Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone
ERG S.p. A. is a publicly listed Italian energy company, founded in 1938, based in Genoa, Italy. Following a period of profound transformation, ERG Group is now the leading operator in wind energy in Italy and is among the top ten in Europe, it owns a combined cycle power plant in Priolo Gargallo in Sicily and purchased the Terni hydroelectric unit from EON Produzione. As regards the geographic distribution of wind farms, the MW installed are in Italy, where other ERG's Operations & Maintenance logistics centres are located. ERG is present in Romania and in Bulgaria. Over the course of 2015, wind farms in Poland became operational. ERG was founded by Edoardo Guida Garrone in 1938. In 1952 signs an agreement to refine the oil on behalf of BP. During the 1960s and 1970s has started to build some oil refineries and pipelines in Italy, in particular a pipeline in Arquata Scrivia and an oil refinery in Priolo Gargallo. In the 1980s has acquired the petrol stations networks owned by Elf, Chevron and BP in Italy, through ERG Petroli.
Since 1997 the company is listed on the Italian Stock Exchange. In 1999 it opened stations network in Spain through ERG Petroleos, sold in 2008 to Saras S.p.. A. In 2008 it signed an agreement with Lukoil. In 2009 it launched its own Mobile virtual network operator: ERG Mobile, becoming the first Italian oil company with its own telecommunications company. In 2010 ERG Petroli and TotalErg Italia merge in TotalErg, starting operation on October 1, 2010. In early 2011 ERG reduced its share in ISAB from 51% to 40%. Two years ERG completed the exit from the refining sector. In the meantime ERG grew in the Italian wind power sector becoming in 2013 the leading wind operator in Italy. Since 2007 ERG started to operate abroad, in the French and Germanwind markets, acquiring wind farms in Bulgaria, Romania and United Kingdom. In 2015 ERG entered the hydroelectric sector, via acquisition of E. On’s Italian assets, with 527 MW of capacity; the power plants are located in the Italian regions of Umbria and Lazio.
In January 2018, ERG completed the closing with the api Group regarding the sale of its 51% shareholding in TotalErg S.p. A, completing its industrial transformation process towards renewables. In the same year, ERG entered the solar power business through the acquisition of 89 MW in Italy. ERG was the main sponsor of U. C. Sampdoria, a football club, owned by the Garrone family, for more than 9 years. ERG official website Interactive version of 2011 ERG Annual Report Interactive version of 2010 Sustainability Report ERG Renew official website ERG Divisione Power & Gas official website TotalErg official website
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc known as Shell, is a British-Dutch oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas "supermajors" and the fifth-largest company in the world measured by 2018 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, transport and marketing, power generation and trading, it has renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, energy-kite systems, hydrogen. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. As of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its principal subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol.
Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom. Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shell's business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016. Shell is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £185 billion at the close of trading on 30 December 2016, by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange and among the highest of any company in the world. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 2013, Shell's largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9.85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6.89%. The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the United Kingdom, it was a move driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan, North Sumatra, led by August Kessler, Hugo Loudon, Henri Deterding; the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch, which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells, after which the company "Shell" took its name. For various reasons, the new firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence, but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes.
The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British. National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies; the Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production and manufacture. The British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force, it was the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army's TNT. It volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty; the German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw. In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. In 1929, Shell Chemicals was founded. By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world's leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world's crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.
Shell Mex House was completed in 1931, was the head office for Shell's marketing activity worldwide. In 1932 in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell-Mex and BP, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the 1930s saw. After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao. In 1945 Shell's Danish headquarters in Copenhagen, at the time being used by the Gestapo, was bombed by Royal Air Force Mosquitoes in Operation Carthage. Around 1952, Shell was the first company to use a computer in the Netherlands; the computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amste
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons or 0.984 long tons. Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures; the tonne is derived from the weight of 1 cubic metre of pure water. The SI symbol for the tonne is't', adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879, its use is official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, should not be followed by a period. Use of upper and lower case is significant, use of other letter combinations is not permitted and would lead to ambiguity. For example,'T','MT','Mt','mt' are the SI symbols for the tesla, megatesla and millitonne respectively. If describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and most varieties of English, tonne is the correct spelling. It is pronounced the same as ton, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can be pronounced, i.e. "tonny". In Australia, it is pronounced. Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight, equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units. In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST. Both spellings are acceptable in Canadian usage. Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages to designate a large cask, or tun.
A full tun, standing about a metre high, could weigh a tonne. An English tun of wine weighs a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine; the spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960. In the United States, the unit was referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete; the Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass. One tonne is equivalent to: Metric/SI: 1 megagram. Equal to 1000000 grams or 1000 kilograms. Megagram, Mg, is the official SI unit. Mg is distinct from milligram. Pounds: Exactly 1000/0.453 592 37 lb, or 2204.622622 lb. US/Short tons: Exactly 1/0.907 184 74 short tons, or 1.102311311 ST. One short ton is 0.90718474 t. Imperial/Long tons: Exactly 1/1.016 046 9088 long tons, or 0.9842065276 LT. One long ton is 1.0160469088 t. For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of millions of tonnes. Kilotonne and gigatonne are more used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT loosely as approximate figures.
When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached. *The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.†Values in the equivalent short and long tons columns are rounded to five significant figures, see Conversions for exact values.ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, should not be confused with kilotonne. A metric ton unit can mean 10 kilograms within metal trading within the US, it traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten: "Tungsten concentrates are traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units.
One metric tonne unit of tungsten contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." Note that tungsten is known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W. In the case of uranium, the acronym MTU is sometimes considered to be metric ton of uranium, meaning 1,000 kg. A gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit used by the UN climate change panel, IPCC, to measure the effect of a technolo
A visbreaker is a processing unit in an oil refinery whose purpose is to reduce the quantity of residual oil produced in the distillation of crude oil and to increase the yield of more valuable middle distillates by the refinery. A visbreaker thermally cracks large hydrocarbon molecules in the oil by heating in a furnace to reduce its viscosity and to produce small quantities of light hydrocarbons; the process name of "visbreaker" refers to the fact that the process reduces the viscosity of the residual oil. The process is non-catalytic; the objectives of visbreaking are: Reduce the viscosity of the feed stream: Typically this is the residue from vacuum distillation of crude oil but can be the residue from hydroskimming operations, natural bitumen from seeps in the ground or tar sands, certain high viscosity crude oils. Reduce the amount of residual fuel oil produced by a refinery: Residual fuel oil is regarded as a low value product. Demand for residual fuel continues to decrease as it is replaced in its traditional markets, such as fuel needed to generate steam in power stations, by cleaner burning alternative fuels such as natural gas.
Increase the proportion of middle distillates in the refinery output: Middle distillate is used as a diluent with residual oils to bring their viscosity down to a marketable level. By reducing the viscosity of the residual stream in a visbreaker, a fuel oil can be made using less diluent and the middle distillate saved can be diverted to higher value diesel or heating oil manufacture; the term coil visbreaking is applied to units where the cracking process occurs in the furnace tubes. Material exiting the furnace is quenched to halt the cracking reactions: this is achieved by heat exchange with the virgin material being fed to the furnace, which in turn is a good energy efficiency step, but sometimes a stream of cold oil is used to the same effect; the gas oil is re-used. The extent of the cracking reaction is controlled by regulation of the speed of flow of the oil through the furnace tubes; the quenched oil passes to a fractionator where the products of the cracking are separated and recovered.
In soaker visbreaking, the bulk of the cracking reaction occurs not in the furnace but in a drum located after the furnace called the soaker. Here the oil is held at an elevated temperature for a pre-determined period of time to allow cracking to occur before being quenched; the oil passes to a fractionator. In soaker visbreaking, lower temperatures are used than in coil visbreaking; the comparatively long duration of the cracking reaction is used instead. Visbreaker tar can be further refined by feeding it to a vacuum fractionator. Here additional heavy gas oil may be recovered and routed either to catalytic cracking, hydrocracking or thermal cracking units on the refinery; the vacuum-flashed tar is routed to fuel oil blending. In a few refinery locations, visbreaker tar is routed to a delayed coker for the production of certain specialist cokes such as anode coke or needle coke. From the standpoint of yield, there is nothing to choose between the two approaches. However, each offers significant advantages in particular situations: De-coking: The cracking reaction forms petroleum coke as a byproduct.
In coil visbreaking, this deposits in the tubes of the furnace and will lead to fouling or blocking of the tubes. The same will occur in the drum of a soaker visbreaker, though the lower temperatures used in the soaker drum lead to fouling at a much slower rate. Coil visbreakers therefore require frequent de-coking; this is quite labour-intensive, but can be developed into a routine where tubes are de-coked sequentially without the need to shut down the visbreaking operation. Soaker drums require far less frequent attention but their being taken out of service requires a complete halt to the operation. Which is the more disruptive activity. Fuel Economy: The lower temperatures used in the soaker approach mean that these units use less fuel. In cases where a refinery buys fuel to support process operations, any savings in fuel consumption could be valuable. In such cases, soaker visbreaking may be advantageous; the quality of the feed going into a visbreaker will vary with the type of crude oil that the refinery is processing.
The following is a typical quality for the vacuum distillation residue of Arabian light: Once this material has been run through a visbreaker the reduction in viscosity is dramatic: The yields of the various hydrocarbon products will depend on the "severity" of the cracking operation as determined by the temperature the oil is heated to in the visbreaker furnace. At the low end of the scale, a furnace heating to 425 °C would crack only mildly, while operations at 500 °C would be considered as severe. Arabian light crude residue when visbroken at 450 °C would yield around 76% of tar, 15% middle distillates, 6% gasolines and 3% gas and LPG; the severity of visbreaker operation is limited by the need to produce a visbreaker tar that can be blended to make a stable fuel oil. Stability in this case is taken to mean the tendency of a fuel oil to produce sediments; these sediments are undesirable as they can foul the filters of pumps used to move the oil necessitating time-consuming maintenance. Vacuum residue fed to a visbreaker can be considered to be composed of the follo
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Fiumicino is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, with a population of 77,870. It is famous for the presence of the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, the busiest airport in Italy and the sixth busiest in Europe; the name means little river. The town of "Fiumicino" should not be confused with its namesake, Fiumicino, a small river near Rimini. Fiumicino became a comune in 1992. On 24 August 2013, a small mud volcano popped up at the centre of the via Coccia di Morto roundabout. Located by the Tyrrhenian coast. Fiumicino borders with the municipalities of Anguillara Sabazia, Cerveteri and Rome, it lies in the northern side of the mouth of Tiber river, next to Ostia. It counts the hamlets of Aeroporto "Leonardo da Vinci", Ara Nova, Casale del Castellaccio, Castel Campanile, Fregene, Isola Sacra, Le Vignole, Palidoro, Parco Leonardo, Passo Oscuro, Testa di Lepre, Torre in Pietra and Tragliatella. Fiumicino is home to the largest airport in Italy, the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, which includes the Fiumicino Aeroporto railway station.
The city houses the head offices of Alitalia and Blue Panorama Airlines. In addition, Fiumicino has a large fishing center on a sea resort; the Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Leonardo da Vinci is in Fiumicino. The "Leonardo Da Vinci" International Airport known as "Rome-Fiumicino", lies in the north-eastern suburb of the town, it is served by the A91 motorway from Rome and by the Roman Suburban Railway line FL1. The municipality counts the railway stations of Fiumicino Aeroporto and Parco Leonardo, both on the line FL1. Airport station is served by a non-stop train from/to Roma Termini named Leonardo Express; the other stations within the municipality, Maccarese-Fregene and Torre in Pietra-Palidoro, are part of the Rome-Pisa line. The branch line from Parco Leonardo to the town's centre, counting the stations of Porto and Fiumicino Porto Canale, was closed in 2000. Mauro Galvano, boxer Gabriele Maruotti, volleyball player Simone Tiribocchi, football player Portus Isola Sacra 1973 Rome airport attacks and hijacking Rome and Vienna airport attacks Comune of Fiumicino Fiumicino on comuni-italiani.it