Royal Life Saving Society UK
The Royal Life Saving Society UK is a drowning prevention charity founded in 1891 in the UK. It has had Royal Patronage since 1904; the Royal Life Saving Society UK is a national charity, founded in 1891 and its aim is to Safeguard lives in, on and near water. The Society has more than 13,000 members in 48 branches and 1,400 active lifesaving and lifeguarding clubs it trains over 93% of all pool and beach lifeguards throughout the UK and Ireland; the Society has had Royal Patronage since 1904. Her Majesty the Queen is the Society's Patron. HRH Prince Michael of Kent GCVO is the active Commonwealth President of the Society, it is based in the Midlands town of Worcestershire. The RLSS is part of International Life Saving Federation. Lifesaving and lifeguarding are promoted as a sport and a life skill by the Royal Life Saving Society UK. There are over 1,400 lifesaving clubs based throughout the UK and Ireland, which teach skills such as drowning prevention, life support and personal survival; the learning of lifesaving takes place in a variety of water environments, such as swimming pools, inland water venues and at coastal locations.
Clubs coach their members towards achieving RLSS UK awards as part of the Survive & Save Programme. The flagship award being the Bronze Medallion. For a description of the Medallion itself see Bronze Medallion. Subsequent awards under the Survive & Save programme follow a path to silver and gold though four disciplines of lifesaving, open water and still water; the final award of lifesaving is that of Distinction, an award that demands a high level of skill. The Distinction is awarded on passing three 3 gold awards. Training programmes exist from young children to adults; some lifesaving and lifeguard clubs operate as volunteer organisations, providing safety cover at locations where there would otherwise be none. The RLSS organises both national and regional speed and skills competitions and many clubs, including university affiliated clubs field teams at these events; the RLSS offers community courses as well as vocational qualifications for pool and beach lifeguards. These vocational awards are recognised throughout the UK and Ireland and are awarded under the auspices of the Institute of Qualified Lifeguards.
These awards include the National Pool and National Beach Lifeguard Qualifications as well as the new National Pool Management Course. RLSS UK offers various courses for young people including the Rookie Lifeguard Programme, part of the governments National Plan for Teaching of Swimming developed to teach children aged 8 to 12 years old the basics in life saving. Other programmes include Young Leaders, Assistant Instructor and Rookie Instructor as well as Assistant Beach Lifeguard and Senior Lifesaving Awards. Young people have the opportunity to use their lifesaving skills in a competitive environment through the Sport Section of the Society. Lifesaving Life Support refers to the series of exams implemented by the RLSS in order to assess a lifesaver's ability in on land rescue techniques. Lifesaving Royal Life Saving Society Australia Royal Life Saving Society of Canada Lifesaving Awards homepage Lifesavers Direct British University Lifesaving Clubs Association Irish Lifesaving Foundation Lifeguards Ireland
A fetish is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular, a human-made object that has power over others. Fetishism is the emic attribution of inherent value or powers to an object; the term "fetish" has evolved from an idiom used to describe a type of objects created in the interaction between European travelers and Africans in the early modern period to an analytical term that played a central role in the perception and study of non-Western art in general and African art in particular. William Pietz, who conducted an extensive ethno-historical study of the fetish, argues that the term originated in the coast of West Africa during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Pietz distinguishes between, on the one hand, actual African objects that may be called fetishes in Europe, together with the indigenous theories of them, on the other hand, "fetish", an idea, an idea of a kind of object, to which the term above applies. According to Pietz, the post-colonial concept of "fetish" emerged from the encounter between Europeans and Africans in a specific historical context and in response to African material culture.
He begins his polemic with an introduction to the complex history of the word: My argument is that the fetish could originate only in conjunction with the emergent articulation of the ideology of the commodity form that defined itself within and against the social values and religious ideologies of two radically different types of noncapitalist society, as they encountered each other in an ongoing cross-cultural situation. This process is indicated in the history of the word itself as it developed from the late medieval Portuguese feitiço, to the sixteenth-century pidgin Fetisso on the African coast, to various northern European versions of the word via the 1602 text of the Dutchman Pieter de Marees... The fetish not only originated from, but remains specific to, the problem of the social value of material objects as revealed in situations formed by the encounter of radically heterogeneous social systems, a study of the history of the idea of the fetish may be guided by identifying those themes that persist throughout the various discourses and disciplines that have appropriated the term.
Stallybrass concludes that "Pietz shows that the fetish as a concept was elaborated to demonize the arbitrary attachment of West Africans to material objects. The European subject was constituted in opposition to a demonized fetishism, through the disavowal of the object." The Portuguese developed the concept of the fetish to refer to the objects used in religious cults by West African natives. The contemporary Portuguese feitiço may refer to more neutral terms such as charm, juju or abracadabra, or more offensive terms such as witchcraft, conjuration or bewitchment; the concept was popularized in Europe circa 1757, when Charles de Brosses used it in comparing West African religion to the magical aspects of ancient Egyptian religion. Auguste Comte employed the concept in his theory of the evolution of religion, wherein he posited fetishism as the earliest stage, followed by polytheism and monotheism; however and anthropology would classify some artifacts of monotheistic religions as fetishes.
For example, the Holy Cross and the consecrated host or tokens of communion found in some forms of Christianity, are here regarded as examples of fetishism. The eighteenth-century intellectuals who articulated the theory of fetishism encountered this notion in descriptions of "Guinea" contained in such popular voyage collections as Ramusio's Viaggio e Navigazioni, de Bry's India Orientalis, Purchas's Hakluytus Posthumus, Churchill's Collection of Voyages and Travels, Astley's A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels, Prevost's Histoire generale des voyages; the theory of fetishism was consecrated at the end of the eighteenth century by G. W. F. Hegel in Lectures on the Philosophy of History. According to Hegel, Africans were incapable of abstract thought, their ideas and actions were governed by impulse, therefore a fetish object could be anything, arbitrarily imbued with imaginary powers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Tylor and McLennan, historians of religion, held that the concept of fetishism fostered a shift of attention away from the relationship between people and God, to focus instead on a relationship between people and material objects, that this, in turn, allowed for the establishment of false models of causality for natural events.
This they saw as a central problem and sociologically. In 1927, Sigmund Freud published his essay on "Fetishism", in which he writes that the meaning and purpose of the fetish turns out, through analysis, to always be the same: "the fetish is a substitute for the penis...for a particular and quite special penis, important in early childhood but had been lost." In refusing to see his mother's lack of penis, the boy disavows what he sees, resulting in both a belief and a non-belief in the woman's phallus. This compromise results in a substitute. "It remains a token of triumph over the threat of castration and a protection against it." The use of the concept in the study of religion derives from studies of traditional West African religious beliefs, as well as from Voodoo, which in turn derives from those beliefs. Fetishes were used in Native American religion and practices; the bear represente
Mediumship is the practice of purportedly mediating communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings. Practitioners are known as "mediums." There are different types including spirit channeling and ouija. Humans have been fascinated with contacting the dead since the beginning of human existence. Cave paintings by indigenous Australians date back 28,000 years, some depicting skulls, bones and the afterlife. Other cave paintings in Indonesia date back a further 10,000 years. Mediumship gained popularity during the nineteenth century, when ouija boards were used by the upper classes as a source of entertainment. Investigations during this period revealed widespread fraud—with some practitioners employing techniques used by stage magicians—and the practice began to lose credibility. Fraud is still rife in the medium/psychic industry, with cases of deception and trickery being discovered to this day. Scientific researchers have attempted to ascertain the validity of claims of mediumship.
An experiment undertaken by the British Psychological Society led to the conclusion that the test subjects demonstrated no mediumistic ability. Several different variants of mediumship exist. Other forms involve materializations of the spirit or the presence of a voice, telekinetic activity; the practice is associated with several religious-belief systems such as Vodun, Spiritism, Candomblé, Voodoo and some New Age groups. In Spiritism and Spiritualism the medium has the role of an intermediary between the world of the living and the world of spirit. Mediums claim that they can listen to and relay messages from spirits, or that they can allow a spirit to control their body and speak through it directly or by using automatic writing or drawing. Spiritualists classify types of mediumship into two main categories: "mental" and "physical": Mental mediums purportedly "tune in" to the spirit world by listening, sensing, or seeing spirits or symbols. Physical mediums are believed to produce materialization of spirits, apports of objects, other effects such as knocking, bell-ringing, etc. by using "ectoplasm" created from the cells of their bodies and those of séance attendees.
During seances, mediums are said to go into trances, varying from light to deep, that permit spirits to control their minds. Channeling can be seen as the modern form of the old mediumship, where the "channel" purportedly receives messages from "teaching-spirit", an "Ascended master", from God, or from an angelic entity, but through the filter of his own waking consciousness. Attempts to communicate with the dead and other living human beings, aka spirits, have been documented back to early human history; the story of the Witch of Endor tells of one who raised the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel to allow the Hebrew king Saul to question his former mentor about an upcoming battle, as related in the Books of Samuel in the Jewish Tanakh. Mediumship became quite popular in the 19th-century United States and the United Kingdom after the rise of Spiritualism as a religious movement. Modern Spiritualism is said to date from practices and lectures of the Fox sisters in New York State in 1848.
The trance mediums Paschal Beverly Randolph and Emma Hardinge Britten were among the most celebrated lecturers and authors on the subject in the mid-19th century. Allan Kardec coined the term Spiritism around 1860. Kardec claimed that conversations with spirits by selected mediums were the basis of his The Spirits' Book and his five-book collection, Spiritist Codification; some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace. Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino. Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle. After the exposure of the fraudulent use of stage magic tricks by physical mediums such as the Davenport Brothers and the Bangs Sisters, mediumship fell into disrepute. However, the religion and its beliefs continue in spite of this, with physical mediumship and seances falling out of practice and platform mediumship coming to the fore.
In the late 1920s and early 1930s there were around one quarter of a million practising Spiritualists and some two thousand Spiritualist societies in the UK in addition to flourishing microcultures of platform mediumship and'home circles'. Spiritualism continues to be practiced through various denominational spiritualist churches in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, over 340 spiritualist churches and centres open their doors to the public and free demonstrations of mediumship are performed. In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's séances there are many Indians, they are noisy and appear to have great power. The little guides, or doorkeepers, are Indian boys and girls as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you." A spirit who uses a medium to manipulate psychic "energy" or "energy systems." In old-line Spiritualism, a portion of the services toward the end, is given over to demonstrations of mediumship throu
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status