Thorn or þorn is a letter in the Old English, Old Norse, Old Swedish and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English. It was used in medieval Scandinavia, but was replaced with the digraph th, except in Iceland, where it survives; the letter originated from the rune ᚦ in the Elder Fuþark and was called thorn in the Anglo-Saxon and thorn or thurs in the Scandinavian rune poems. Its reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is Thurisaz, it is similar in appearance to the archaic Greek letter sho, although the two are unrelated. It is pronounced as either the voiced counterpart of it. However, in modern Icelandic, it is pronounced as a laminal voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative, similar to th as in the English word thick, or a voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative, similar to th as in the English word the. Modern Icelandic usage excludes the latter, instead represented with the letter eth ⟨Ð, ð⟩. In typography, the lowercase thorn character is unusual in that it has both an ascender and a descender.
The letter thorn was used for writing Old English early on, as was ð. Both letters were used for the phoneme /θ/, sometimes by the same scribe; this sound was realised in Old English as the voiced fricative between voiced sounds, but either letter could be used to write it. A thorn with the ascender crossed; the modern digraph th began to grow in popularity during the 14th century. In some hands, such as that of the scribe of the unique mid-15th-century manuscript of The Boke of Margery Kempe, it became indistinguishable from the letter Y. By this stage, th was predominant and the use of thorn was restricted to certain common words and abbreviations. In William Caxton's pioneering printed English, it is rare except in an abbreviated the, written with a thorn and a superscript E; this was the longest-lived use, though the substitution of Y for thorn soon became ubiquitous, leading to the common'ye', as in'Ye Olde Curiositie Shoppe'. One major reason for this was that Y existed in the printer's type fonts that were imported from Germany or Italy, while thorn did not.
The word was never pronounced with a "y" sound, though when so written. The first printing of the King James Version of the Bible in 1611 used the Y form of thorn with a superscript E in places such as Job 1:9, John 15:1, Romans 15:29, it used a similar form with a superscript T, an abbreviated that, in places such as 2 Corinthians 13:7. All were replaced in printings by the or that, respectively; the following were abbreviations during Middle and Early Modern English using the letter thorn: – a Middle English abbreviation for the word the – a Middle English abbreviation for the word that – a rare Middle English abbreviation for the word thou an Early Modern English abbreviation for the word this – an Early Modern English abbreviation for the word the – an Early Modern English abbreviation for the word that Thorn in the form of a "Y" survives in pseudo-archaic uses the stock prefix "Ye olde". The definite article spelt with "Y" for thorn is jocularly or mistakenly pronounced /jiː/ or mistaken for the archaic nominative case of the second person plural pronoun, "ye".
The Icelandic language is the only living language to retain the letter thorn. The letter is the 30th in the Icelandic alphabet, its pronunciation has not varied much, but before the introduction of the eth character, þ was used to represent the sound, as in the word "verþa", spelt verða in modern Icelandic or normalized orthography. Þ was taken from the runic alphabet and is described in the First Grammatical Treatise: Staf þann er flestir menn kalla þ þann kalla ég af því heldur þe að þá er það atkvæði hans í hverju máli sem eftir lifir nafnsins er úr er tekinn raddarstafur úr nafni hans, sem alla hefi ég samhljóðendur samda í það mark nú sem ég reit snemma í þeirra umræðu. Skal þ standa fyrri í stafrófi en titull þó að ég hafi síðar umræðu um hann því að hann er síðast í fundinn, en af því fyrr um titul að hann var áður í stafrófi og ég lét hann þeim fylgja í umræðu eru honum líkir þarfnast sína jartein. Höfuðstaf þe-sins rita ég hvergi nema í vers upphafi því að hans atkvæði má eigi æxla þótt hann standi eftir raddarstaf í samstöfun.
For example, the patronymic name of Icelandic athlete Anníe Mist Þórisdóttir is anglicised as Thorisdottir. Thorn can be typed on a normal QWERTY keyboard using various system-dependent methods. Thorn may be accessible by copy-and-pasting from a character map, through changing the keyboard layout or through a compose key. Various forms of thorn were used for medieval scribal abbreviations: U+A764 Ꝥ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE U+A765 ꝥ LATIN SMALL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE U+A766 Ꝧ LATI
Movable type is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document on the medium of paper. The world's first movable type printing technology for printing paper books was made of porcelain materials and was invented around 1040 AD in China during the Northern Song Dynasty by the inventor Bi Sheng; the oldest extant book printed with movable metal type, was printed in Korea in 1377 during the Goryeo dynasty. The diffusion of both movable-type systems was limited to East Asia; the development of the printing press in Europe may have been influenced by various sporadic reports of movable type technology brought back to Europe by returning business people and missionaries to China. Some of these medieval European accounts are still preserved in the library archives of the Vatican and Oxford University among many others. However, there is no direct evidence that Gutenberg was influenced by Asian printing: "No text indicates the presence or knowledge of any kind of Asian movable type or movable type imprint in Europe before 1450.
The material evidence is more conclusive."Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the metal movable-type printing press in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. The small number of alphabetic characters needed for European languages was an important factor. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead and antimony—and these materials remained standard for 550 years. For alphabetic scripts, movable-type page setting was quicker than woodblock printing; the metal type pieces were more durable and the lettering was more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The high quality and low price of the Gutenberg Bible established the superiority of movable type in Europe and the use of printing presses spread rapidly; the printing press may be regarded as one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance and due to its effectiveness, its use spread around the globe. The 19th-century invention of hot metal typesetting and its successors caused movable type to decline in the 20th century.
The technique of imprinting multiple copies of symbols or glyphs with a master type punch made of hard metal first developed around 3000 BC in ancient Sumer. These metal punch types can be seen as precursors of the letter punches adapted in millennia to printing with movable metal type. Cylinder seals were used in Mesopotamia to create an impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay, they were used to mark objects as the owner's property. Cylinder seals were a related form of early typography capable of printing small page designs in relief on wax or clay—a miniature forerunner of rotogravure printing used by wealthy individuals to seal and certify documents. By 650 BC the ancient Greeks were using larger diameter punches to imprint small page images onto coins and tokens; the designs of the artists who made the first coin punches were stylized with a degree of skill that could not be mistaken for common handiwork—salient and specific types designed to be reproduced ad infinitum. Unlike the first typefaces used to print books in the 13th century, coin types were neither combined nor printed with ink on paper, but "published" in metal—a more durable medium—and survived in substantial numbers.
As the portable face of ruling authority, coins were a compact form of standardized knowledge issued in large editions, an early mass medium that stabilized trade and civilization throughout the Mediterranean world of antiquity. Seals and stamps may have been precursors to movable type; the uneven spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian cities of Uruk and Larsa, dating from the 2nd millennium BC, has been conjectured by some archaeologists as evidence that the stamps were made using movable type. The enigmatic Minoan Phaistos Disc of 1800–1600 BC has been considered by one scholar as an early example of a body of text being reproduced with reusable characters: it may have been produced by pressing pre-formed hieroglyphic "seals" into the soft clay. A few authors view the disc as technically meeting all definitional criteria to represent an early incidence of movable-type printing, it has been alleged by Jerome Eisenberg that the disk is a forgery. The Prüfening dedicatory inscription is medieval example of movable type stamps being used.
Following the invention of paper in the 2nd century AD during the Chinese Han Dynasty, writing materials became more portable and economical than the bones, bamboo slips, metal or stone tablets, etc. used. Yet copying books by hand was still labour-consuming. Not until the Xiping Era, towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty did sealing print and monotype appear, it was soon used for printing designs on fabrics, for printing texts. Woodblock printing, invented by about the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty, worked. First, the neat hand-copied script was stuck on a thick and smooth board, with the front of the paper, so thin that it was nearly transparent, sticking to the board, characters showing in reverse, but distinctly, so that every stroke could be recognized. Carvers cut away the parts of the board that were not part of the character, so that the characters were cut in relief differently from those cut intaglio; when printing, the bulging characters would be covered by paper. With workers' hands moving on the back of paper characters would be printed on the paper.
By the Song Dynasty, woodblock printing c
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
English Phonotypic Alphabet
The English Phonotypic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet developed by Sir Isaac Pitman and Alexander John Ellis as an English language spelling reform. Although never gaining wide acceptance, elements of it were incorporated into the modern International Phonetic Alphabet, it was published in June 1845. Subsequently, adaptations were published which extended the alphabet to the German, Spanish, French, Italian, Polish and Sanskrit languages. Third Revised Proposal to encode characters for the English Phonotypic Alphabet in the UCS, October 18th 2011 Completion of the Phonotypic Alphabet Extension of the Phonotypic Alphabet
Eth is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic and Elfdalian. It was used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and d, it is transliterated as d. The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Old English, ð was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th". Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. Ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing"; the lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. Ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but fell out of use in Middle English disappearing altogether by 1300.
In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative, the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation as and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative. In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears for etymological reasons. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d. In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons. Ð has been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, represented as dd. U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription. U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet; the letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative. This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics. A capital eth is used as the currency symbol for Dogecoin.
Thorn D with stroke African D Insular script Ladefoged, Peter. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Pétursson, Magnus, "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie", Phonetica, 33: 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344 "Thorn and eth: how to get them right", Briem "Älvdalsk ortografi", Förslag till en enhetlig stavning för älvdalska, February 2007, Archived from the original on February 6, 2007CS1 maint: Unfit url
Alexander John Ellis
Alexander John Ellis, was an English mathematician and early phonetician, who influenced the field of musicology. He changed his name from his father's name Sharpe to his mother's maiden name Ellis in 1825, as a condition of receiving significant financial support from a relative on his mother's side, he is buried in London. He was born Alexander John Sharpe in Middlesex to a wealthy family, his father James Birch Sharpe was a notable artist and physician, appointed Esquire of Windlesham. His mother Ann Ellis was from a noble background, but it is not known how her family made its fortune. Alexander's brother James Birch Sharpe junior died at the Battle of Inkerman during the Crimean War, his other brother William Henry Sharpe served with the Lancashire Fusiliers after moving north with his family to Cumberland, due to military work. Alexander was educated at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge. Trained in mathematics and the classics, he became a well-known phonetician of his time and wrote the article on phonetics for Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1887.
Through his work in phonetics, he became interested in vocal pitch and by extension, in musical pitch as well as speech and song. Ellis is noted for translating and extensively annotating Hermann von Helmholtz's On the Sensations of Tone; the second edition of this translation, published in 1885, contains an appendix which summarises Ellis' own work on related matters. In his writings on musical pitch and scales, Ellis elaborates his notion and notation of cents for musical intervals; this concept became influential in Comparative musicology, a predecessor of ethnomusicology. Analyzing the scales of various European musical traditions, Ellis showed that the diversity of tone systems cannot be explained by a single physical law, as had been argued by earlier scholars. In part V of his work On Early English Pronunciation, he applied the Dialect Test across Britain, he distinguished forty-two different dialects in the Scottish Lowlands. This was one of the first works to apply phonetics to English speech.
The work was criticised by Joseph Wright, author of the English Dialect Dictionary, Eugen Dieth, one of the pioneers of the Survey of English Dialects, but regained popularity in the second half of the 20th century as many dialect researchers said that their results were similar to that found in Ellis's work. Some have argued that much of Ellis's information was appropriated without sufficient citation by his critic Joseph Wright, he was acknowledged by George Bernard Shaw as the prototype of Professor Henry Higgins of Pygmalion. He was elected in June 1864 as a Fellow of the Royal Society. Ellis's son Tristram James Ellis trained as an engineer, but became a noted painter of the Middle East. Ellis developed two phonetic alphabets, the English Phonotypic Alphabet, which used many new letters, the Palaeotype alphabet, which replaced many of these with turned letters, small caps, italics. Two of his novel letters survived: ⟨ʃ⟩ and ⟨ʒ⟩ were passed on to Henry Sweet's Romic alphabet and from there to the International Phonetic Alphabet.
1845, The Alphabet of Nature 1848, A Plea for Phonetic Spelling: or, The Necessity of Orthographic Reform 1869, On Early English Pronunciation, London: N. Trübner / reissued by Greenwood Press: New York. --do.-- On early English pronunciation: with especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, containing an investigation of the correspondence of writing with speech in England from the Anglosaxon period to the present day... 1885, "On the Musical Scales of Various Nations", Journal of the Society of Arts 33, p. 485. (Link is to a HTML transcription 1890, English Dialects – Their Sounds and Homes Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ellis, Alexander John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Carlyle, Edward Irving. "Ellis, Alexander John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. M. K. C. MacMahon, Alexander John, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 14 June 2006 Works by or about Alexander John Ellis at Internet Archive Works by Alexander John Ellis at LibriVox
Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet; the pronunciation of words in many languages, as distinct from their written form, has undergone significant change over time. Pronunciation can vary among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages French and Irish, is irregular and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling. For example, the words bough and through do not rhyme in English though their spellings might suggest otherwise. In French, the sequence "-ent" is pronounced /ɑ̃/ in accent but is silent in "posent". Other languages, such as Spanish and Italian have a more consistent relationship between orthography and pronunciation. Therefore, phonetic transcription can provide a function, it displays a one-to-one relationship between symbols and sounds, unlike traditional writing systems. Phonetic transcription allows one to step outside orthography, examine differences in pronunciation between dialects within a given language and identify changes in pronunciation that may take place over time.
Phonetic transcription may aim to transcribe the phonology of a language, or it may be used to go further and specify the precise phonetic realisation. In all systems of transcription there is a distinction between broad transcription and narrow transcription. Broad transcription indicates only the most noticeable phonetic features of an utterance, whereas narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance; the difference between broad and narrow is a continuum. One particular form of a broad transcription is a phonemic transcription, which disregards all allophonic difference, and, as the name implies, is not a phonetic transcription at all, but a representation of phonemic structure. For example, one particular pronunciation of the English word little may be transcribed using the IPA as /ˈlɪtəl/ or. In North American English, there would be no difference at all between the pronunciation of little and the constructed word *liddle.
Indeed, middle. The advantage of the narrow transcription is that it can help learners to get the right sound, allows linguists to make detailed analyses of language variation; the disadvantage is that a narrow transcription is representative of all speakers of a language. Most Americans and Australians would pronounce the /t/ of little as a tap; some people in southern England would say /t/ as and/or the second /l/ as or something similar yielding. A further disadvantage in less technical contexts is that narrow transcription involves a larger number of symbols that may be unfamiliar to non-specialists. To most native English speakers those who don't merge /t/ and /d/ as in unstressed positions; the advantage of the broad transcription is that it allows statements to be made which apply across a more diverse language community. It is thus more appropriate for the pronunciation data in foreign language dictionaries, which may discuss phonetic details in the preface but give them for each entry.
A rule of thumb in many linguistics contexts is therefore to use a narrow transcription when it is necessary for the point being made, but a broad transcription whenever possible. Most phonetic transcription is based on the assumption that linguistic sounds are segmentable into discrete units that can be represented by symbols; the Avestan alphabet is an early phonetic alphabet developed in Sassanian Persia to write down the Avestan-language hymns of Zoroastrianism, or the Avesta, when Avestan was a dead language. The correct pronunciation of the prayers was considered to be important; the International Phonetic Alphabet is one of the most well-known phonetic alphabets. It was created by British language teachers, with efforts from European phoneticians and linguists, it has changed from its earlier intention as a tool of foreign language pedagogy to a practical alphabet of linguists. It is becoming the most seen alphabet in the field of phonetics. Most American dictionaries for native English-speakers—American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Webster's Third New International Dictionary—employ respelling systems based on the English alphabet, with diacritical marks over the vowels and stress marks.
Another encountered alphabetic tradition was created for the transcription of Native American and European languages, is still used by linguists of Slavic, Semitic and Caucasian languages. This is sometimes labeled the Americanist phonetic alphabet, but this is misleading because it has always been u