The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the repository of presidential records from the administration of Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, the burial place of the President and First Lady, Nancy Reagan. It is the largest of the 13 federally operated presidential libraries, containing millions of documents, photographs and tapes. There is a permanent exhibit covering the President’s life, as well as memorabilia such as Air Force One, the aircraft used by the president, a section of masonry from the Berlin Wall. In 2007, thousands of artifacts were reported missing, poor record-keeping as well as a breakdown in security software were blamed; the library is located in Simi Valley, in Southern California, was designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates. It is administered by the National Records Administration, it was planned to build the Reagan Library at Stanford University, an agreement was reached with the university in 1984. Those plans were canceled in 1987, the freestanding site in Simi Valley was chosen the same year.
Designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates, the library is in Simi Valley, about 40 miles northwest of Downtown Los Angeles and 15 miles west of Chatsworth. New York design agency Donovan/Green was contracted to design the facility's interior and exhibition spaces with partner Nancye Green overseeing the project. Construction of the library began in 1988, the center was dedicated on November 4, 1991. At the time of its dedication, it was the largest presidential library; the dedication ceremonies were the first time in United States history that five United States Presidents gathered together in the same place: Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan himself, George H. W. Bush. Six First Ladies attended: Lady Bird Johnson, Pat Nixon, Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan, Barbara Bush. Only Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis did not attend. Johnson, as well as descendants of Franklin D. Roosevelt; as a presidential library administered by the National Archives and Records Administration, the Reagan Library, under the authority of the Presidential Records Act, is the repository of presidential records for Reagan's administration.
Holdings include 50 million pages of presidential documents, over 1.6 million photographs, a half-million feet of motion picture film and thousands of audio and video tapes. The library houses personal papers collections including documents from Reagan's eight years as Governor of California; when the Reagan Library opened, it was the largest of the presidential libraries, at 153,000 square feet. It held that title until the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, on November 18, 2004. With the opening of the 90,000-square-foot Air Force One Pavilion in October 2005, the Reagan Library reclaimed the title in terms of physical size. Like all presidential libraries since that of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Reagan Library was built with private donations, at a cost of $60 million. Major donors included Walter Annenberg, Lew Wasserman, Lodwrick Cook, Joe Albritton, Rupert Murdoch, Richard Sills, John P. McGovern. For fiscal year 2007, the Reagan Library had 305,331 visitors, making it the second-most-visited presidential library, following the Lyndon B. Johnson Library.
In the 2019 Easy Fire, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library had to be evacuated and was completely surrounded by the fire. Earlier the same year, the brush around the buildings had been cleared by goats to create a defensible space, which helped save the facilities from burning down, according to a firefighter. Olive Trees used in the landscaping were damaged along with residential banners lining the access road. A major item in the estimated half a million dollars of damage was an internet and cable box that took down the library’s network; the museum features continually changing temporary exhibits and a permanent exhibit covering President Reagan's life. This exhibit begins during Reagan's childhood in Dixon and follows his life through his film career and military service, marriage to Nancy Davis Reagan, political career; the "Citizen Governor" gallery shows footage of Reagan's 1964 "A Time for Choosing" speech and contains displays on his eight years as governor. The gallery includes a 1965 Ford Mustang used by Reagan during his first gubernatorial campaign, as well as the desk he used as governor.
His 1980 and 1984 presidential campaigns are highlighted, as well as his inauguration suit and a table from the White House Situation Room is on display. News footage of the 1981 assassination attempt on his life is shown, information about the proposed Strategic Defense Initiative is included. A full-scale replica of the Oval Office—a feature of most presidential libraries—is a prominent feature of this museum as well. Among the items Reagan kept on the Resolute desk, replicated in the exhibit, was a 16-inch-tall copy of a bronze statue of "Old Bill Williams", by B. R. Pettit. Other parts of the exhibit focus on Reagan's ranch, the presidential retreat Camp David, life in the White House, First Lady Nancy Reagan. An example of a temporary exhibit that ran fr
Welthy Honsinger Fisher was the American founder of World Education and World Literacy Canada. Welthy was married to Frederick Bohn Fisher, a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, missionary and official in Methodist missionary and men's movements. Welthy was an intellectual and feminist requested by his friend Mohandas Gandhi to begin Literacy House outside of Lucknow, India, at the age of 73. Welthy Blakesley Honsinger was born in Rome, New York, on September 18, 1879. After graduating from Syracuse University in 1900, Welthy became a teacher at Rosebud College, a one-room school in Haverstraw, New York, where she was in charge of 15 students. In 1906, Welthy become the headmistress of the Baldwin Memorial School in Nanchang. While there, she encouraged her girls to develop into new, modern Chinese women against the wishes of their traditional parents, she was committed to the idea of women's independence and knew that if she could give them the tools they needed through education, they could change the face of China.
In 1924 she married Frederick Bohn Fisher. The Fishers were well-acquainted with and respected by Gandhi and other prominent leaders of the Indian Independence movement. Following her husband's death in 1938, she wrote her husband's biography and traveled returning to China and to India. During the 1940s, Welthy spent "semesters" studying the educational systems of Mexico, Bolivia, Brazil and the Middle East. During this time she studied women and educational systems, lectured throughout the U. S. on women of the world and Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. In December, 1947, six weeks before his death, Gandhi urged Welthy to return to his country to continue her work in education in India's villages. In 1952, at the age of 73, Welthy returned to India to work with Frank Laubach, the Christian Evangelical missionary and literacy pioneer. Deciding that literacy training linked with agricultural and industrial development was a key strategy to eradicate poverty, Welthy broke with Laubach. In 1953, she founded Literacy House at Allahabad, a small, non-formal school that combined literacy with vocational training.
In 1956, Literacy House moved to Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, where it became famous for its effectiveness. Realizing the need for literacy programs linked with social and economic development throughout the world and her fellow literacy pioneers started two non-profit organizations, World Education and the World Literacy of Canada. Welthy involved in both organizations for many years, either as President or an advisor. Throughout her nineties, she traveled throughout the world. Welthy made her final trip to India as a government guest in 1980, shortly before her death at the age of 101 in Southbury, Connecticut. Fisher was honored by the Indian government, which based its village literacy programs on her ideas, issued a stamp in her likeness. 1964 Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding. On March 18, 1980, the government of India issued a Welthy Honsinger Fisher commemorative postage stamp, she is the only American to be so honored. She became the first recipient of the Nehru Literacy Award, India Welthy's work in India was highlighted in the 1966 Time magazine article "Education Abroad: India's Literacy Lady"
Robert Smith was an English mathematician. Smith was born at Lea near Gainsborough, the son of John Smith, the rector of Gate Burton and his wife Hannah Cotes. After attending Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Gainsborough he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1708, becoming minor fellow in 1714, major fellow in 1715 and senior fellow in 1739, was chosen Master in 1742, in succession to Richard Bentley. From 1716 to 1760 he was Plumian Professor of Astronomy, he died in the Master's Lodge at Trinity. In February 1719 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Besides editing two works by his cousin, Roger Cotes, his predecessor in the Plumian chair, he published A Compleat System of Opticks in 1738, which gained him the sobriquet of Old Focus, Harmonics, or the Philosophy of Musical Sounds in 1749. Smith never lived with his unmarried sister Elzimar in the lodge at Trinity College. Although he is portrayed as a rather reclusive character, John Byrom's journal shows that in the 1720s and 1730s Smith could be quite sociable.
Yet ill health gout, took its toll and inhibited his academic work and social activities. He died at the lodge on 2 February 1768, on 8 February he was buried in Trinity College Chapel, the funeral oration being delivered by Thomas Zouch. According to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Smith helped to spread Isaac Newton's ideas in Europe and "Newton's successes in optics and mechanics dominated Smith's scientific career". In his will Smith left £3500 South Sea stock to the University of Cambridge; the net income on the fund is annually divided between the Smith's Prize and the stipend of the Plumian Professor. Robert Smith, Harmonics, or, The Philosophy of Musical Sounds, Printed by J. Bentham, sold by W. Thurlbourn, 1749. Robert Smith. A Compleat System of Opticks. Cambridge; the Master of Trinity at Trinity College, Cambridge This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Smith, Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press.
P. 268. "Robert Smith, author of'A Compleat System of Opticks', 1738." Peter Abrahams, ed. The history of the telescope & the binocular OR4-A1765.43: Enharmonic chamber organ, Thomas Parker. London, c.1765. Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments, University of Edinburgh. "Robert Smith's'Equal Harmony' and the harpsichord built for it by Jacob Kirckman." Grant O'Brien. Conference on the Historical Background to the New "Handel" Organ in St Cecilia's Hall. Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments, University of Edinburgh. Dr. Robert Smith's comments on John Harrison's musical tuning ideas, from Harmonics Free scores by Robert Smith at the International Music Score Library Project Robert Smith at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Robert Smith's The elementary parts of Dr. Smith's compleat system of opticks – digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library