Ebeye is the most populous island of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, as well as the center for Marshallese culture in the Ralik Chain of the archipelago. Settled on 80 acres of land, it has a population of more than 1500. Over 50% of the population is estimated to be under the age of 18; when Christian missionaries first arrived in the Marshall Islands, they introduced Latin script writing and orthographized the Marshallese language. Ebeye was written Ebeje by Europeans, which means "making something out of nothing." However, the colonial German administration mispronounced the J as if it were German language, foreign observers recorded the resulting pronunciation as Ebeye. During the Japanese period, the island's pronunciation in katakana, Ebize, re-approximated Marshallese. After World War II, the Americans took possession of the regional mandate from Japan and mispronounced the island's name as EE-by from its spelling; because most of the modern Marshallese residents of Ebeye don't have family roots on the island, the American pronunciation has stuck, is the usual name for Ebeye among the island's current population.
This pronunciation has been adapted to Marshallese orthography, so that there are now two synonymous Marshallese names for the island – and Epjā, locally Ibae. The Imperial Japanese Navy constructed a seaplane base on Ebeye in the early 1940s. Following the Battle of Kwajalein from 31 January to 3 February 1944, Ebeye was occupied by US forces. On 7 March the 107th Naval Construction Battalion was sent to Ebeye to redevelop the seaplane base; the Seabees repaired the existing 1,600-by-30-foot pier, adding a 50-by-240-foot ell extension, repaired a 250-foot Japanese H-shaped pier. The Seabees assembled a pontoon wharf and pontoon barges for transporting damaged carrier aircraft to repair units ashore. Further installations on Ebeye consisted of housing in floored tents and Quonset huts, a 150-bed dispensary, four magazines, 24,000 square feet of covered storage, a 4,000-US-barrel aviation-gasoline tank farm. Before the early 1950s, a large number of present-day residents of Ebeye lived on small islands throughout Kwajalein Atoll.
When Kwajalein island started to be used as a support base for the nuclear tests conducted at Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll, Marshallese residents of Kwajalein were relocated by U. S. authorities to a small, planned community constructed on Ebeye, unpopulated and had served as a Japanese seaplane base before the Pacific War. In 1950, the US Navy constructed a LORAN station on Ebeye, it was disestablished in 1977. With the advent of the Nike-Zeus anti-ballistic missile testing program of the 1960s, the U. S. military decided for safety and security reasons to evacuate a vast sector of the atoll to create a zone where unarmed guided missiles could be targeted from the continental United States. For this reason, whole communities of Kwajalein Atoll Marshallese residents were relocated in 1964 from the "Mid-Atoll Corridor" to Ebeye and were provided with housing and the incentive of work at the base on Kwajalein test site; these promises were not upheld, nor were these families compensated. Not only were they removed from their land and access to abundant marine resources, but most "Mid-Atoll" people did not have land rights to Ebeye, leaving them without much of a say in their future.
These people are allowed to return to their islands during range downtime but cannot build homes or maintain their land adequately, as they are subject to removal on a nearly monthly basis by authorities. Subsequent population growth by migration from outlying rural atolls and islands throughout the Marshalls created a housing shortage and problems with resources throughout the following decades. Original Ebeye inhabitants with land rights were not compensated adequately for the tenants who came to live on their land; this created tensions that polarized migrants from other atolls and "landowners" or original "Kwajalein people". The tensions persist today and are part of the basis for many Kwajalein Atoll landowners' disputes about the Land Use Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands Government in Majuro. Ebeye is the most populous island of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, as well as the center for Marshallese culture in the Ralik Chain of the archipelago.
It comprises 80 acres. It is the sixth most densely populated island in the world. Ebeye has a population of more than 15,000. In 2008, the population was 12,000. In 1968, the population was 3,000; some of the residents of Ebeye are refugees or descendants of refugees from the effects of the 15-megaton Castle Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll on 1 March 1954. The detonation unexpectedly rained nuclear fallout and two inches of radioactive snow on nearby Rongelap Atoll, which had not been evacuated as had Bikini; the 1954 American authorities evacuated Rongelap and were returned in 1957 with extensive medical surveillance. In 1985, Greenpeace evacuated the inhabitants of Rongelap to Mejato. Ebeye was the final destination for many of them. Infant mortality on Ebeye is 3.0% as of 2006. There have been recurrent outbreaks of cholera, dengue fever, tuberculosis. In 1963 there was a polio outbreak, in 1978 a measles outbreak. In 2009, the Ebeye Community Health Center was awarded a grant as part of the United States Stim
Bikar Atoll is an uninhabited atoll in the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. It is one of the smallest atolls in the Marshalls and located at 12°14′N 170°08′E. Due to its relative isolation from the main islands in the group, Bikar has a undisturbed flora and fauna, allowed to exist in a pristine condition, it is located 579 kilometres north of Majuro Atoll, the capital of the Marshall Islands, 320 kilometres South-southeast of Bokak, 115 kilometres north of Utirik, the nearest inhabited atoll. The land area is 0.5 square kilometres. It consists of 6 islets; the diamond-shaped atoll measures up to 13 km north to south and up to 8 km across. Its six islets have a combined land area of less than 0.5 square kilometres and enclose a shallow lagoon of 37 square kilometres. The surrounding reef is continuous except for one narrow pass located on the western side; the major islets are Bikar, Jabwelo and Jaboero. Bikar, the largest, reaches a height of 6 meters above sea level. Based on the results of drilling operations on Enewetak Atoll, in the nearby Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands, Bikar may include as much as 4600 feet of reef material atop a basalt rock base.
As most local coral growth stops at about 150 feet below the ocean surface, such a massive stony coral base suggests a gradual isostatic subsidence of the underlying extinct volcano, which itself rises 10,000 feet from the surrounding ocean floor. Shallow water fossils taken from just above Enewetak's basalt base are dated to about 55 mya. Low rainfall and high temperatures lead to arid conditions in which a fresh water Ghyben-Herzberg lens cannot form; the water at Bikar island is not as brackish as arid Taongi Atoll, allowing coconuts planted by visiting islanders from Utirik Atoll to survive. Like Taongi Atoll, the combination of an completely enclosed lagoon and waves driven over the reef by the prevailing northeastern trade winds results in the water level being perched some 0.5 m above the mean tide level. Bikar is one of the driest of the Marshall Islands atolls, having a semi-arid character. Mean annual temperature is 82 °F. Mean annual rainfall is less than 45 inches, falls during the July through October rainy season.
Prevailing winds are north to north-easterlies. Plant species of atoll forest include Pandanus tectorius, Lepturus repens, Cocos nucifera, Boerhavia repens, Pisonia grandis, Portulaca lutea, Triumfetta procumbens, Tournefortia argentea and Scaevola sericea, as well as areas of atoll scrub and vines. Much of the Pisonia forest noted in earlier surveys was devastated by a cyclone Typhoon Mary in 1977; this is a recurring event. A small number of coconut palms planted by visiting islanders survive. A 1952 survey found. Bikar's status as a major seabird nesting site was affected by a cyclone and the introduction of more aggressive rat species. Twenty-three species of birds were found in a 1969 survey, of which 19 were observed during a follow-up count in 1988. Species breeding in larger numbers that year included the great red-footed booby, their numbers appear reduced due to the destruction of the Pisonia forests. Other breeding species include the red-tailed tropicbird, white-tailed tropicbird, the masked booby, brown booby, white tern, brown noddy, sooty tern.
Migrant birds include small numbers of the ruddy turnstone, wandering tattler, bristle-thighed curlew, lesser golden plover, Pacific reef heron. Bikar is a major nesting site for the endangered green turtle, over 250 nesting sites having been observed in 1988; the Polynesian rat is common on Jabwelo. By 1993, a "population explosion" of non-Polynesian rats had been noted on the atoll, most introduced by Asian fishing trawlers operating illegally in the vicinity of Bikar; this raised concerns for bird nesting sites. The coral fauna shows signs of frequent storm damage; the corals include several genera not seen at Taongi Atoll, the diversity of fish is much greater, including the two-spot red snapper, humpback red snapper, leopard grouper, humphead parrot fish. Shellfish include the black-lipped pearl oyster, bear paw clam, maxima clam, the Trochus sea snail. No marine mammals have been seen in the lagoon. Although humans migrated to the Marshall Islands about 2000 years ago, Bikar was visited by the Marshallese, there is no evidence that there has been a resident human population.
The lack of water and the susceptibility of the atoll to cyclone and storm disturbance indicate that it will remain uninhabited. The atoll has traditionally been used for hunting and gathering seabirds and turtles, by inhabitants of other atolls in the northern Ratak chain. Along with the other uninhabited northern Ratak atolls of Bokak and Toke, Bikar was traditionally the hereditary property of the Ratak atoll chain Iroji Lablab; the exploitation of abundant sea turtles and eggs was regulated by custom, overseen by the Iroji. The Russian brig Rurik, with Captain Otto von Kotzebue, visited in summer 1817 during a search for a north passage between western Russia and its North American territories; the French corvette Danaide, Capt J. de Rosamel, visited the atoll in August 1840 during a hydrographical survey of islands in the Pacific. During the late 1800s, Bikar was the subject of a number of commercial transactions related to the increasing German presence in the Marshall Islands. On January 12, 1880 Bikar was sold by Iroojs Jurtaka and Takular o
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic to a diameter thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires. Fibers are used for illumination and imaging, are wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fibers include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers.
Multi-mode fibers have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters. Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication; this is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors; the field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.
The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, acknowledged as the father of fiber optics. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. Tyndall wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870:When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular... When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular... If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be reflected at the surface.... The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, while for diamond it is 23°42′.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Practical applications such as close internal illumination during dentistry appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. In the 1930s, Heinrich Lamm showed that one could transmit images through a bundle of unclad optical fibers and used it for internal medical examinations, but his work was forgotten. In 1953, Dutch scientist Bram van Heel first demonstrated image transmission through bundles of optical fibers with a transparent cladding; that same year, Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany at Imperial College in London succeeded in making image-transmitting bundles with over 10,000 fibers, subsequently achieved image transmission through a 75 cm long bundle which combined several thousand fibers. Their article titled "A flexible fibrescope, using static scanning" was published in the journal Nature in 1954.
The first practical fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed. Kapany coined the term fiber optics, wrote a 1960 article in Scientific American that introduced the topic to a wide audience, wrote the first book about the new field; the first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966. NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, employees handling the cameras had to be supervised by someone with an appropriate security clearance. Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables were the first, in 1965, to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer, making fibers a practical communication medium.
They proposed th
History of the Marshall Islands
Micronesians settled the Marshall Islands in the 2nd millennium BC, but there are no historical or oral records of that period. Over time, the Marshall Island people learned to navigate over long ocean distances by canoe using traditional stick charts. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar was the first European to see the islands in 1526, commanding the ship Santa Maria de la Victoria, the only surviving vessel of the Loaísa Expedition. On August 21, he sighted an island at 14°N that he named "San Bartolome". On September 21, 1529, Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón commanded the Spanish ship Florida, on his second attempt to recross the Pacific from the Maluku Islands, he stood off a group of islands from. These islands, which he named "Los Pintados", may have been Ujelang. On October 1, he found another group of islands where he went ashore for eight days, exchanged gifts with the local inhabitants and took on water; these islands, which he named "Los Jardines", may have been Bikini Atoll. The Spanish ship San Pedro and two other vessels in an expedition commanded by Miguel López de Legazpi discovered an island on January 9, 1530 Mejit, at 10°N, which they named "Los Barbudos".
The Spaniards traded with the local inhabitants. On January 10, the Spaniards sighted another island that they named "Placeres" Ailuk. On January 12, they sighted another island at 10°N that they called "Corrales". On January 15, the Spaniards sighted another low island Ujelang, at 10°N, where they described the people on "Barbudos". After that, ships including the San Jeronimo, Los Reyes and Todos los Santos visited the islands in different years; the islanders had no immunity to European diseases and many died as a result of contact with the Spanish. Captain John Charles Marshall and Thomas Gilbert visited the islands in 1788; the islands were named for Marshall on Western charts, although the natives have named their home "jolet jen Anij". Around 1820, Russian explorer Adam Johann von Krusenstern and the French explorer Louis Isidore Duperrey named the islands after John Marshall, drew maps of the islands; the designation was repeated on British maps. In 1824 the crew of the American whaler Globe mutinied and some of the crew put ashore on Mulgrave Island.
One year the American schooner Dolphin arrived and picked up two boys, the last survivors of a massacre by the natives due to their brutal treatment of the women. A number of vessels visiting the islands were attacked and their crews killed. In 1834, Captain DonSette and his crew were killed. In 1845 the schooner Naiad punished a native for stealing with such violence that the natives attacked the ship; that year a whaler's boat crew were killed. In 1852 the San Francisco-based ships Glencoe and Sea Nymph were attacked and everyone aboard except for one crew member were killed; the violence was attributed as a response to the ill treatment of the natives in response to petty theft, a common practice. In 1857, two missionaries settled on Ebon, living among the natives through at least 1870; the international community in 1874 recognized the Spanish Empire's claim of sovereignty over the islands as part of the Spanish East Indies. Although the Spanish Empire had a residual claim on the Marshalls in 1874, when she began asserting her sovereignty over the Carolines, she made no effort to prevent the German Empire from gaining a foothold there.
Britain raised no objection to a German protectorate over the Marshalls in exchange for German recognition of Britain's rights in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. On October 13, 1885, the gunboat SMS Nautilus under Captain Fritz Rötger brought German emissaries to Jaluit, they signed a treaty with Kabua, whom the Germans had earlier recognized as "King of the Ralik Islands," on October 15. Subsequently, seven other chiefs on seven other islands signed a treaty in German and Marshallese and a final copy witnessed by Rötger on November 1 was sent to the German Foreign Office; the Germans erected a sign declaring an "Imperial German Protectorate" at Jaluit. It has been speculated that the crisis over the Carolines with Spain, which provoked a war, was in fact "a feint to cover the acquisition of the Marshall Islands", which went unnoticed at the time, despite the islands being the largest source of copra in Micronesia. Spain sold the islands to Germany in 1884 through papal mediation. A German trading company, the Jaluit Gesellschaft, administered the islands from 1887 until 1905.
They conscripted the islanders as laborers. After the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899, in which Germany acquired the Carolines and the Marianas from Spain, Germany placed all of its Micronesian islands, including the Marshalls, under the governor of German New Guinea. Catholic missionary Father A. Erdland, from the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart based in Hiltrup, lived on Jaluit from around 1904 to 1914, he was interested in the islands and conducted considerable research on the Marshallese culture and language. He published a 376-page monograph on the islands in 1914. Father H. Linckens, another Missionary of the Sacred Heart visited the Marshall Islands in 1904 and 1911 for several weeks, he published a small work in 1912 about the Catholic mission activities and the people of the Marshall Islands. Under German control, before Japanese traders and fishermen from time to time visited the Marshall Islands, although contact with the islanders was irregular. After the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government adopted a policy of turning the Japanese Empire into a great economic an
Omelek Island is part of the Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. It is controlled by the United States military under a long-term lease and is part of the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site; the Island is about 32,000 square metres in size. Geologically, it is composed of reef-rock, as are the other islands in the atoll, created by the accumulation of marine organism remnants Omelek has long been used by the United States for small research rocket launches due to its relative isolation in the South Pacific; the last U. S. government rocket launch occurred in 1996. After 2000, the island's equatorial proximity and nearby radar tracking infrastructure attracted SpaceX, an orbital launch provider, which updated facilities on the island and established it as their primary launch location by 2006. SpaceX began launching Falcon 1 rockets from Omelek in 2006. Falcon 1 Flight 4, the first successful funded, liquid-propelled orbital launch vehicle, was launched from Omelek Island on 28 September 2008 and was followed by another Falcon 1 launch on 13 July 2009, placing RazakSAT into orbit.
Omelek was planned to host launches for the upgraded Falcon 1e rocket, but as of 2012, SpaceX stopped development on the Falcon 1e launches while it focused on its large Falcon 9 launch manifest. SpaceX had tentatively planned to upgrade the launch site for use by the Falcon 9 launch vehicle; as of December 2010, the SpaceX launch manifest listed Omelek as a potential site for several Falcon 9 launches, the first in 2012. and the Falcon 9 Overview document offered Kwajalein as a launch option. In any event, SpaceX did not make the upgrades necessary to support Falcon 9 launches from the atoll; the Reagan Test Site, which includes rocket launch sites on other islands in the Kwajalein Atoll, on Wake Island, at Aur Atoll, is the only U. S. government equatorial launch facility. Environmental assessment and overview of SpaceX's launch facilities at Omelek
Bokak Atoll or Taongi Atoll is an uninhabited coral atoll in the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands, located in the North Pacific Ocean at 14°32′N 169°00′E. Due to its relative isolation from the main islands in the group, Bokak has an undisturbed flora and fauna, allowed to exist in a pristine condition, it is located 685 km north of Majuro Atoll, the capital of the Marshall Islands, 280 km northeast of Bikar Atoll, the closest atoll, making it the most northerly and most isolated atoll of the country. Wake Island is 348 mi north-northwest; the land area is 3.2 km2, the lagoon measures 78 km2. It consists of 36 islets; the total area is 129 km2. The atoll is crescent-shaped, measuring about 18 km by 9 km, oriented in a north-south direction; the atoll reef is unbroken except for a 20 m wide channel in the west. Ten islets lie on the southeastern reef; the more important named islets, from north to south, are North Island, Bwdije, Sibylla and Bwokwla. Sibylla is the largest, measuring 7.2 km in length and up to 305 m in width.
Kamwome Islet to the north-east of Sibylla is the second largest, while Bokak, after which the atoll is named, lies to the south of Sibylla. Based on the results of drilling operations on Enewetak Atoll, in the nearby Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands, Bokak may include as much as 1,400 m of reef material atop a basalt rock base; as most local coral growth stops at about 45 m below the ocean surface, such a massive stony coral base suggests a gradual isostatic subsidence of the underlying extinct volcano, which itself rises 3,000 m from the surrounding ocean floor. Shallow water fossils taken from just above Enewetak's basalt base are dated to about 55mya. High boulder and sand ridges are a feature of the islets. Inland on the wider islets are sand and rubble flats, while back from the lagoon sides are low sand and gravel ridges. Soils are very immature, a mixture of coarser coral sand and gravel of various textures with little humus accumulation; the lagoon is shallow not exceeding 30 metres depth, has many coral heads and patch reefs, some reaching the surface.
The lagoon water level is up to 1 metre higher than the surrounding ocean due to an influx of wind-driven waters over the windward ocean reef and the presence of only one narrow reef passage on the leeward side. Water cascades over flats of the sloping leeward reef. A massive algal ridge lines the outer edge of the windward reef, while the south and west reefs are coral-covered narrow flats where landings can be made in quiet weather. A small algal rim, 100–150 mm high, on lagoon shores of the westernmost islets, on east-facing lagoon reef-fronts and on the windward edges of coral patches in the lagoon, may be a feature unique to Taongi; this rim is maintained by the constant flow of water over the reef flat. Bokak is the driest of the Marshall Islands atolls, having a semi-arid character. Mean annual temperature is 28 °C. Mean annual rainfall is less than 1,000 mm, falls during the late summer. Prevailing winds are north to north-easterlies. Bokak supports just nine plant species. All are native to the Marshall Islands and undisturbed by introduced species.
A combination of insufficient rainfall, excellent drainage, high temperatures lead to an arid environment in which a freshwater Ghyben-Herzberg lens cannot form, coconut palm is unable to grow. The most common formation is a low, sparse scrub forest of tree heliotrope, 2–6 m tall, with occasional taller trees; the understory comprises beach maupaka, or sparse endemic bunchgrass, ʻihi, ʻilima, or alena, the latter being more abundant on broken coral gravel. A small stand of Pisonia grandis is found on Kamwome Islet and in another small stand on Sibylla. Pure stands of dense beach naupaka shrubland, sometimes with tree heliotrope, are predominant and cover 50-75% of southern, nearly 100% of northeastern Sibylla. Heliotropium and Sida dominated shrublands and the sandy bunchgrass savanna represent the finest examples of such vegetation in the Marshalls and the entire Pacific region; the aquatic vegetation of the shallow edges of the lagoon consists of sparse coralline algae, encrusting fragments of coral, shell etc. and patches of green seaweed.
The atoll supports a large population of sea and shorebirds, with up to 26 species present. Species breeding during 1988 included the brown booby, red-footed booby, great frigatebird, red-tailed tropicbird, sooty tern, white tern, brown noddy, the reef heron. Migratory birds present included the bristle-thighed curlew, wandering tattler, golden plover, the sanderling; the densest bird populations are on three islets to the north of Sibylla: North, Kamwome and an unnamed islet. Bokak is the only known breeding ground of Christmas shearwater and Bulwer's petrel. Terrestrial species includes the Polynesian rat on Sibylla; the more aggressive black rat appears to be absent, despite wrecked fishing vessels on the eastern and north eastern reefs. The snake-eyed skink and large hermit crabs are common. In general, the aquatic fauna population is healthy, but of low diversity due to the atoll's isolation. Researchers have not seen any marine turtles, but Polynesian custom regarding harvesting assumed the