeois marriage, illicitness may have become more formidable and to cause tension.
In Ladies of the Leisure Class, Rutgers University professor Bonnie G. Smith depicts courtship and marriage rituals that may be viewed as oppressive to modern people, she writes "When the young women of the Nord married, they did so without illusions of love and romance. They acted within a framework of concern for the reproduction of bloodlines according to financial and sometimes political interests." Subsequent sexual revolution has lessened the conflicts arising out of liberalism, but not eliminated them. Anthony Giddens, in The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality and Eroticism in Modern Society, states that romantic love introduced the idea of a narrative to an individual's life, telling a story is a root meaning of the term romance. According to Giddens, the rise of romantic love more or less coincided with the emergence of the novel, it was that romantic love, associated with freedom and therefore the ideals of romantic love, created the ties between freedom and self-realization. David R. Shumway states that "the discourse of intimacy" emerged in the last third of the 20th century, intended to explain how marriage and other relationships worked, making the specific case that emotional closeness is much more important than passion, with intimacy and romance coexisting.
One example of the changes experienced in relationships in the early 21st century was explored by Giddens regarding homosexual relationships. According to Giddens, since homosexuals were not able to marry they were forced to pioneer more open and negotiated relationships; these kinds of relationships permeated the heterosexual population. The conception of romantic love was popularized in Western culture by the concept of courtly love. Chevaliers, or knights in the Middle Ages, engaged in what were non-physical and non-marital relationships with women of nobility whom they served; these relations were elaborate and ritualized in a complexity, steeped in a framework of tradition, which stemmed from theories of etiquette derived out of chivalry as a moral code of conduct. Courtly love and the notion of domnei were the subjects of troubadours, could be found in artistic endeavors such as lyrical narratives and poetic prose of the time. Since marriage was nothing more than a formal arrangement, courtly love sometimes permitted expressions of emotional closeness that may have been lacking from the union between husband and wife.
In terms of courtly love, "lovers" did not refer to those engaging in sexual acts, but rather, to the act of caring and to emotional intimacy. The bond between a knight and his Lady, or the woman of high stature of whom he served, may have escalated psychologically but ever physically. For knighthood during the Middle Ages, the intrinsic importance of a code of conduct was in large part as a value system of rules codified as a guide to aid a knight in his capacity as champion of the downtrodden, but in his service to the Lord. In the context of dutiful service to a woman of high social standing, ethics designated as a code were established as an institution to provide a firm moral foundation by which to combat the idea that unfit attentions and affections were to be tolerated as "a secret game of trysts" behind closed doors. Therefore, a knight trained in the substance of "chivalry" was instructed, with especial emphasis, to serve a lady most honorably, with purity of heart and mind. To that end, he committed himself to the welfare of both Lord and Lady with unwavering discipline and devotion, while at the same time, presuming to uphold core principles set forth in the code by the religion by which he followed.