Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Nokia Bell Labs is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey. Other laboratories are located around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device, information theory, the Unix operating system, the programming languages C, C++, S. Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell. The laboratory was variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, it focused on the analysis and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau, located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N. W. in Washington, D. C, its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N. W. to house the lab. This building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests; the Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876.
Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier. In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers, supplying AT&T with their product; this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, transmission equipment. In 1925, Bell Laboratories was developed to better consolidate the research activities of the Bell System. Ownership was evenly split between Western Electric and AT&T. Throughout the next decade the AT&T Research and Development branch moved into West Street.
Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, U. S. government work, a few workers were assigned to basic research. The first president of research at Bell Labs was Frank B. Jewett who stayed there until 1940. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Lincroft, Long Branch, Neptune, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence; the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. There were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since 2001, many of the former locations closed; the Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site however several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017 Bell Laboratories was, is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the operating system Unix, the programming languages C and C++, solar cells, the CCD, floating-gate MOSFET, a whole host of optical and wired communications
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Digital signal processing
Digital signal processing is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations. The signals processed in this manner are a sequence of numbers that represent samples of a continuous variable in a domain such as time, space, or frequency. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP applications include audio and speech processing, sonar and other sensor array processing, spectral density estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, signal processing for telecommunications, control systems, biomedical engineering, among others. DSP can involve linear or nonlinear operations. Nonlinear signal processing is related to nonlinear system identification and can be implemented in the time and spatio-temporal domains; the application of digital computation to signal processing allows for many advantages over analog processing in many applications, such as error detection and correction in transmission as well as data compression.
DSP is applicable to static data. To digitally analyze and manipulate an analog signal, it must be digitized with an analog-to-digital converter. Sampling is carried out in two stages and quantization. Discretization means that the signal is divided into equal intervals of time, each interval is represented by a single measurement of amplitude. Quantization means. Rounding real numbers to integers is an example; the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that a signal can be reconstructed from its samples if the sampling frequency is greater than twice the highest frequency component in the signal. In practice, the sampling frequency is significantly higher than twice the Nyquist frequency. Theoretical DSP analyses and derivations are performed on discrete-time signal models with no amplitude inaccuracies, "created" by the abstract process of sampling. Numerical methods require a quantized signal, such as those produced by an ADC; the processed result might be a set of statistics. But it is another quantized signal, converted back to analog form by a digital-to-analog converter.
In DSP, engineers study digital signals in one of the following domains: time domain, spatial domain, frequency domain, wavelet domains. They choose the domain in which to process a signal by making an informed assumption as to which domain best represents the essential characteristics of the signal and the processing to be applied to it. A sequence of samples from a measuring device produces a temporal or spatial domain representation, whereas a discrete Fourier transform produces the frequency domain representation; the most common processing approach in the time or space domain is enhancement of the input signal through a method called filtering. Digital filtering consists of some linear transformation of a number of surrounding samples around the current sample of the input or output signal. There are various ways to characterize filters. Linear filters satisfy the superposition principle, i.e. if an input is a weighted linear combination of different signals, the output is a weighted linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
A causal filter uses only previous samples of the output signals. A non-causal filter can be changed into a causal filter by adding a delay to it. A time-invariant filter has constant properties over time. A stable filter produces an output that converges to a constant value with time, or remains bounded within a finite interval. An unstable filter can produce an output that grows without bounds, with bounded or zero input. A finite impulse response filter uses only the input signals, while an infinite impulse response filter uses both the input signal and previous samples of the output signal. FIR filters are always stable. A filter can be represented by a block diagram, which can be used to derive a sample processing algorithm to implement the filter with hardware instructions. A filter may be described as a difference equation, a collection of zeros and poles or an impulse response or step response; the output of a linear digital filter to any given input may be calculated by convolving the input signal with the impulse response.
Signals are converted from time or space domain to the frequency domain through use of the Fourier transform. The Fourier transform converts the time or space information to a magnitude and phase component of each frequency. With some applications, how the phase varies with frequency can be a significant consideration. Where phase is unimportant the Fourier transform is converted to the power spectrum, the magnitude of each frequency component squared; the most common purpose for analysis of signals in the frequency domain is analysis of signal properties. The engineer can study the spectrum to determine which frequencies are present in the input signal and which are missing. Frequency domain analysis is called spectrum- or spectral analysis. Filtering in non-realtime work can be achieved in the frequency domain, applying the filter and converting back to the time domain; this can be an efficient implementation and can g
David Patterson (computer scientist)
David Andrew Patterson is an American computer pioneer and academic who has held the position of Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley since 1976. He announced retirement in 2016 after serving nearly forty years, becoming a distinguished engineer at Google, he is Vice Chair of the Board of Directors of the RISC-V Foundation, the Pardee Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus at UC Berkeley. Patterson is noted for his pioneering contributions to RISC processor design, having coined the term RISC, by leading the Berkeley RISC project; as of 2018, 99% of all new chips use the RISC architecture. He is noted for leading the research on RAID storage together with Randy Katz, his books on computer architecture are used in computer science education. Along with Hennessy, Patterson won the 2017 Turing Award for their work in developing RISC. A native of Evergreen Park, David Patterson attended UCLA, receiving his B. A. in 1969, M. S. in 1970 and Ph. D. in 1976. He is an important proponent of the concept of reduced instruction set computing and coined the term "RISC".
He led the Berkeley RISC project from 1980 along with Carlo H. Sequin, where the technique of register windows was introduced, he is one of the innovators of the redundant arrays of independent disks in collaboration with Randy Katz and Garth Gibson. Past chair of the Computer Science Division at U. C. Berkeley and the Computing Research Association, he served on the Information Technology Advisory Committee for the U. S. President during 2003–05 and was elected president of the Association for Computing Machinery for 2004–06, his work has been recognized by about 35 awards for research and service, including Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers as well as by election to the National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, the Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame. In 2005 he and Hennessy shared Japan's Computer & Communication award and, in 2006, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and received the Distinguished Service Award from the Computing Research Association.
In 2007 he was named a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for fundamental contributions to engineering education, advances in computer architecture, the integration of leading-edge research with education." That same year he was named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2008, won the ACM Distinguished Service Award, the ACM-IEEE Eckert-Mauchly Award, was recognized by the School of Engineering at UCLA for Alumni Achievement in Academia. Since he has won the ACM-SIGARCH Distinguished Service Award, ACM-SIGOPS Hall of Fame Award, the 2012 Jean-Claude Laprie Award in Dependable Computing from IFIP Working Group 10.4 on Dependable Computing and Fault Tolerance. In 2016 he was given the Richard A. Tapia Achievement Award for Scientific Scholarship, Civic Science and Diversifying ComputingIn 2013 he set the American Powerlifting Record for the state of California for his weight class and age group in bench press, dead lift and all three combined lifts. On February 12, 2015, IEEE installed a plaque at UC Berkeley to commemorate the contribution of RISC-I in Soda Hall at UC Berkeley.
The plaque reads: IEEE Milestone in Electrical and Computer Engineering First RISC Microprocessor UC Berkeley students designed and built the first VLSI reduced instruction-set computer in 1981. The simplified instructions of RISC-I reduced the hardware for instruction decode and control, which enabled a flat 32-bit address space, a large set of registers, pipelined execution. A good match to C programs and the Unix operating system, RISC-I influenced instruction sets used today, including those for game consoles and tablets. On March 21, 2018, he was awarded the 2017 ACM A. M. Turing Award together with John L. Hennessy for developing RISC; the award attributed them for pioneering "a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry". From 2003 to 2012 he rode in the annual Waves to Wine MS charity event as part of Bike MS, he was the top fundraiser in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012. He has advised a number of notable Ph.
D. candidates, including: David Ditzel and former president of Transmeta Garth A. Gibson, co-inventor of RAID, founder and CTO of Panasas, professor at Carnegie Mellon University Christos Kozyrakis, associate professor at Stanford University David Ungar, designer of the Self programming language, researcher at IBM Research Robert Yung, CTO of PMC-Sierra He co-authored seven books, including two with John L. Hennessy on computer architecture: Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach and Computer Organization and Design RISC-V Edition: the Hardware/Software Interface, they have been used as textbooks for graduate and undergraduate courses since 1990. His most recent book is with Andrew Waterman on the open architecture RISC-V: The RISC-V Reader: An Open Architecture Atlas. Patterson, David. "The Case for the Reduced Instruction Set Computer". ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News. 8: 5–33. Retrieved 3 August 2017. Patterson, David. "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks". SIGMOD'88: Proceedings of the 1