Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Aranda de Duero
Aranda de Duero is a town and municipality, capital of the Ribera del Duero comarca, in south of the province of Burgos, in Castile and León, Spain. It has a population of 33,000 people; the post code for the town is 09400. The closest airport is in Burgos; the municipality of Aranda de Duero is made up of three towns: Aranda de Duero, La Aguilera and Sinovas. Aranda de Duero is the capital of the Ribera del Duero wine region; the town is unique for having wine cellars. Wine clubs celebrate special events in these cellars. Aranda de Duero is at the junction of several transport routes across Spain; the N1 autovía runs north / south by Aranda, along which visitors and import/export goods travel between Madrid and the south coast. Another important road running east to west connects Portugal with important cities on the way and the east coast, its location at the juncture of these routes has led to Aranda de Duero acquiring a growing recognition and function as a business centre. Several multinational corporations, such as Michelin and GlaxoSmithKline have large facilities in the area.
A dish called. This is roast baby lamb and is served with a basic salad and lots of "torta" bread for dipping in the meat juices. Aranda de Duero was one of the first 5 towns where the App Los del Pueblo was deployed, in 2018. An ecclesiastical synod was held at Aranda in the province of Burgos in Spain, in 1473, by Alfonso Carillo, Archbishop of Toledo, to overcome the ignorance and evil lives of ecclesiastics. Among the twenty-nine canons of the council is one which says that orders shall not be conferred on those who are ignorant of Latin. Several canons deal with clerical concubinage, clandestine marriages, etc; the Fiestas to honour la Virgen de las Viñas take place on the first Sunday after 8 September. They last for nine days from the eve of that Sunday until the following Sunday when the Fiestas end with the traditional fireworks at midnight, followed by "the sardine burial". Santa María la Real is a church built by Simon de Colonia during the 16th centuries, its most notable feature is the main doorway.
Above the doorway, three carved stone reliefs show Christ carrying the Cross, The Crucifixion and The Resurrection. The doorway is topped by the coat of arms of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Aranda's own coats of arms is present along with scenes from the Nativity and other Christian celebrations. Due to their deterioration, the church doors have been replaced by exact copies, the original ones are kept in the Museo Sacro. San Juan, a church, older than Santa Maria and gothic in style, San Juan still has its fortified defensive tower; the Council of Aranda took place in San Juan in 1473. Nowadays San Juan houses the Museo Sacro; the Virgen de las Viñas Sanctuary is a 17th-century hermitage. It is situated on a small hill to the north of the town; the patron saint of the town is the Virgen de las Viñas, the local legend says that she was found in a vineyard, hence the name. The Train museum is situated in the old train station "Chelva" and documents the history of Spanish railways.
The Pottery museum houses pottery from all over Spain, with the largest collection from Castile and León. The Berdugo's palace is a Renaissance mansion. Bodegas, their original purpose was to store the wine that makes the Ribera del Duero famous. Nowadays the Cellars are home to the "Peñas", cultural associations whose main function is to preserve the cellars, organise social events and ensure the whole of the population enjoy the Fiestas. San Juan de la Vera Cruz Parish Church. San Nicolas de Bari is a church in the village of Sinovas; the Conchuela Bridge. The Roman Bridge is situated next to the San Juan Church; the Humilladero is a stone monument on the route to Las Viñas Sanctuary. Isilla street is the main pedestrian thoroughfare of the town. Local tradition has it. Miranda do Douro, Portugal Salon-de-Provence, France Langen, Germany Roseburg, United States Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain Romorantin-Lanthenay, France Juan Carlos Higuero La Aguilera is a small village in the municipality.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Info & Photos of Aranda in English & Spanish Ayuntamiento de Aranda de Duero Web of music and the support to the groups of Aranda de Duero
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Hollywood is a city in Broward County, between Fort Lauderdale and Miami. The average temperature is between 68 and 83 °F; as of July 1, 2017, Hollywood had a population of 153,627. Founded in 1925, the city grew in the 1950s and 1960s, is now the twelfth-largest city in Florida. Hollywood is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. Joseph Young arrived in South Florida in 1920 in search to create his own “Dream City in Florida”, his vision included the beaches of the Atlantic ocean stretching westward with man made lakes, infrastructure and the Intracoastal waterway. He wanted to include large parks, schools and golf courses. After Young spent millions of dollars on the construction of the city, he was elected as the first mayor in 1925; this new town became home to northerners known as snowbirds. These snowbirds flee the north during the winter and escape the south during the summer to avoid the harsh climates. By 1960, Hollywood contained more than 2,400 hotel units along with the construction of 12,170 single family homes.
Young bought up thousands of acres of land around 1920, named his new town "Hollywood by the Sea" to distinguish it from his other real estate venture, "Hollywood in the Hills", in New York. The Florida guide, published by the Federal Writers' Project, describes the early development of Hollywood, an early example of a planned community that proliferated in Florida during the real estate boom of the 1920's: During the early days of development here, 1,500 trucks and tractors were engaged in clearing land and grading streets. A Large power plant was installed, when the city lights went on for the first time, ships at sea reported that Miami was on fire, their radio alarms and the red glow in the sky brought people to the rescue from miles around." Prospective purchasers of land were enticed by free hotel accommodation and entertainment, "were driven about the city-to-be on trials blazed through palmetto thickets. Young had a vision of having lakes, golf courses, a luxury beach hotel, country clubs, a main street, Hollywood Boulevard.
After the 1926 Miami hurricane, Hollywood was damaged. Following Young's death in 1934, the city encountered other destructive hurricanes and the stock market crashed with personal financial misfortunes. Following the damage inflicted by Hurricane Irma in 2017, an initiative called Rebuild Florida was created by the Florida Department of Economic Opportunity to provide aid to citizens affected by the natural disaster; the initial focus of Rebuild Florida was its Housing Repair Program, which offered assistance in rebuilding families' homes that were impacted by Hurricane Irma. The program priorities low-income vulnerable residents, such as the disabled, the elderly and those families with children under five. Hollywood is located at 26°1′17″N 80°10′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.8 square miles, of which 27.34 square miles is land and 3.46 square miles is covered by water. Hollywood is in southeastern Broward County, includes about 5 to 6 miles of Atlantic Ocean beach, interrupted by a portion deeded to Dania Beach.
It is bounded by these municipalities: To the north: Fort Lauderdale Dania BeachTo the northwest: Davie Cooper CityTo the west: Pembroke PinesTo the southwest: MiramarTo the south: West Park Pembroke Park Hallandale BeachHollywood has a tropical rainforest climate, with hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters. As of 2000, there were 59,673 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.2% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.00. The city's age demographic shows a mixed population with 21.3% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 90.9 men.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,714, the median income for a family was $55,849. Males had a median income of $33,102 versus $21,237 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,097. About 9.9% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.1% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 66.94% of residents, Spanish accounted for 21.62%, French made up 2.06%, French Creole consisted of 1.32%, Italian comprised 1.12%, Romanian was at 0.91%, Hebrew at 0.88%, Portuguese 0.84%, German as a mother tongue was 0.72% of the population. As of 2000, Hollywood had the seventy-fifth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the U. S. at 4.23% of the city's population, the sixty-fifth highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 2.26% of the city's population (tied with both the town and village of Mo
Not to be confused with Langenhessen, 2 km north of Werdau. Langen is a town of 36,000 in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany; the town is located between Darmstadt and Frankfurt am Main and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. Langen is headquarters to Deutsche Flugsicherung, is home to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, a Federal serum- and vaccine-making institution. Langen borders in the north and northeast on the town of Dreieich, in the south on the community of Egelsbach and in the west on the town of Mörfelden-Walldorf. Langen is only subdivided internally, its Stadtteile are: Altstadt in the east. This lies within parts of which may still be seen. There is an Altstadtordnung in force for the Old Town, meant to preserve the many timber-frame houses’ character. Zentrum in the middle of Langen; this is surrounded by the other Stadtteile. Neurott, in the northwest; this is a great industrial-commercial area, in which businesses such as Borland and Oracle have their offices.
Here are found the headquarters of Deutsche Flugsicherung and the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut. Furthermore, there are residential neighbourhoods in Neurott. One of them was built in 1958 for United States troops from the nearby Rhein-Main Air Base, so it is equipped with basketball courts and a baseball diamond. In September 2008, the US Army gave the Langen Terrace Rhein-Main U. S. Air Force Family Housing Area back to the Federal Republic; the dwellings are now to be leased by the Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben. Furthermore, the question of whether it would be possible for there to be denser building is being examined. Nordend, a residential neighbourhood in which are found many dwelling highrises. Linden and Oberlinden in the west came into being as pure residential neighbourhoods and at the time they raised Langen's population considerably. Steinberg in the southeast. Here, since the late 1990s, there have been terraced houses for two or three families; the earliest community here may have arisen about AD 600, settled by Frankish migrants.
Langen had its first documentary mention in 834 in a donation document from King Ludwig II to the Lorsch Abbey under the name Langungon. In 835, he had the extent of the Mark Langen delineated with Drieichlahha, today's Dreieich, as a neighbouring community to the north. To the Dreieich Royal Hunting Forest, which in the king's name was governed by the Lords of Hagen as Vögte belonged in the Middle Ages the woodlands around Langen. Two of the Royal Hunting Forest's 30 Wildhuben lay in Langen. Since the Lorsch Abbey hardly worried much about their landholdings, the Lords of Hagen-Münzenberg came over the course of time to be the land's effective owners; when the Hagen-Münzenberg family died out in 1255, the place passed to the Lords of Falkenstein. In 1414, the village burnt down in the midst of a dispute between the city of Frankfurt and the owners of Langen, the Archbishop of Trier, Werner von Falkenstein; when the Lords of Falkenstein, saw their male line come to an end in 1418, the County of Isenburg inherited the lordship over Langen.
Surviving from the Middle Ages are, among other things remains of the fortifications with the spitzer Turm and the stumpfer Turm from Falkenstein times, from the Renaissance the Vierröhrenbrunnen from 1553. In 1600, along with the whole Amt of Kelsterbach was sold by the Counts of Isenburg to the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. Langen has belonged to Hesse since then. With the partitioning of the Länger Mark in 1732, whose main estate Langen was, the community got two thirds of the land, Egelsbach the other third. In 1812, Langen was raised to market community and in 1821 to seat of the Landratsbezirk making Langen a district seat, although in 1832 it had to yield this function to Groß-Gerau and Offenbach. In 1834, Langen had 2,368 inhabitants. In 1846, the Main-Neckar Railway was built with a railway station in Langen. In 1862, the Offenbach district was formed. In 1883, the community was granted town rights by Grand Duke Ludwig IV. After the First World War, Langen was – as part of the Mainz bridgehead – occupied by French troops until 1930.
In 1959, the first new town development, was built. The population figure rose from 9,077 in 1939 to 28,500 in 1983; the town's mayor is Frieder Gebhardt. The first councillor is Stefan Löbig. At the direct election for mayor on 27 January 2008, none of the seven candidates could secure the needed majority, so on 10 February 2008, a runoff election was held between Frieder Gebhardt and Berthold Matyschok; this was won by Gebhardt with 63.98% of the vote. Matyschok had only edged out the independent candidate Dr. Jan Werner in the first round of voting. Frieder Gebhardt took office on 30 June 2008, his time in office is to run from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2020. Pitthan, after 18 years in office, was named an honorary citizen; this makes Gebhardt, after Johannes Steitz, Wilhelm Umbach, Hans Kreiling and Dieter Pitthan Langen's fifth elected SPD mayor since the Second World War. In October 1945, Christian Zellhöfer was appointed mayor for a short
Regional rail known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities. These trains operate with more stops over shorter distances than inter-city rail, but fewer stops and faster service than commuter rail. Regional rail services operate beyond the limits of urban areas, either connect similarly-sized smaller cities and towns, or cities and surrounding towns, outside or at the outer rim of a suburban belt. Regional rail operates with an service load throughout the day, although increased services may be provided during rush-hour; the service is less oriented around bringing commuters to the urban centers, although this may generate part of the traffic on some systems. Other regional rail services operate between two large urban areas, but make many intermediate stops. In the United States, "regional rail" more refers to commuter rail systems that offer bidirectional all-day service and may provide useful connections between suburbs and edge cities, rather than transporting workers to a central business district.
The main difference between regional rail and commuter rail is that the latter is focused on moving people between where they live and where they work on a daily basis. Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike inter-city, it stops at all stations, it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, connections with long-distance services. Regional rail operates throughout the day but at low frequency, whereas commuter rail provides a high-frequency service within a conurbation. Regional rail services are much less to be profitable than inter-city and hence require government subsidy; this is justified on social or environmental grounds, because regional rail services act as feeders for more profitable inter-city lines. Since their invention, the distinction between regional and long-distance rail has commonly been the use of multiple-unit propulsion, with longer-distance trains tending to be locomotive-hauled, although the development of trains such as the British Rail Class 390 and V/Line VLocity has blurred this distinction.
Shorter regional rail services still be operated by multiple units where they exist, which have a shorter range and operate at lower average speeds than services on inter-city rail networks. Not using a locomotive provides greater passenger capacity in the commuter role at peak periods. There are trains that are something in between regional and inter-city, like the Oresundtrain with stopping pattern like a regional train and pass prices attracting work commuters; this list describes the terms used for regional rail in various countries. Train categories in Europe Passenger rail terminology