The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Rome, New York
Rome is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States, located in the central part of the state. The population was 33,725 at the 2010 census. Rome is one of two principal cities in the Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, which lies in the "Leatherstocking Country" made famous by James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, set in frontier days before the American Revolutionary War. Rome is in New York's 22nd congressional district; the city developed at an ancient portage site of Native Americans, including the historic Iroquois nations. This portage continued to be strategically important to Europeans, who used the main 18th and 19th-century waterways, based on the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, that connected New York City and the Atlantic seaboard to the Great Lakes; the original European settlements developed around fortifications erected in the 1750s to defend the waterway, in particular the British Fort Stanwix built in western New York. Following the American Revolution, the settlement began to grow with the construction of the Rome Canal in 1796, to connect Wood Creek and the headwaters of the Mohawk River.
In the same year the state created the Town of Rome as a section of Oneida County. For a time, the small community next to the canal was informally known as Lynchville, after the original owner of the property; the New York State Legislature converted the Town of Rome into a city on February 23, 1870. The residents have called Rome the City of American History. Rome was founded along an ancient Native American portage path known as the Oneida Carrying Place, Deo-Wain-Sta, or The Great Carrying Place to the Six Nations, or the Haudenosaunee in their language; these names refer to a portage road or path between the Mohawk River to the east, which flows east to the Hudson River. Now located within the modern Rome city limits, this short portage path was the only overland section of a water trade route stretching more than 1,000 miles between Lake Ontario and the lower Hudson. Travelers and traders coming up the Mohawk River from the Hudson had to transfer their cargo and boats and transport them overland between 1.7 and six miles to continue west on Wood Creek to Lake Ontario.
This ancient trade route joined the Great Lakes and Canada via the Mohawk River to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean. During the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, this region was the scene of much fighting; the British colonists had erected several small forts to guard the Oneida Carrying Place and the lucrative fur trade against French incursions from Canada. In 1758, after several abortive attempts to fortify the area, the British sent a large force to secure the Oneida Carry and build a stronger rampart complex, which they named Fort Stanwix. Following defeat by the English during the war, the French ceded their territory in North America east of the Mississippi River to England; the English signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix with the Iroquois, under the terms of which they promised to preserve areas west of the Appalachian Mountains as an Indian reserve and to prohibit colonial settlement. It has been described as "one of the worst treaties in the History of Anglo-Indian relationships".
The treaty has been described as "the last desperate effort of the British to create order west of the Appalachians. The British were unable to enforce their promise, as Anglo colonists continued to move west of the Appalachians, causing conflicts with native tribes; the British abandoned Ft. Stanwix after that war. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, American Continental forces took control of the Fort Stanwix site and improving the fort; the installation survived a siege by the British in the Saratoga Campaign of 1777, it became renowned as "the fort that never surrendered". Patriot militia and their Oneida Nation allies under the command of Col. Peter Gansevoort repelled a prolonged siege in August 1777 by British, German and Canadian troops and warriors from several Native American nations, all commanded by British Gen. Barry St. Leger; the failed siege, combined with the battle at nearby Oriskany as well as the battles of Bennington, Saratoga, thwarted a coordinated British effort to take the northern colonies.
Following this success, the Americans were able to gain alliances with France and the Netherlands, as both countries were becoming more confident that the rebels had a chance to win. After the repulsion of the British at Fort Stanwix, bloody fighting erupted along the American northern frontier and throughout the Mohawk Valley. There were heavy losses for both American settlers and the people of the Six Nations, as each side made retaliatory raids against the other in a round of violence; because many of the Oneida were fighting with the rebels and against the four nations allied with the British the Mohawk and Seneca, the Iroquois had members attacking each other, which they had avoided doing earlier in this century. The Americans used Fort Stanwix as the primary staging point for attacks against British loyalist units and their Haudenosaunee allies; the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 was launched from here as a scorched earth campaign against villages of Iroquois nations that were allied with the British.
Commander George Washington ordered the campaign in retaliation for the fierce frontier attacks in New York, such as the Cherry Valley Massacre by Loyalist irregulars
Rome (Paris Métro)
Rome is a station on Paris Métro Line 2 on the border of the 8th and 17th arrondissement of Paris. The station was opened on 7 October 1902 as part of the extension of line 2 from Étoile to Anvers; the name is that of one of several streets in the area named for European capitals, in this case Rome, capital of Italy. Nearby are the town hall of the 17th arrondissement and the Institut Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
The'Rome' apple is a cooking apple originating near Rome Township, Ohio, in the early 19th century. It remains popular for its utility in cooking. The'Rome' is rounded, all red, glossy, with a thick skin and firm flesh, it is used for baking, as its flavor develops when cooked, it holds its shape well. It is described as less desirable as an eating apple because of its subtle flavor, not as sweet, flashy, or tart as some other varieties, it comes to market in late September and is considered a good keeper.'Rome' apples are grown and available, are a staple variety in American commerce. The story is given, his son planted the tree on the banks of the Ohio River in Rome Township near Proctorville, Ohio where several years it was found producing red fruit. His cousin, Horatio Nelson Gillett started a nursery to promote the apple. Known as'Gillett's Seedling', it was renamed the'Rome Beauty' in 1832 in honor of the township; the original tree survived into the 1850s. Scab: high Powdery mildew: high Cedar-apple rust: high Fire blight: high "Apple Varieties: Red Rome".
New York Apple Association. Retrieved 2008-02-18. "Apple Guide". U. S. Apple Association. Retrieved 2008-02-18. Overley, F. L.. "From Whence Came: The Varieties of Fruit We Are Now Growing". Connections. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved 2008-02-18. Griesan, Jean. "Joel Gillet". The Lawrence Register. Archived from the original on 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2008-02-18. National Fruit Collection page
Rome is a town in Kennebec County, United States. The population was 1,010 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Belgrade Lakes resort area, is included in the Augusta, micropolitan New England City and Town Area. A part of West Pond Plantation, Rome was first settled about 1780 by Richard Furbush from Lebanon; the town was incorporated on March 7, 1804, named after Rome in Italy. Although farmers found the surface broken and uneven, the hills and valleys offered excellent grazing. By 1839, when the population was 1,074, it was described as "a beautiful farming town," with "a pleasant and flourishing village." In 1837, its wheat crop was 4,117 bushels. The ponds abounded in trout and pickerel. By 1859, Rome had one sawmill, one gristmill, one shingle mill, although agriculture remained the principal occupation. By 1870, when the population was 725, it had two post offices: Belgrade Mills. On April 4, 2013, 47-year-old Christopher Knight was arrested on suspicion of over a thousand burglaries, he was reported to have lived, on stolen supplies, in forests near Rome for 27 years with no intentional human contact.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.72 square miles, of which, 25.41 square miles is land and 6.31 square miles is water. Rome includes the northern portions of Great Pond; the town is serviced by state routes 8, 27, 137 and 225. It borders the towns of Vienna to the west, Mount Vernon to the west and south, Belgrade to the south and east, a portion of Smithfield to the northeast, Mercer to the north, New Sharon to the northwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,010 people, 439 households, 299 families residing in the town. The population density was 39.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,038 housing units at an average density of 40.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.5% White, 0.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 0.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 439 households of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.9% were non-families.
24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.67. The median age in the town was 46.2 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 980 people, 386 households, 289 families residing in the town; the population density was 38.6 people per square mile. There were 941 housing units at an average density of 37.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.27% White, 0.10% African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.31% of the population. There were 386 households out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.9% were non-families. 17.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,344, the median income for a family was $46,635. Males had a median income of $32,153 versus $26,042 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,355. About 7.0% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 13.3% of those age 65 or over. Maine.gov -- Rome, Maine
Rome City, Indiana
Rome City is a town in Orange Township, Noble County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,361 at the 2010 census. Rome City was laid out in 1839. A post office has been in operation at the town since 1868. Rome City is located at 41°29′27″N 85°21′51″W. According to the 2010 census, Rome City has a total area of 2.151 square miles, of which 1.16 square miles is land and 0.991 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,361 people, 563 households, 393 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,173.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 842 housing units at an average density of 725.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.8% White, 0.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 563 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.2% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the town was 44.4 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,615 people, 629 households, 489 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,354.0 people per square mile. There were 825 housing units at an average density of 691.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.33% White, 0.19% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.31% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 629 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.1% were non-families.
19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,118, the median income for a family was $46,591. Males had a median income of $33,239 versus $21,630 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,612. About 7.7% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. Rome City residents may obtain a free library card from the Kendallville Public Library in Kendallville. Ford Frick, commissioner of Major League Baseball from 1951 to 1965, went to high school in Rome City.
Gene Stratton Porter, nature photographer and silent movie-era producer, lived at her lakeside estate, the Cabin at Wildflower Woods, near Rome City from 1913 until 1919. Scenes from the 1927 movie based on her novel, The Harvester, were filmed at Wildflower Woods; the property has been designated as the Gene Stratton-Porter State Historic Site, operated by the Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites, open to the public. Rome, Indiana The Way College of Biblical Research – Indiana Campus Chamber of Commerce
Total War: Rome II
Total War: Rome II is a strategy game developed by The Creative Assembly and published by Sega. It was released on 3 September 2013 for Microsoft Windows and is the eighth standalone game in the Total War series of video games. Rome II is a successor to the 2004 game Rome: Total War; the game released to positive reviews from critics, but suffered from significant technical problems upon release. However, it proved a commercial success, surpassing all other games in the Total War series in both sales and number of concurrent players on its release day. In September 2014, the Emperor Edition was released, which added Mac support, addressed many of the technical problems in the game, as well as overhauling AI battles and upgrading the visuals, it was offered as a free upgrade to all current players. Total War: Rome II is set in the classical antiquity period, provides a more sophisticated portrayal of each culture, which in the original game had been portrayed anachronistically; the grand campaign lasts for 300 years.
However, the player has the option to play further, as there are no timed victory conditions. The Warscape engine powers the visuals of the game and new unit cameras allow players to focus on individual soldiers on the battlefield, which may contain thousands of combatants. Creative Assembly has stated that it wishes to bring out the more human side of war, with soldiers reacting as their comrades get killed around them, officers inspiring men with heroic speeches. Armies and navies have changeable stances on the campaign map. Stances determine factors such as total movement points per turn or the ability to deploy traps for an ambush; the "Forced March" stance allows an army to march further, but will tire out its men, reduce their fighting ability and leave them vulnerable to ambush. Armies and fleets must have a general or admiral to lead them. A faction's power, or "imperium", determines the number of armies. A faction can gain more imperium by acquiring more gold. Players can name units in an army and change their emblems.
When an army is formed, the player must pick a general to lead it from a list of available faction members. When it recruits new units, the army enters muster mode and cannot move until they have been added to the army. Both armies and generals can gain traits from experience in battle; each skill can be upgraded up to three times. If an army loses its general, a new one will be appointed by the player; these rules apply to fleets and admirals. As with Total War: Shogun 2, the player is prompted with decisions throughout the game; the Creative Assembly has expanded on this mechanic, with each decision leading the player down a particular'decision path' based on previous decisions. These will affect the way the campaign plays out. Additionally, rather than assigning traits to generals and family members as with previous Total War games, the player can assign traits to legions as they gain combat experience. Players can customise legions by choosing their weapons. Players can still determine the composition of individual cohorts though they will be building entire legions at a time, unlike in previous Total War titles where all units had to be created separately.
Navies play an important role in Total War: Rome II. The Creative Assembly introduced mixed naval and land combat for land battles and city sieges, to reflect the naval strategies of the classical era. Legions can attack the enemy's ground forces and cities, while naval units provide supporting fire or engage in naval warfare on the seas. Navies can conquer poorly guarded coastal cities by themselves. In addition, naval combat has been modified. Navies are now composed of troop carriers, designed to ram and board opposing ships, land units can now commandeer merchant vessels as naval transport units. Naval units are bigger in size and a player may recruit several at a time. Naval regions, which were introduced in Medieval: Total War, have returned, their purpose is to prevent players or the AI from slipping an invasion force right past a huge enemy fleet. Entering a naval region where an enemy fleet is present will trigger naval combat. There are three core types of agents in Rome II: the dignitary, the champion and the spy, each culture has its own variants.
When spawned, each agent has a "profession", determined by its supposed background or ethnicity. A player can invest in an agent's profession as well as its skill tree; each agent can try to convert them to their faction. When an agent is asked to perform a certain task, there is a deeper set of choices on how to complete the task. For example, when getting rid of an enemy agent, one can convert him or murder him; the Creative Assembly has tried to ensure the uniqueness of different cultures and fighting forces. Lead unit designer Jack Lusted stated that instead of the "rebel nation" of the original Rome: Total War representing minor states, there are a large number of smaller, individual nations and city-states represented by their own faction; each ethnic group has a unique play-style. A tribe of British barbarians feels different from a disciplined Roman legion. Different agents and technologies are implemented for different factions. There are over 500 different land units including mercenaries.
Over 30 different city variants avoid siege battles playing out the same every time. In addition to traditional sieges and field battles, a myriad of b