Wesley Trent Snipes is an American actor, film producer, martial artist, author. His prominent film roles include New Jack City, White Men Can't Jump, Passenger 57, Demolition Man, the Marvel Comics character Blade in the Blade film trilogy, he formed a production company, Amen-Ra Films, in 1991, a subsidiary, Black Dot Media, to develop projects for film and television. He has been training in martial arts since the age of 12, earning a 5th dan black belt in Shotokan Karate and 2nd dan black belt in Hapkido. In 2010, Snipes began serving a three-year prison sentence in McKean County, Pennsylvania for misdemeanor failure to file U. S. federal income tax returns. He was released from prison in 2013. Snipes was born in Orlando, the son of Marian, a teacher's assistant, Wesley Rudolph Snipes, an aircraft engineer, he grew up in the New York. He attended the High School of Performing Arts of Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts but moved back to Florida before he could graduate.
After graduating from Jones High School in Orlando, Snipes returned to New York and attended the State University of New York at Purchase. He attended Southwest College in Los Angeles, California. At the age of 23, Snipes was discovered by an agent while performing in a competition, he made his film debut in the 1986 Goldie Hawn vehicle Wildcats. That year, he appeared on the TV show Miami Vice as a drug-dealing pimp in the episode "Streetwise". In 1987, he appeared as Michael Jackson's nemesis in the Martin Scorsese–directed music video "Bad" and the feature film Streets of Gold; that same year, Snipes was considered for the role of Geordi La Forge in the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation, but the role went to LeVar Burton. Snipes's performance in the music video "Bad" caught the eye of director Spike Lee. Snipes turned down a small role in Lee's Do the Right Thing for the larger part of Willie Mays Hayes in Major League, beginning a succession of box-office hits for Snipes. Lee would cast Snipes as the jazz saxophonist Shadow Henderson in Mo' Better Blues and as the lead in the interracial romance drama Jungle Fever.
He played Thomas Flanagan in King of New York opposite Christopher Walken. He played the drug lord Nino Brown in New Jack City, written for him by Barry Michael Cooper, he played a drug dealer in the 1994 film Sugar Hill. Snipes has played a number of roles in action films like Passenger 57, Demolition Man, Money Train, The Fan, U. S. Marshals and Rising Sun, as well as comedies like White Men Can't Jump, To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar where he played a drag queen. Snipes has appeared in dramas like The Disappearing Acts. In 1997, he won the Best Actor Volpi Cup at the 54th Venice Film Festival for his performance in New Line Cinema's One Night Stand. In 1998, Snipes had his largest commercial success with Blade, which has grossed over $150 million worldwide; the film turned into a series. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and an honorary doctorate in humanities and fine arts from his alma mater, SUNY/Purchase. In 2004, Snipes reprised his role in the third film, Blade: Trinity, which he produced.
In 2005, he sued the film's studio and director, respectively. He claimed that the studio did not pay his full salary, that he was intentionally cut out of casting decisions, that his character's screen time was reduced in favor of co-stars Ryan Reynolds and Jessica Biel; the suit was settled, but no details were released. He has discussed reprising the role of Blade as part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Trinity was his last theatrical release in the U. S. until 2010. He appeared in The Contractor, filmed in Bulgaria and the UK, released in 2012, Game of Death. Snipes was slated to play one of the four leads in Spike Lee's 2008 war film Miracle at St. Anna but had to leave the film due to tax problems. Snipes made a comeback performance in Brooklyn's Finest as Casanova "Caz" Phillips, a supporting character, it was his first theatrical release film since 2004, he had to turn down the part of Hale Caesar in The Expendables because he was not allowed to leave the United States without the court's approval.
In 2014, he appeared in the sequel The Expendables 3. In the late 1990s, Snipes and his brother started a security firm called the Royal Guard of Amen-Ra, dedicated to providing VIPs with bodyguards trained in law enforcement and martial arts. Amen-Ra is the name of his film company. In 1996, the first film produced by Amen-Ra was A Mighty Walk -- Dr. John Henrik Clarke. In 2000, the business was investigated for alleged ties to the United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors, it emerged that Snipes had spotted 200 acres of land near their Tama-Re compound in Putnam County, intending to buy and use it for his business academy. Both Snipes's business and the groups used Egyptian motifs as their symbols. Snipes and his brother did not buy the land, instead establishing their company in Florida and Africa. In 2005, Snipes was in negotiations to fight Fear Factor host Joe Rogan. Snipes began training in martial arts, he has a 2nd degree black belt in Hapkido. He has trained in Capoeira under Mestre Jelon Vieira and in a number of other disciplines including kung fu at the USA Shaolin Temple and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu and Kickboxing.
During his time in New York, Snipes was trained in fighting by mentor Brooke Ellis. Snipes has been
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
30 for 30
30 for 30 is the title for a series of documentary films airing on ESPN, its sister networks, online highlighting interesting people and events in sports history. This includes three "volumes" of 30 episodes each, a 13-episode series under the ESPN Films Presents title in 2011–2012, a series of 30 for 30 Shorts shown through the ESPN.com website. The series has expanded to include Soccer Stories, which aired in advance of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, audio podcasts; the idea for the series began in 2007 from ESPN.com columnist and Grantland.com founder Bill Simmons and ESPN's Connor Schell. The title, 30 for 30, derived from the series' genesis as 30 films in celebration of ESPN's 30th anniversary, with an exploration of the biggest stories from ESPN's first 30 years on-air, through a series of 30 one-hour films by 30 filmmakers. Volume I premiered in October 2009 and ran through December 2010, chronicling 30 stories from the "ESPN era", beginning with the network's founding in 1979; each film in Volume I details a striking sports issue or event that occurred during those three decades, including what Simmons describes as "stories that resonated at the time but were forgotten for whatever reason."
Subsequent films, including Volume II and online-only shorts, expanded the series beyond the "ESPN era". In September 2014, Schell said, "Even though we have been at this for five years now, there is no shortage of incredible moments from the world of sports, so that enables us to continue making 30 for 30 films we're proud of." In 2010, John Dahl, Connor Schell and Simmons served as 30 for 30's executive producers. In April 2018, it was announced that the entire archive of 30 for 30 films and shorts would be available on ESPN+, ESPN's direct-to-consumer online platform, once the service launched on April 12, 2018. Unless otherwise noted, the following films are all 60 minutes in length. Other films were announced for Volume I of the series but were not included; these films, which began airing in 2011, are a continuation of 30 for 30, dealing with more sports stories that 30 for 30 did not cover. According to 30 for 30 producer Bill Simmons, "We're spinning off the 30 for 30 series next year into something that will be called 30 for 30 Presents or something like that...
So though the SMU doc will be the 30th one don't think the spirit of the series is going away." These additional films include: On May 15, 2012, it was announced that the 30 for 30 series would return in October 2012, with 30 all new documentaries. The documentaries were integrated with Grantland.com by podcasts, feature stories and oral histories. Unless otherwise noted, the following films are all 90 minutes in length. In September 2015, it was announced that 30 for 30 would return for a third volume of 30 films, beginning in October 2015. O. J.: Made in America, directed by Ezra Edelman, was billed as a "mini-series event" in the 30 for 30 series. The five-part documentary series examines the life of O. J. Simpson, as well as the broader issues of race and celebrity in the United States as it pertained to Simpson's 1995 criminal trial for the murders of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, her acquaintance, Ronald Lyle Goldman. Made in America focuses on other aspects in Simpson's life, including his success on the football field, his celebrity away from the gridiron, his conviction and imprisonment in a robbery case.
Part 1 aired on June 2016, with Parts 2 -- 5 airing on June 14, 15, 17 and 18, respectively. The series received week-long theatrical releases in Los Angeles County and New York City before being broadcast, qualifying it for Oscar consideration, it received the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 89th Academy Awards. 30 for 30 Shorts are short films that have been featured on the 30 for 30 website as well as the now-defunct Grantland.com website. On January 11, 2014, it was announced that a soccer-only 30 for 30 series, featuring two-feature-length films and six 30-minute films, would be aired in April 2014, featuring "compelling narratives from around the international soccer landscape". Additionally, a 10-part vignette series, titled Coraçao, about Brazil's rich history, aired during ESPN's 2014 FIFA World Cup coverage. On September 7, 2016, it was announced that ESPN Films and ESPN Audio would produce 30 for 30 Podcasts, reporting on new sports stories using a narrative podcasting approach.
The series will launch in June 2017. The 30 for 30 theme music was re-worked for the podcast series by Hrishikesh Hirway, a musician and the host of the Song Exploder podcast; the first season was produced and hosted by Jody Avirgan and a team of in-house producers, with future episodes "to be done in collaboration with outside reporters, ESPN talent." The first season of 30 for 30 Podcasts was released during the summer of 2017 and featured the following episodes: Season Two of 30 for 30 Podcasts launched in November 2017 and features the following: The main focus of the third season is yoga guru Bikram Choudhury's dark behavior. The episodes in question are: Juiced, about Jose Canseco's infamous memoir; the series had a s
Eugene Allen Hackman is a retired American actor and novelist. In a career that spanned nearly five decades, Hackman was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning Best Actor in The French Connection and Best Supporting Actor in Unforgiven, he won one SAG Award and two BAFTAs. He first came to fame in 1967 with his performance as Buck Barrow in Bonnie and Clyde, when he received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, his major subsequent films include: I Never Sang for My Father, when he received his second Best Supporting Actor nomination. His film roles during the 1990s featured: Unforgiven. Hackman's final film appearance to date was the romantic comedy film Welcome to Mooseport in 2004, co-starring comedian Ray Romano. Hackman was born in San Bernardino, the son of Eugene Ezra Hackman and Anna Lyda Elizabeth, he has Richard. He has Pennsylvania Dutch and Scottish ancestry, his family moved finally settling in Danville, where they lived in the house of his English-born maternal grandmother, Beatrice.
Hackman's father operated the printing press for a local paper. His parents divorced in 1943 and his father subsequently left the family. Hackman decided. Hackman lived in Storm Lake and spent his sophomore year at Storm Lake High School, he lied about his age to enlist in the United States Marine Corps. He served four and a half years as a field radio operator, he was stationed in China. When the Communist Revolution conquered the mainland in 1949, Hackman was assigned to Hawaii and Japan. Following his discharge in 1951, he had several jobs, his mother died in 1962 as a result of a fire. In 1956 he began pursuing an acting career, it was there that he forged a friendship with Dustin Hoffman. Seen as outsiders by their classmates, they were voted "The Least Likely To Succeed.". Furthermore, Hackman got the all time lowest score at the Pasadena Playhouse at the time. Determined to prove them wrong, Hackman moved to New York City. A 2004 article in Vanity Fair described how Hackman and Robert Duvall were all struggling California born actors and close friends, sharing apartments in various two-person combinations while living in New York City in the 1960s.
To support himself between acting jobs, he was working as a uniformed doorman at a Howard Johnson restaurant in New York when, as bad luck would have it, he ran into a despised Pasadena Playhouse instructor who once told him he was not good enough to be an actor. Reinforcing "The Least Likely To Succeed" vote, the man said to him, "See, Hackman, I told you you wouldn't amount to anything." From on, Hackman was determined to become the finest actor he could. The three former roommates have since earned 19 Academy Award nominations for acting, with five wins. Hackman got various bit roles, for example on the TV series Route 66 in 1963, began performing in several Off-Broadway plays. In 1964 he had an offer to co-star in the play Any Wednesday with actress Sandy Dennis; this opened the door to film work. His first role was with Warren Beatty in the leading role. In 1967 he appeared in an episode of the television series The Invaders entitled The Spores. Another supporting role, Buck Barrow in 1967's Bonnie and Clyde, earned him an Academy Award nomination as Best Supporting Actor.
In 1968 he appeared in an episode of I Spy, in the role of "Hunter", in the episode "Happy Birthday... Everybody". In 1968 he starred in the CBS Playhouse episode "My Father and My Mother" and the dystopian television film Shadow on the Land. In 1969 he played a ski coach in an astronaut in Marooned; that year, he played a member of a barnstorming skydiving team that entertained at county fairs, a movie which inspired many to pursue skydiving and has a cult-like status amongst skydivers as a result: The Gypsy Moths. He nearly accepted the role of Mike Brady for the TV series, The Brady Bunch, but was advised by his agent to decline in exchange for a more promising role, which he did. In 1971 he was nominated for the Best Supporting Actor Academy Award again, this time for 1970's I Never Sang for My Father, working alongside Melvyn Douglas and Estelle Parsons; the next year, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as New York City Detective Jimmy "Popeye" Doyle in The French Connection, marking his graduation to leading man status.
He followed this with leading roles in the disaster film The Poseidon Adventure and Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation, nominated for several Oscars. That same year, Hackman appeared in what became one of his most famous comedic roles as The Blindman in Young Frankenstein, he appeared as one of Teddy Roosevelt's former Rough Riders in the Western horse-race saga Bite the Bullet, as well as in that year's sequel French Connection II. In 1975 he appeared in Night Moves, receiving a BAFTA n
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Cobb is a 1994 biopic starring Tommy Lee Jones as the famed baseball player Ty Cobb. The picture was based on a book by Al Stump; the original music score was composed by Elliot Goldenthal. Sportswriter Al Stump is hired in 1960 as ghostwriter of an authorized autobiography of baseball player Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb. Now 73 and in failing health, Cobb wants an official biography to "set the record straight" before he dies. Stump arrives at Cobb's Lake Tahoe estate to write the official life story of the first baseball player inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, he finds a continually-drunken, bitter racist who abuses his biographer as well as everyone else he comes in contact with. Although Cobb's home is luxurious, it is without heat and running water due to long-running violent disputes between Cobb and utility companies. Cobb rapidly runs through domestic workers and firing them in quick succession. Although Cobb is ill and prone to frequent physical breakdown, he retains considerable strength and keeps several loaded firearms within easy reach at all times, making the outbreak of violent confrontation always an immediate possibility in his presence.
Cobb gets killed in an automobile accident off the Donner Pass, driving recklessly in a blizzard. Stump rescues him, but Cobb seizes control of Stump's car until he gets into another accident; the car has to be towed to Reno. Stump and Cobb go see a show at a Reno resort hotel featuring Keely Smith and Louis Prima, whose act Cobb rudely interrupts. A cigarette girl, becomes interested in Stump, but when Cobb barges into the hotel room, he's in a jealous rage, he takes Ramona to another room. Cobb and Stump travel together cross-country by automobile to the Baseball Hall of Fame's induction weekend in Cooperstown, New York, where many star players from Cobb's era are in attendance, including Rogers Hornsby and Mickey Cochrane. Cobb is haunted by images from his violent past. From there and Stump drive south to Cobb's native Georgia, where his estranged daughter continues to live, she refuses to see him. Stump, having spent months with Cobb witnessing his behavior and absorbing considerable abuse, is torn between creating the autobiography that Cobb hired him to write and writing his own book on Cobb's true self.
Cobb begins to regard Stump as a friend of sorts. Stump writes two books simultaneously: the one Cobb expects, his own, merciless account which will reveal the real Cobb and all. Stump plans to complete Cobb's version while the old man is still alive, guaranteeing his payment for the project, letting Cobb die happy issue the hard-hitting followup after Cobb is gone. After a long night of drinking when his own personal life begins to unravel, Stump passes out. Cobb discovers his notes for the no-punches-pulled version. Cobb begins to cough up blood and is taken to a hospital, where he wields a gun and treats doctors and nurses as harshly as he has everyone else. Stump gains a grudging respect for the player's legendary intensity and fearsome competitive fire, as well as an understanding that the murder of Cobb's father may have been responsible for his antagonistic personality. Cobb reveals to Stump that his father's murder was not committed by his mother, but by his mother's lover. Stump is conflicted in his opinion of Cobb, and, in the end, completes the glowing autobiography Cobb hired him to write.
Tommy Lee Jones as Ty Cobb Robert Wuhl as Al Stump Lolita Davidovich as Ramona Lou Myers as Willie William Utay as Jameson J. Kenneth Campbell as William Herschel Cobb Rhoda Griffis as Amanda Chitwood Cobb Roger Clemens as Opposing pitcher Stephen Mendillo as Mickey Cochrane Tommy Bush as Rogers Hornsby Stacy Keach, Sr. as Jimmie Foxx Crash Davis as Sam Crawford Rath Shelton as Paul Waner Jim Shelton as Lloyd Waner Reid Cruickshanks as Pie Traynor Eloy Casados as Louis Prima Paula Rudy as Keely Smith Bradley Whitford as Process Server Brian Patrick Mulligan as Charlie Chaplin Jimmy Buffett as Heckler Baseball scenes were filmed in Birmingham, Alabama at Rickwood Field, which stood in for Philadelphia's Shibe Park and Pittsburgh's Forbes Field. Scenes were filmed in Cobb's actual hometown of Royston, Georgia. Much of the Cobb location filming was done in Northern Nevada; the hotel check-in was at the Morris Hotel on Fourth Street in Reno. Casino and entry shots were done outside Cactus Jack's Hotel and Casino in Carson City and outside the then-closed, now-reopened Doppelganger's Bar in Carson City.
The late baseball announcer Ernie Harwell, a Ford Frick Award recipient, is featured as emcee at a Cooperstown, New York awards banquet. Real-life sportswriters Allan Malamud, Doug Krikorian, Jeff Fellenzer and boxing publicist Bill Caplan appear in the movie's opening and closing scenes at a Santa Barbara bar as Stump's friends and fellow scribes. Carson City free-lance photographer Bob Wilkie photographed many still scenes for Nevada Magazine, the Associated Press, the Nevada Appeal. Tommy Lee Jones was shooting this film when he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Fugitive. Since his head was shaved in the front for his role as the balding, 72-year-old Cobb, the actor made light of the situation in his acceptance speech: "All a man can say at a time like this is,'I am not bald,'" Jones said, he added, "But I do have work." In addition to his shaved head, Jones endured a broken ankle, suffered while practicing Cobb's distinctive slide. The film shows Cobb sharpening his spikes as a means to keep infield