University of Chichester
The University of Chichester is a public university located in West Sussex, England which became a university in 2005. Campuses are based in the city of Chichester and the nearby coastal resort of Bognor Regis and an associate campus for commercial music on the Isle of Wight; the University of Chichester has 14 departments, with specialisms including Humanities, Musical Theatre and Education. Its heritage stretches back into the nineteenth century when, in 1839, Bishop Otter College was established. Since 2013, both campuses have seen major expansion-led building works through National Lottery Funding and other funding; the University of Chichester is a member of The Cathedrals Group. In 1839, a school for training'Masters' was founded by William Otter, Bishop of Chichester, known as the Bishop Otter College; the original buildings, created in a neo-Tudor style, were designed by the architect J. Butler. In 1873, the campus became a training institute for women teachers due to the activism of Louisa Hubbard after the Elementary Education Act 1870 which created demand for school teachers.
Men were admitted to the college in 1960. In the 20th century the campus was expanded to meet demand. There was a large extension in the 1960s, including a steep gabled cruciform chapel, designed by the architect, Peter Shepheard. During the 1970s the Principal of Bishop Otter College was Gordon McGregor, who went on to be Principal of Ripon and York St John and latterly Emeritus Professor of Education at the University of Leeds. At Bognor Regis a teacher training college was founded in the 1940s to support the expansion of education. In 1977 Bishop Otter College and the Bognor Regis college were merged to form the West Sussex Institute of Higher Education, with degrees being awarded by CNAA and the University of Southampton. Alumni from this period include the author Paula Byrne. Between 1995 and 1999, it was known as Chichester Institute of Higher Education, it gained degree-awarding powers in 1999, becoming known as University College Chichester, became recognised as a full university in October 2005.
In 2015 Chichester University secured government and lotteries commission funding to the value of £8millions and embarked on a plan of expansions at both academic sites, involving the demolition of several smaller collegiate structures, that were no longer suitable for purpose and the construction of facilities for academia and sports. In January 2017 the multi-million pound purpose built Academic Block was opened, hosting lecture and seminar rooms, a brand new Students' Union shop and a sprung floor dance space; the main campus is situated at College Lane, Chichester and is set in surroundings which include historic buildings and modern facilities. It is a five-minute walk from Chichester city centre. Chichester Festival Theatre is adjacent to the campus. In 2016, the Chichester campus underwent redevelopment with a new Academic Building for teaching. Other work included construction of a sports dome, chapel extension, Sports Hall and Gym refurbishment, as well as major development work on the Library or Learning Resources Centre which has three floors.
The Otter Gallery was located within the LRC. It offered public art workshops throughout the year, it was permanently closed against public protest at the end of 2018. The Bognor Regis campus is in a leafy environment five minutes from the sea, has three mansion houses with Georgian architecture: St Michael’s, the Dome and Mordington House; the Students’ Union runs The Hub bar on the Bognor Regis Campus. A University run "Safety Bus" can be called by students to pick them up and take them to and from campus; the Bognor Regis campus is close to Hotham Park. The park surrounds Hotham House, built in 1792 by Sir Richard Hotham. Nearby is the Ice House – the original 18th Century refrigerator of Hotham Park Estate; the University's £35million Tech Park was opened on Wednesday 3 October 2018 by Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Sussex. The university department structure can be found below. Hakim Adi Stephen Baysted Frederick Crowe Vicki Feaver Dave Hill Duncan Honeybourne Keith Jenkins Peter Keen Jonathan Little Laura Ritchie Andrew Sant Diana Seach University of Chichester
Royal Central School of Speech and Drama
The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama was founded by Elsie Fogerty in 1906 to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students. It became a constituent of the University of London in 2005 and its prominent alumni include Cush Jumbo, Laurence Olivier, Vanessa Redgrave, Judi Dench, Harold Pinter, Martin Freeman and Kit Harington; the school offers undergraduate, research degrees, short courses in acting, actor training, applied theatre, theatre crafts and making, drama therapy, musical theatre, producing, research, stage management, teacher training, technical arts and writing. On 9 October 2008 the school announced that Harold Pinter, the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature and Central alumnus, had agreed to become its president and to receive an honorary fellowship in the school's graduation ceremony on 10 December 2008, but Pinter had to receive it in absentia, because of ill health, he died two weeks later. Michael Grandage, a Central graduate and artistic director of the Donmar Warehouse, has now been appointed President.
Elsie Fogerty founded The Central School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art at the Royal Albert Hall in 1906. Fogerty was a specialist in speech training and held a firm belief in the social importance of education, she was committed to advancing the study of theatre as an academic discipline. In 1957 the school moved from the Royal Albert Hall, having acquired the lease of the Embassy Theatre at Swiss Cottage and its associated buildings. By 1961 three distinct departments had been established within Central; the stage department was running its three-year course for actors, with alumni including Laurence Olivier and Peggy Ashcroft a part of its history, a two-year course for stage managers. The teacher training department was preparing students for its own diploma, a recognised teaching qualification, for the London University Diploma in Dramatic Art; that diploma had been instituted in 1912 as a result of Fogerty's campaign for the recognition of drama and drama teaching as subjects worthy of serious academic study.
By this time, the school was as known for its speech therapy department as for its work in training actors. In 1972 Central became grant-aided by the Inner London Education Authority. In 1989 it was incorporated as a higher education college in its own right and funded directly by government. Central had been offering degrees since 1986, firstly validated by the Council for National Academic Awards and from 1992 by the Open University. In 2004 the Privy Council granted the Central the power to award its own taught degrees. In 2005 students from the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art transferred to Central after a 100-year history of significant contributions to stage and screen. In the same year, the school was designated as the Higher Education Funding Council for England's Centre for Excellence in Training for Theatre. With effect from September 2005 Central became a college of the University of London realising the ambitions articulated a hundred years earlier by its founder Elsie Fogerty.
Apart from its notable alumni, who include Laurence Olivier, Vanessa Redgrave, Judi Dench, Cameron Mackintosh, Harold Pinter, Jason Isaacs and James Fox, the school has had some notable staff. In the 1960s Yat Malmgren taught movement, based on principles derived from Laban. On 29 November 2012 the adjective Royal was bestowed on the school by Elizabeth II in recognition of its reputation as a "world-class institution for exceptional professional training in theatre and performance studies", it is entitled to use it in official documentation, although it continues to be colloquially referred to as "Central". The school's Patron, Princess Alexandra of Kent, played a role in recommending the institution for the adjective; the school is located at Swiss Cottage in North London, an area, being redeveloped as a "civic and cultural quarter" which includes a new extension building for the school, replacing 1960's accommodation. The school's theatre is located inside the new building, awarded a BREEAM rating of "very good".
On 9 October 2008, the school announced that Harold Pinter, who attended the school in 1950–51, had agreed to become its president, succeeding Labour Party politician Peter Mandelson, who had rejoined the government of Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Current president of Central is Michael Grandage, Artistic Director of the Donmar Warehouse and alumnus of the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama Current Principal Gavin Henderson is an English arts administrator and trumpeter. Deputy Principal / Deputy CEO / Clerk to Deborah Scully; these included Registrar at Southwark College, London. Deputy Principal and Professor of Theatre, Simon Shepherd, joined Central in 2001. A Professor of Drama at Golds
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański is a French-Polish film director, producer and actor. Since 1978, he has been a fugitive from the U. S. criminal justice system, having fled the country while awaiting sentencing in his sexual abuse case, where he pleaded guilty to statutory rape. Polanski was born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1937, when he was four. Two years Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and the USSR starting World War II and the Polanski's found themselves trapped in the Kraków Ghetto. After his mother and father were taken in raids, Polanski spent his formative years in foster homes under an adopted identity, trying to survive the Holocaust. Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, he has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France.
In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion. In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby. A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and continued directing, he made Macbeth in England and back in Hollywood, nominated for eleven Academy Awards. In 1977, Polanski was charged with drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl, he subsequently pled guilty to the lesser offence of unlawful sex with a minor. After spending 42 days undergoing psychiatric evaluation in prison in preparation for sentencing, who had expected to be put on probation, fled to Paris after learning that the judge planned to imprison him. In Europe, Polanski continued starring Nastassja Kinski, it won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, received three Oscars. He produced and directed The Pianist, a drama about a Jewish-Polish musician escaping Nazi persecution, starring Adrien Brody and Emilia Fox.
The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He directed Oliver Twist, a story which parallels his own life as a "young boy attempting to triumph over adversity", he was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer at the 23rd European Film Awards. He received Best Screenwriter nomination at the aforementioned awards for Carnage. In 2018, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences voted to expel Polanski from its membership because of the statutory rape case. Polanski was born in Paris, his mother had Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, left Poland forever for France. Polański's father was Jewish and from Poland. Polański's parents were both agnostics. Polański, influenced by his education in the People's Republic of Poland, said "I'm an atheist" in an interview about his film, Rosemary's Baby; the Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, were living there when World War II began with the invasion of Poland.
Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, the racist and anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the city's Jews. Around the age of six, he attended primary school for only a few weeks, until "all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled," writes biographer Christopher Sandford; that initiative was soon followed by the requirement that all Jewish children over the age of twelve wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identification. After he was expelled, he would not be allowed to enter another classroom for the next six years. Polanski witnessed both the ghettoization of Kraków's Jews into a compact area of the city, the subsequent deportation of all the ghetto's Jews to German death camps, he watched. He remembers from age six, one of his first experiences of the terrors to follow: I had just been visiting my grandmother... when I received a foretaste of things to come.
At first I didn't know. I saw people scattering in all directions. I realized why the street had emptied so quickly; some women were being herded along it by German soldiers. Instead of running away like the rest, I felt compelled to watch. One older woman at the rear of the column couldn't keep up. A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours... A pistol appeared in the officer's hand. There was a loud bang, blood came welling out of her back. I ran straight into the nearest building, squeezed into a smelly recess beneath some wooden stairs, didn't come out for hours. I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard. I woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed, his father was transferred, along with thousands of other Jews, to Mauthausen, a group of 49 German concentration camps in Austria. His mother was taken to Auschwitz, was killed soon after arriving; the forced exodus took place after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski's film The Pianist.
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (film)
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly is a 2007 biographical drama film directed by Julian Schnabel and written by Ronald Harwood. Based on Jean-Dominique Bauby's memoir of the same name, the film depicts Bauby's life after suffering a massive stroke that left him with a condition known as locked-in syndrome. Bauby is played by Mathieu Amalric; the Diving Bell and the Butterfly won awards at the Cannes Film Festival, the Golden Globes, the BAFTAs, the César Awards, received four Academy Award nominations. Several critics listed it as one of the best films of its decade, it ranks in BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century. The first third of the film is told from the main character's, Jean-Dominique Bauby, or Jean-Do as his friends call him, first person perspective; the film opens as Bauby wakes from his three-week coma in a hospital in France. After an initial rather over-optimistic analysis from one doctor, a neurologist explains that he has locked-in syndrome, an rare condition in which the patient is completely physically paralyzed, but remains mentally normal.
At first, the viewer hears Bauby's "thoughts", which are inaccessible to the other characters. A speech therapist and physical therapist try to help Bauby become as functional as possible. Bauby cannot speak, but he develops a system of communication with his speech and language therapist by blinking his left eye as she reads a list of letters to laboriously spell out his messages, letter by letter; the film's restricted point of view broadens out, the viewer begins to see Bauby from "outside", in addition to experiencing incidents from his past, including a visit to Lourdes. He fantasizes, imagining beaches, the Empress Eugénie and an erotic feast with one of his transcriptionists, it is revealed that Bauby had been editor of the popular French fashion magazine Elle, that he had a deal to write a book. He decides that he will still write a book, using his exhausting communication technique. A woman from the publishing house with which Bauby had the original book contract is brought in to take dictation.
The new book explains what it is like to now be him, trapped in his body, which he sees as being within an old-fashioned deep-sea diving suit with a brass helmet, called a scaphandre in French, as in the original title. Others around see his spirit, still alive, as a "Butterfly"; the story of Bauby's writing is juxtaposed with his regrets until his stroke. We see his three children, their mother, his mistress, his friends, his father, he encounters people from his past whose lives bear similarities to his own "entrapment": a friend, kidnapped in Beirut and held in solitary confinement for four years, his own 92-year-old father, confined to his own apartment, because he is too frail to descend four flights of stairs. Bauby completes his memoir and hears the critics' responses, he dies of pneumonia ten days after its publication. The closing credits are accentuated by reversed shootings of breaking glacier ice, accompanied by the Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros song "Ramshackle Day Parade". Mathieu Amalric as Jean-Dominique Bauby Emmanuelle Seigner as Céline Desmoulins Anne Consigny as Claude Mendibil Marie-Josée Croze as Henriette Durand Olatz López Garmendia as Marie Lopez Patrick Chesnais as Dr. Lepage Max von Sydow as Mr. Bauby Sr. Isaach de Bankolé as Laurent Marina Hands as Joséphine Niels Arestrup as Roussin Anne Alvaro as Betty Zinedine Soualem as Joubert Emma de Caunes as Empress Eugénie Françoise Lebrun as Madame Bauby The film was to be produced by American company Universal Studios and the screenplay was in English, with Johnny Depp slated to star as Bauby.
According to the screenwriter, Ronald Harwood, the choice of Julian Schnabel as director was recommended by Depp. Universal subsequently withdrew, Pathé took up the project two years later. Depp dropped the project due to scheduling conflicts with Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. Schnabel remained as director; the film was produced by Pathé and France 3 Cinéma, in association with Banque Populaire Images 7 and the American Kennedy/Marshall Company, in participation with Canal+ and Ciné Cinémas. According to the New York Sun, Schnabel insisted that the movie should be in French, resisting pressure by the production company to make it in English, believing that the rich language of the book would work better in the original French, went so far as to learn French to make the film. Harwood tells a different story: Pathé wanted "to make the movie in both English and French, why bilingual actors were cast". Schnabel said his influence for the film was drawn from personal experience: My father got sick and he was dying.
He had never been sick in his life. So he was in this bed at my house, he was staying with me, this script arrived for The Diving Bell and the Butterfly; as my father was dying, I read Ron Harwood's script. It gave me a bunch of parameters that would make a film have a different structure; as a painter, as someone who doesn't want to make a painting that looks like the last one I made, I thought it was a good palette. So and artistically these things all came together. Several key aspects of Bauby'
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Jeremy John Irons is an English actor. After receiving classical training at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, Irons began his acting career on stage in 1969 and has since appeared in many West End theatre productions, including The Winter's Tale, Much Ado About Nothing, The Taming of the Shrew, Richard II, Embers. In 1984, he made his Broadway debut in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing and received a Tony Award for Best Actor. Irons's first major film role came in the 1981 romantic drama The French Lieutenant's Woman, for which he received a BAFTA nomination for Best Actor. After starring in dramas, such as Moonlighting and The Mission, he was praised for portraying twin gynaecologists in David Cronenberg's psychological thriller Dead Ringers. In 1990, Irons portrayed accused attempted murderer Claus von Bülow in Reversal of Fortune, won multiple awards, including the Academy Award for Best Actor. Other notable films have included Steven Soderbergh's mystery thriller Kafka, the period drama The House of the Spirits, the romantic drama M. Butterfly, the voice of Scar in Disney's The Lion King, Simon Gruber in the action film Die Hard with a Vengeance, the drama Lolita, Musketeer Aramis in The Man in the Iron Mask, the action adventure Dungeons & Dragons, the drama The Merchant of Venice, the drama Being Julia, the epic historical drama Kingdom of Heaven, the fantasy-adventure Eragon, the Western Appaloosa, the indie drama Margin Call.
In 2016, he appeared in Assassin's Creed and, starting that year, has portrayed Alfred Pennyworth in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and reprising the role in Justice League. Irons has made several notable appearances on TV, he earned his first Golden Globe Award nomination for his break-out role in the ITV series Brideshead Revisited. In 2005, Irons appeared in the historical miniseries Elizabeth I, for which he received a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy Award for Best Supporting Actor. From 2011 to 2013, he starred as Pope Alexander VI in the Showtime historical series The Borgias, he is one of the few actors who have achieved the "Triple Crown of Acting", winning an Academy Award for film, an Emmy Award for television and a Tony Award for theatre. In October 2011, he was nominated the Goodwill Ambassador for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Irons was born in Cowes on the Isle of Wight, the son of Paul Dugan Irons, an accountant, Barbara Anne Brereton Brymer.
He has a small amount of Irish ancestry, tracing the latter back to County Cork. Irons has a brother, a sister, Felicity Anne, he was educated at the independent Sherborne School in Dorset from 1962 to 1966. He was the harmonica player in a four-man school band called the Four Pillars of Wisdom. Irons trained as an actor at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School and became president of its fundraising appeal, he performed a number of plays, busked on the streets of Bristol, before appearing on the London stage as John the Baptist and Judas opposite David Essex in Godspell, which opened at the Roundhouse on 17 November 1971 before transferring to Wyndham's Theatre playing a total of 1,128 performances. Irons's TV career began on British television in the early 1970s, including appearances on the children's series Play Away and as Franz Liszt in the 1974 BBC series Notorious Woman. More he starred in the 13-part adaptation of H. E. Bates' novel Love for Lydia for London Weekend Television, attracted attention for his key role as the pipe-smoking German student, a romantic pairing with Judi Dench, in Harold Pinter's screenplay adaptation of Aidan Higgins' novel Langrishe, Go Down for BBC Television.
The role which brought him fame was that of Charles Ryder in the television adaptation of Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited. First broadcast on ITV, the show ranks among the greatest British television dramas, with Irons receiving a Golden Globe nomination for his performance. Brideshead reunited him with Anthony Andrews, with whom he had appeared in The Pallisers seven years earlier. In the same year he starred in the film The French Lieutenant's Woman opposite Meryl Streep. After these major successes, in 1982 he played the leading role of an exiled Polish building contractor, working in the Twickenham area of southwest London, in Jerzy Skolimowski's independent film Moonlighting; the film was seen on television and Irons's performance extended his acting range. On 23 March 1991, he hosted Saturday Night Live on NBC in the US, appeared as Sherlock Holmes in the Sherlock Holmes' Surprise Party sketch. In 2005, Irons won both an Emmy award and a Golden Globe award for his supporting role in the TV mini-series, Elizabeth I.
A year he was one of the participants in the third series of the BBC documentary series Who Do You Think You Are?. In 2008, he played Lord Vetinari in Terry Pratchett's The Colour of Magic, an adaptation for Sky One. On 6 November 2008, TV Guide reported Irons would star as photographer Alfred Stieglitz with Joan Allen as painter Georgia O'Keeffe, in a Lifetime Television biopic, Georgia O'Keeffe. Irons appeared in the documentary for Irish television channel TG4, Faoi Lan Cheoil, in which he learned to play the fiddle. On 12 January 2011, Irons was a guest-star in an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit called "Mask", he played a sex therapist. He reprised the role on an episode titled "Totem" that ran on 30 March 2011. Irons stars in the 2011 US premium cable network Showtime's series The Borgias, a f
Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm Furtwängler was a German conductor and composer. He is regarded as one of the greatest symphonic and operatic conductors of the 20th century. Furtwängler was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic between 1922 and 1945, from 1952 until 1954, he was principal conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, was a guest conductor of other major orchestras including the Vienna Philharmonic. He was the leading conductor to remain in Germany during the Second World War, although he was not an adherent of the Nazi regime; this decision caused lasting controversy, the extent to which his presence lent prestige to the Third Reich is still debated. Furtwängler's conducting is well documented in commercial and broadcast recordings and has contributed to his lasting reputation, he had a major influence on many conductors, his name is mentioned when discussing their interpretive styles. Wilhelm Furtwängler was born in Schöneberg into a prominent family, his father Adolf was his mother a painter.
Most of his childhood was spent in Munich, where his father taught at the city's Ludwig Maximilian University. He was given a musical education from an early age, developed an early love of Ludwig van Beethoven, a composer with whose works he remained associated throughout his life. Although Furtwängler achieved fame chiefly from his conducting, he regarded himself foremost as a composer, he began conducting. By age of twenty, he had composed several works. However, they were not well received, that, combined with the financial insecurity of a career as a composer, led him to concentrate on conducting, he made his conducting debut with the Kaim Orchestra in Anton Bruckner's Ninth Symphony. He subsequently held conducting posts at Munich, Strasbourg, Lübeck, Mannheim and Vienna. Furtwangler succeeded Artur Bodanzky as principal conductor of the Mannheim Opera and Music Academy in 1915, remaining until 1920; as a boy he had sometimes stayed with his grandmother in Mannheim. Through her family he met the Geissmars, a Jewish family who were leading lawyers and amateur musicians in the town.
Berta Geissmar wrote, "Furtwängler became so good at as to attain professional skill... Every sport appealed to him: he loved tennis and swimming... He was a good horseman..." She reports that he was a strong mountain climber and hiker. Berta Geissmar subsequently became his secretary and business manager, in Mannheim and in Berlin, until she was forced to leave Germany in 1934. From 1921 onwards, Furtwängler shared holidays in the Engadin with her mother. In 1924 he bought a house there. After he married, the house was open to a wide circle of friends. In 1920 he was appointed conductor of the Berlin Staatskapelle succeeding Richard Strauss. In January 1922, following the sudden death of Arthur Nikisch, he was appointed to the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. Shortly afterwards he was appointed to the prestigious Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, again in succession to Nikisch. Furtwängler made his London debut in 1924, continued to appear there before the outbreak of World War 2 as late as 1938, when he conducted Richard Wagner's Ring.
In 1925 he appeared as guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, making return visits in the following two years. In January 1945 Furtwängler fled to Switzerland, it was during this period that he completed what is considered his most significant composition, the Symphony No. 2 in E minor. It was given its premiere in 1948 by the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Furtwängler's direction and was recorded for Deutsche Grammophon. Following the war, he resumed performing and recording, remained a popular conductor in Europe, although his actions in the 1930s and 40s were a subject of ongoing criticism, he died in 1954 in Ebersteinburg, close to Baden-Baden. He is buried in the Heidelberg Bergfriedhof, his second wife Elisabeth died in 2013, aged 103. Furtwängler's relationship with and attitudes towards Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party were a matter of much controversy. Furtwängler was critical of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany, was convinced that Hitler would not stay in power for long.
He had said of Hitler in 1932, "This hissing street pedlar will never get anywhere in Germany". As the antisemitic policies of the Third Reich took effect, Jewish musicians were forced out of work and began to leave Germany; the Nazis were aware that Furtwängler was opposed to the policies and might decide to go abroad, so the Berlin Philharmonic, which employed many Jews, was exempted from the policies. In 1933, when Bruno Walter was dismissed from his position as principal conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, the Nazis asked Furtwängler to replace him for an international tour, their goal was to show to the world. Furtwängler refused, it was Richard Strauss who replaced Walter. On April 10, 1933, Furtwängler wrote a public letter to Goebbels to denounce the new rulers' antisemitism: Ultimately there is only one dividing line I recognize: that between good and bad art. However, while the dividing line between Jews and non-Jews is being drawn with a downright merciless theoretical precision, that other dividing line, the one which in the long run is so important for our music life, the decisive dividing line between good and bad, seems to have far too little significance attributed to it If concerts offer nothing people will not attend.