Peter II of Russia
Peter II Alexeyevich reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was of Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Peter was born in Saint Petersburg on 23 October 1715, his mother died. His father, Prince Alexis, accused of treason by his own father, Peter the Great, died in prison in 1718. So three-year-old Peter and his four-year-old sister, were orphaned, their grandfather showed no interest in their upbringing and education: the Tsar had disliked their father and their grandmother, his own first wife, young Peter in particular reminded him of his only son Alexis, whom the Tsar suspected of treachery. Therefore, from his childhood, the orphaned Peter was kept in the strictest seclusion, his earliest governesses were the wives of a tailor and a vintner from the Dutch settlement, while a sailor named Norman taught him the rudiments of navigation. When he grew older, Peter was placed under the care of a Hungarian noble, Janos Zeikin, who seems to have been a conscientious teacher.
Peter the Great died in 1725 and was succeeded by his second wife, Catherine I, a woman of low birth. The powerful minister Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, who had aided in Catherine's accession, replaced the boy’s teachers with the vice-chancellor, Count Ostermann; the program of education that Ostermann compiled included history, geography and foreign languages, but the overall education of the future emperor remained shallow and left much to be desired. Peter himself did not display much interest in science. During the reign of Catherine I, young Peter was ignored; the majority of the nation and three-quarters of the nobility were on his side, while his uncle, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, persistently urged Peter's claims through the imperial ambassador at Saint Petersburg. Through the efforts of Menshikov, Peter was named Catherine's heir apparent though Catherine had two daughters of her own; the Empress gave her consent to the betrothal of Peter to Menshikov’s daughter Maria. After Catherine's death and the proclamation of Peter II as emperor, Menshikov took the young autocrat into his own house on Vasilievsky Island and had full control over all of his actions.
For a few months in the summer of 1727, "Not Peter the Great was so feared or so obeyed" according to the Saxon ambassador. Menshikov became domineering, he issued orders to the Emperor himself and removed a silver plate that Peter had just given as a gift to his sister Natalya. To which the Emperor replied, "We shall see, emperor, you or I." Soon, Menshikov became sick, his opponents took advantage of his illness. Under the influence of Ostermann and the Dolgorukovs, Peter – long sick of Menshikov’s wardship – stripped him of his rank and exiled him to Siberia, he announced the dissolution of his engagement with Menshikov’s daughter. The senate, the privy council and the guards took the oath of allegiance forthwith. At this time, German mathematician Christian Goldbach was appointed tutor to the young Peter II to take over for the one appointed by Menshikov. Peter II was quick-witted, but a stubborn and wayward boy, much like his grandfather. Despite these similarities, the emperor had no desire to learn to rule, unlike Peter the Great.
His young age meant that he could not adequately manage public affairs, he never appeared at the Supreme Privy Council. This led to frustration among his subjects and the royal administration – officials did not dare to assume responsibility for important decisions; the Russian fleet was abandoned. Peter tightened serfdom by banning serfs from volunteering for military service and thus escaping serfdom. With the fall of Menshikov and related court intrigues, the Emperor’s main favorites became Prince Aleksey Dolgorukov and his son Ivan, who maintained great influence over his decisions. According to contemporaries, Ivan Dolgorukov lived a reckless and profligate lifestyle, leading Peter II to spend much time feasting, playing cards and enjoying the company of women, he soon became addicted to alcohol. The coronation of Peter II took place in Moscow on 9 January 1728, with the Emperor and a huge entourage. Still, he was disengaged from the affairs of state. Foreign witnesses proclaimed that “All of Russia is in terrible disorder... money is not paid to anyone.
God knows. Everyone steals, as much as he can.” Moving the court and several other institutions from St. Petersburg back to Moscow was painful for the new capital, as well as the nobility forced to move with it, as Peter the Great had put much effort into developing St. Petersburg into a large and lively city at the time. Peter II returned to St. Petersburg from time to time, but continued an aimless life full of entertainment and distraction, he fell under the ultimate influence of the Dolgorukovs – Peter II became smitten with the 18-year-old beauty Ekaterina Alekseyevna Dolgorukova. The family schemed to tie themselves to the imperial bloodline, persuaded Peter to marry Ekaterina. However, it soon became clear that the young monarch had no interest in his bride influenced by his aunt Elizabeth Petrovna, who did not like Ekaterina; the wedding went forward regardless, se
Stolnik was a court office in Poland and Russia, responsible for serving the royal table an honorary court title and a district office. In the Crown of Poland under the first Piast dukes and kings, this was a court office. From the 14th century, it was an honorary court title in the Polish Kingdom and in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since the 16th century. Stolnik wielki koronny — Grand Pantler of the Crown Stolnik wielki litewski — Grand Pantler of Lithuania Stolnik koronny — Pantler of the Crown Stolnik litewski — Pantler of Lithuania Stolnik nadworny koronny — Court Pantler of the CrownAccording to the 1768 district office hierarchy, the stolnik's position in the Crown of Poland was superior to that of podczaszy and inferior to that of district judge. Stolniks were known as palace servants of the Russian rulers since the 13th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries they were young nobles who brought dishes to the tsar's table, looked after his bedroom, accompanied him in travels; the highest category comprised closer stolniks.
Stolniks could serve in the foreign office or in the army. They were ranked fifth in the hierarchy of Russian bureaucracy, after boyars, duma nobles, duma dyaks. Stolniks were attached to episcopal administrations as were other similar offices found in the grand princely or tsarist administration. For example, stolniks are found in documents from the archiepiscopal records in Veliky Novgorod. Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Stavilac
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Alexis of Russia
Aleksey Mikhailovich was the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. At the time of his death Russia spanned 2,000,000,000 acres. Born in Moscow on 19 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, the sixteen year old Alexei acceded to the throne after his father's death on 12 July 1645. In August, the Tsar's mother died, following a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad he was crowned on 28 September in the Dormition Cathedral, he was committed to the care of his tutor Boris Morozov, a shrewd boyar open to Western ideas. Morozov's pursued a peaceful foreign policy, securing a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and avoiding complications with the Ottoman Empire, his domestic policy aimed at limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, ten days both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky.
Morozov was accused of sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 Muscovites rose against his faction in the Salt Riot, the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Four months Boris secretly returned to Moscow to regain some of his power; the popular discontent demonstrated by the riot was responsible for Alexis' 1649 issuance of a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozhenie. In 1648, using the experience of creating regiments of the foreign system during the reign of his father, Alexis began reforming the army; the main direction of the reform was the mass creation of New Order Regiments: Reiters, Soldiers and Hussars. These regiments formed the backbone of the new army of Tsar Alexis. To fulfill the reform goals, a large number of European military specialists were hired for service; this became possible because of the end of the Thirty Years' War, which created a colossal market for military professionals in Europe. Throughout his reign, Alexei faced rebellions across Russia.
After resolving the 1648 Salt Riot Alexei faced rebellions in 1650 in the cities of Pskov and Great Novgorod. Alexei put down the Novgorod rebellion but was unable to subdue Pskov, was forced to promise the city amnesty in return for surrender; the Metropolitan Nikon distinguished himself at Great Novgorod and in 1651 became the Tsar's chief minister. By the 1660s, Alexei's wars with Poland and Sweden had put an increasing strain on the Russian economy and public finances. In response, Alexei's government had begun minting large numbers of copper coins in 1654 to increase government revenue but this led to a devaluation of the ruble and a severe financial crisis; as a result, angry Moscow residents revolted in the 1662 Copper Riot, put down violently. In 1669, the Cossacks along the Don in southern Russia erupted in rebellion; the rebellion was led by Stenka Razin, a disaffected Don Cossack who had captured the Russian terminus of Astrakhan. From 1670 to 1671, Razin seized multiple towns along the Volga River.
The turning point in his campaign was his failed siege of Simbirsk in October 1670. Razin was captured on the Don in April 1671, was drawn and quartered in Moscow. In 1651 Safavid troops attacked Russian fortifications in the North Caucasus; the main issue involved the expansion of a Russian garrison on the Koy Su River, as well as the construction of several new fortresses, in particular the one built on the Iranian side of the Terek River. The successful Safavid offensive resulted in the destruction of the Russian fortress and its garrison being expelled. In 1653 Alexis thinking about sending the Zaporozhian Cossacks decided to send an embassy to Persia for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In August 1653 courtier Prince Ivan Lobanov-Rostov and steward Ivan Komynin traveled from Astrakhan to Isfahan. Shah Abbas II agreed to settle the conflict, stating that the conflict was initiated without his consent. In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to annex the old Rus’ lands.
On 1 October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon, elected patriarch in 1652. The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. In the summer of 1655, a sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden swept the Polish state out of existence, in what became known as the Deluge; the Russians, unopposed appropriated nearly everything, not occupied by the Swedes. When the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands made by Alexei; however Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, at the end of May 1656, with encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.
Great things were expected by Russia of the Swedish war. Dorpat was taken. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much mo
Ivan V of Russia
Ivan V Alekseyevich was a joint Tsar of Russia who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. Ivan was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia by his first wife, Maria Miloslavskaya, while Peter was the only son of Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Naryshkina. Ivan's reign was only formal, since he had serious mental disabilities. Ivan V was born in 1666 in the youngest son of Tsar Alexis and Maria Miloslavskaya. Only two of his older brothers survived childhood; when Feodor III died in 1682, at age 20, without leaving an heir, thought to be "infirm in body and mind", was passed over in favor of his younger half-brother, Peter I. The church and the Naryshkins supported Peter's ascension to the throne, the family of Ivan V's mother and Ivan's older sister, Sofia Alekseyevna, in particular, disputed the move. Rumors spread around Moscow that Feodor III had been poisoned and Ivan strangled by boyars so that the 10-year-old Peter could become Tsar; these rumours fomented the Moscow Uprising of 1682, the streltsy stormed the Kremlin.
These disturbances subsided only after Ivan appeared in person in the city, proved to everyone that he was alive and well. The streltsy demanded that Ivan be named tsar, a compromise was found by declaring Ivan and Peter as co-rulers, with a regency government until the boys came of age. Sofia Alekseyevna, influential at court during her brother Feodor III's reign, was named regent. On 25 June 1682, less than two months after the death of Feodor III, Ivan and Peter were crowned in the Cathedral of the Dormition as dvoetsarstvenniki. A special throne with two seats was commissioned for the occasion. While Ivan was 16 years old at this time, his co-ruler Peter I was only 10. Ivan was considered the "senior tsar", but actual power was wielded by Sophia Alekseyevna, Ivan's sister and Peter's half-sister, for the next seven years. Sophia was always considerate of Ivan, although she is never known to have consulted him on any important matter, she was anxious that every outward sign of respect and deference be paid to Ivan, a subtle way of undermining the influence of Peter's faction in court.
Thus, every wish or opinion expressed by Ivan was deferred to, his general prestige in court remained intact during the years of Sophia's regency. As Peter the Great grew up, he and his faction, led by his mother's Naryshkin family, contended with Regent Sophia for influence and power. Indeed, Sophia is blamed for the murders of Peter's uncles on his mother's side of the family. Due to this and other situations, tension arose between the supporters of the co-tsars. In 1689, Peter was 17, intent upon declaring his majority and demanding power. To pre-empt this, Sophia attempted to raise a riot in the city, spreading the rumour that the Naryshkins had destroyed Ivan's crown and were poised to set his room on fire; this was untrue, when riots began, Ivan's tutor, Prince Prozorovsky, persuaded him to publicly declare his faith in his brother Peter and make it known that he was unharmed and in no danger for life or liberty. Ivan did this, supported Peter's contention that the time had come for terminating the regency.
Peter was declared to be of age and Sophia's regency was terminated. Ivan being both incapable and disinterested, Peter came into his own and functioned as though he were the sole tsar; the eventual result was that, over time, the outward signs of deference and power which Ivan had enjoyed during the regency withered away and he became a non-entity in the Russian court. For the last decade of his life, Ivan was overshadowed by the more energetic Peter I, he spent his days with his wife, Praskovia Saltykova, caring about little but "fasting and praying day and night". In late 1683 or early 1684, Ivan married Praskovia Saltykova, daughter of Fyodor Petrovich Saltykov, a minor nobleman, by his wife, whose name is uncertain - it was either Yekaterina Fyodorovna or Anna Mikhailovna Tatishcheva. Ivan's marriage was arranged in the traditional style of Russian rulers: he selected a bride from a parade of potential candidates. Praskovia Saltykova, who came from a rather obscure family, had been raised in a middle-class household and adhered to conventional values and moral standards.
She bonded with her gentle and simple husband, proved to be an exemplary wife to a mentally-challenged man. She became the mainstay of his life and earned the lifelong respect of her powerful brother-in-law, Peter the Great, who entrusted the care and education of his own two daughters to her. Ivan's purported debility did not prevent him from producing robust offspring, Praskovia bore him five daughters, three of whom lived to adulthood, their children were: Maria Ivanovna Feodosia Ivanovna Ekaterina Ivanovna Anna Ivanovna Praskovia Ivanovna At the age of 27, Ivan was described by foreign ambassadors as senile and blind. He died two years on 8 February 1696, was interred in the Archangel Cathedral, it was fortuitous to Peter's faction that Ivan produced several daughters but no sons, as there was no confusion regarding the succession of the crown upon his death. His co-ruler was left to become supreme ruler of Russia; the struggle for power within the family had ended. In 1730, more than 30 years after Ivan's death, his second surviving daughter, Duchess of Courland, was invited to the
A duma was a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions. The term comes from the Russian verb думать meaning "to think" or "to consider"; the first formally constituted duma was the State Duma introduced into the Russian Empire by Tsar Nicholas II in 1905 after the revolt of people against him demanding for the elected assembly. The Tsar re-elected second duma within three months, it was dissolved in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. Since 1993, the State Duma is the lower legislative house of the Russian Federation. Historians use the term Boyar Duma to denote the council of boyars and junior boyars collectively within the Russian Tsardom. In 1721 Peter the Great transferred its functions to the Governing Senate. Contemporary sources always refer to "the boyars" or to "the duma", but never to the "boyar duma". There were ten to twelve boyars and five or six paddu. By 1613 the duma had increased to eight okol ` nichii. Lesser nobles, "duma gentlemen" and secretaries, were added to the duma and the number of okol'nichii rose in the latter half of the 17th century.
In 1676 the number of boyars increased to 50 - by they constituted only a third of the duma. Under the reign of Alexander II, several reforms were enacted during the 1870s; these included the creation of local political bodies known as zemstvoes. All owners of houses, tax-paying merchants and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth; the total valuation is divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an uprava, which consists of several members elected by the duma. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, in 1895 to some in Caucasia. Under the pressure of the Russian Revolution of 1905, on 6 August 1905, Sergei Witte issued a manifesto about the convocation of the Duma thought to be an advisory organ.
In the subsequent October Manifesto, Nicholas II pledged to introduce basic civil liberties, provide for broad participation in the State Duma, endow the Duma with legislative and oversight powers. However, Nicholas II was determined to retain his autocratic power. Just before the creation of the Duma in May 1906, the Tsar issued the Fundamental Laws, it stated in part that the tsar's ministers could not be appointed by, were not responsible to, the Duma, thus denying responsible government at the executive level. Furthermore, the tsar had the power to dismiss the Duma and announce new elections whenever he wished. At this first meeting of the Duma members proposed that political prisoners should be released, trade unions given rights and land reform be introduced. Nicholas II rejected these suggestions and dissolved the assembly in July, 1906; the imperial State Duma was elected four times: in 1906, twice in 1907, in 1912. The State Duma in Russia is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia.
Under Russia's 1993 constitution, there are 450 deputies of the State Duma, each elected to a term of four years. In previous elections of 1993, 1995, 1999 and 2003 one half of the deputies were elected by a system of proportional representation and one half were elected by plurality in single member districts. However, the 2007 Duma elections were carried out in a new format: all 450 deputies were elected by a system of proportional representation. Russian citizens at least 21 years old are eligible to run for the Duma