Sport Lisboa e Benfica ComC MHIH OM known as Benfica, is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal. It is best known for the professional football team playing in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of the Portuguese football league system, where they are the most successful club in terms of titles won. Founded on 28 February 1904 as Sport Lisboa, Benfica is one of the "Big Three" clubs in Portugal that have never been relegated from the Primeira Liga, along with rivals Sporting CP and FC Porto; the Benfica team is nicknamed Águias, for the symbol atop the club's crest, Encarnados, for the shirt colour. Since 2003, their home ground has been the Estádio da Luz, which replaced the larger, original one, built in 1954. Benfica is the most supported Portuguese club, with an estimated 14 million supporters worldwide, the European club with the highest percentage of supporters in its own country having 206,437 members; the club's anthem, "Ser Benfiquista", refers to its supporters. Águia Vitória is their mascot.
Benfica is honoured of Prince Henry and of Merit. With a total of 81 major trophies won – 82 including the Latin Cup – Benfica is the most decorated club in Portugal, they have won 79 domestic trophies: a record 36 Primeira Liga titles, a record 26 Taça de Portugal, a record 7 Taça da Liga, 7 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira and 3 Campeonato de Portugal. Internationally, they won back-to-back European Cups in 1961 and 1962 – a unique feat in Portuguese football – and were runners-up at the Intercontinental Cup in 1961 and'62, at the European Cup in 1963,'65,'68,'88 and'90, at the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 1983, 2013 and'14. Benfica's ten European finals are a domestic record and ranked seventh all-time among UEFA clubs in 2014. Moreover, Benfica hold the European record for the most consecutive wins in domestic league and the record for the longest unbeaten run in Primeira Liga, where they became the first undefeated champions, in 1972–73. Benfica was ranked twelfth in FIFA Club of the Century and ninth in IFFHS Top 200 European clubs of the 20th century.
Benfica is ranked 20th in the UEFA club coefficient rankings and has the second most participations in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League. In this tournament, they hold the overall record for the biggest aggregate win, achieved in 1965–66. On 28 February 1904, members of Associação do Bem met at the back of Farmácia Franco on Rua de Belém with the goal of forming a social and cultural football club called Sport Lisboa, composed of Portuguese players only. 24 people attended the meeting, including Cosme Damião, who would be the club's most important leader in the first decades. In that meeting, José Rosa Rodrigues was appointed club president, along with Daniel Brito as secretary and Manuel Gourlade as treasurer; the founders decided that the club's colours would be red and white and that the crest would be composed of an eagle, the motto "E pluribus unum" and a football. Sport Lisboa played their first match on 1 January 1905, scoring their first goal. Despite important victories, the club suffered from poor operating conditions, namely the football dirt field Terras do Desembargador.
As a result, eight players started the rivalry between the clubs. On 13 September 1908, Sport Lisboa acquired Grupo Sport Benfica by mutual agreement and changed its name to Sport Lisboa e Benfica. Despite the club merger, they continued their respective club operations. For Sport Lisboa, they maintained the football team, the shirt colours, the eagle symbol and the motto. For Grupo Sport Benfica, they maintained the field Campo da Feiteira, the main directors and the club's house. Both clubs determined that the foundation date should coincide with Sport Lisboa's because it was the most recognised club and quite popular in Lisbon due to its football merits. In regard to the crest, a cycling wheel was added to Sport Lisboa's to represent the most important sport of Grupo Sport Benfica. Furthermore, the two entities of the "new" club had simultaneous members who helped stabilise operations, which increased the success of the merger. However, problems with the club's rented field remained. Benfica moved to their first football grass field, Campo de Sete Rios, in 1913.
Four years after refusing an increase in rent, they relocated to Campo de Benfica. In 1925, they moved to their own stadium, the Estádio das Amoreiras, playing there fifteen years before moving to the Estádio do Campo Grande in 1940; the Portuguese league began in 1934, after finishing third in its first edition, Benfica won the next three championships in a row – the club's first tri, achieved by Lippo Hertzka. Throughout the 1940s, Benfica would win three more Primeira Liga and four Taça de Portugal, with coach János Biri achieving the first double for the club in 1943. Benfica's first international success happened in 1950 when they won the Latin Cup, defeating Bordeaux with a golden goal from Julinho at the Estádio Nacional in Lisbon, with Ted Smith as coach, it was the first major international trophy won by a Portuguese club. They reached another final of the competition in 1957 but lost to Real Madrid at the Santiago Bernabéu. With the election of president Joaquim Ferreira Bogalho in 1952 and the arrival of coach Otto Glória in 1954, Benfica became more modernised and professional and moved into the original Estádio da Luz, with an initial seating capacity of 40,000.
Hélder Marino Rodrigues Cristóvão, known as Hélder as a player, is a Portuguese former footballer who played as a central defender, is a manager. He amassed Primeira Liga totals of 197 matches and 16 goals during eight seasons with Benfica, he competed professionally in Spain, England and Greece, representing Deportivo. Hélder appeared for Portugal at Euro 1996. In 2009, he started going on to spend several years with Benfica's reserves. Born in Luanda, Portuguese Angola, Hélder first attracted attention as a G. D. Estoril Praia player, moving to S. L. Benfica for the 1992–93 season where he would stay the following four-and-a-half years as a starter. In December 1996 he signed for Deportivo de La Coruña, playing 22 La Liga matches in only six months as the club finished in third position. In November 1999, Hélder joined Newcastle United in the Premier League on loan, making 12 official appearances and scoring in a 2–2 away draw against Sunderland in the Tyne–Wear derby the following 6 February.
In that season, the Spaniards went on to conquer their first league title, with the player failing to contribute in that competition. For the 2002–03 campaign, aged 31, Hélder returned to Benfica, playing there for two more years and joining Paris Saint-Germain F. C. the following season, where he teamed up with compatriot Pauleta. He played his last year for Athlitiki Enosi Larissa F. C. in 2005–06, appearing in the Superleague Greece and retiring at the end of the season. Hélder appeared 35 times for the Portugal national team, his first game was on 12 February 1992 in a 2–0 win over the Netherlands in an exhibition game, his last a 0–4 loss to France in Paris on 25 April 2001, in another friendly. Hélder represented the nation at UEFA Euro 1996, appearing in all four matches for the quarter-finalists as he started alongside Fernando Couto. Cristóvão began working as a manager in the summer of 2009 with his first club Estoril. On 28 September two months after being appointed, he was fired. On 3 July 2013, Cristóvão returned to Benfica as manager of the reserve team, replacing Luís Norton de Matos.
In the 2014–15 season, he led them to their second best position in the second level, a sixth place, as the highest scoring team with 81 goals. Benfica B only managed to stave off relegation in the 2015–16 campaign in the last matchday, defeating S. C. Freamunde 5–0 at home and benefitting from a 1–1 draw between C. D. Mafra and C. D. Aves. Cristóvão's team collected more losses than wins, conceding 64 times whilst scoring 59. C. Covilhã, which ended with a 2–2 home draw. On 5 April 2018, Cristóvão announced. In August that year, he was hired as director of football and academy director at Al-Nassr FC in the Saudi Professional League, he became caretaker manager in November after the exit of José Daniel Carreño, relinquished that role when compatriot Rui Vitória was appointed the following January. As of match played 12 May 2018 Benfica Primeira Liga: 1993–94 Taça de Portugal: 1992–93, 1995–96, 2003–04Deportivo Copa del Rey: 2001–02 Supercopa de España: 2000 Hélder at ForaDeJogo Hélder manager stats at ForaDeJogo Hélder at BDFutbol Deportivo archives Hélder at Soccerbase Hélder at National-Football-Teams.com Hélder – FIFA competition record Portugal stats at Eu-Football
Football at the 1996 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament
The 1996 Men's Olympic Football Tournament, played as part of the 1996 Summer Olympics, was hosted in Birmingham, Washington, D. C. Orlando, Miami and Athens, Georgia. From 1992 onwards, male competitors should be under 23 years old, with three over-23 players allowed per squad; the tournament featured 16 national teams from the six continental confederations. The 16 teams were drawn into four groups of four and each group played a round-robin tournament. At the end of the group stage, the top two teams advanced to the knockout stage, beginning with the quarter-finals and culminating with the gold medal match at Sanford Stadium on August 3, 1996; the following 16 teams qualified for the 1996 Olympic men's football tournament: With six goals, Hernán Crespo of Argentina and Bebeto of Brazil are the top scorers in the tournament. In total, 90 goals were scored with four of them credited as own goals. 6 goals Hernán Crespo Bebeto5 goals Ronaldo4 goals Marco Branca3 goals Flávio Conceição Florian Maurice Nwankwo Kanu2 goals 1 goal Own goals Roberto Carlos Afo Duodu Tadahiro Akiba Agustín Aranzábal Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 - Men, FIFA.com RSSSF Summary FIFA Technical Report, and
A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the second place a silver medal. More bronze is traditionally the most common metal used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones; the practice of awarding bronze third place medals began at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, before which only first and second places were awarded. Minting Olympic medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928–1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek game, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In a few tournament sports, such as boxing, judo and wrestling, two bronze medals are awarded in each event – one for each eliminated semi-finalist or for the winners of the repechage brackets. In 1995, a study was carried out by social psychologists Victoria Medvec, Scott Madey and Thomas Gilovich on the effects of counterfactual thinking on the Olympics; the study showed that athletes who won the bronze medal were happier with their winning than those athletes who won the silver medal. The silver medalists were more frustrated because they had missed the gold medal, while the bronze medalists were happy to have received any honors at all; this is more pronounced in knockout competitions, where the bronze medals are achieved by winning a playoff, whereas silver medals are awarded after a defeat in the final. This psychological phenomenon was parodied in the Jerry Seinfeld special I'm Telling You for the Last Time. Bronze and brass ornamental work Third place playoff Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
Football at the Summer Olympics
Association football has been included in every Summer Olympic Games as a men's competition sport, except 1896 and 1932. Women's football was added to the official program in Atlanta 1996. Football was not included on the program at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, as international football was in its infancy at the time. However, sources claim that an unofficial football tournament was organized during the first competition, in which an Athens XI lost to a team representing Smyrna part of the Ottoman Empire. According to a source, this is an error, perpetuated in multiple texts. Tournaments were played at the 1900 and 1904 games and the Intercalated Games of 1906, but these were contested by various clubs and scratch teams. Although the IOC considers the 1900 and 1904 tournaments to be official Olympic events, they are not recognized by FIFA, neither recognizes the Intercalated Games today. In 1906 teams from Great Britain, Austria, the Netherlands and France withdrew from an unofficial competition and left Denmark, Smyrna and Thessaloniki to compete.
Denmark won the final against Athens 9–0. In the London Games of 1908 a proper international tournament was organised by the Football Association, featuring just six teams; the number of teams rose to eleven in 1912, when the competition was organised by the Swedish Football Association. Many of these early matches were unbalanced. All players were amateurs, in accordance with the Olympic spirit, which meant that some countries could not send their full international team; the National Olympic Committee for Great Britain and Ireland asked the Football Association to send an English national amateur team. Some of the English members played with professional clubs, most notably Derby County's Ivan Sharpe, Bradford City F. C. Harold Walden and Chelsea's Vivian Woodward. England won the first two official tournaments convincingly. During the 1920 final, the Czechoslovakia national football team walked from the field of play in order to raise awareness of their displeasure regarding the refereeing of John Lewis and the militarised mood within the stadium in Antwerp.
In the 1924 and 1928 Olympic games, the first South American teams entered the competition: Uruguay and Argentina. Uruguay won both Olympics and FIFA became conscious that the Olympic movement was not only hindering the ability of nations to participate on an equal footing but, given that the Olympics only permitted amateurs to participate, did not represent the true strength of the international game. Following Henri Delaunay's proposal in 1929 to initiate a professional World Championship of Football, the sport was dropped from the 1932 Los Angeles Games by FIFA in an attempt to promote the new tournament. Football returned to controversy at the 1936 Berlin Games; the German organisers were intent on the return of the game to the Olympic movement since it guaranteed income into the organisation's coffers. The Italian team intimidated a referee. Peru scored a contested victory over Austria in overtime, with a fan invasion of the field at the end; the Austrian team asked for the result to be annulled, the game repeated.
FIFA agreed, the Peruvian team left the Olympics. As professionalism spread around the world, the gap in quality between the World Cup and the Olympics widened; the countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe, where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs. Between 1948 and 1980, 23 out of 28 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden and Japan breaking their dominance. For the 1984 Los Angeles Games, the IOC decided to admit professional players. FIFA still did not want the Olympics to rival the World Cup, so a compromise was struck that allowed teams from countries outside of UEFA and CONMEBOL to field their strongest sides, while restricting UEFA and CONMEBOL countries to players who had not played in a World Cup. Since 1992 male competitors must be under 23 years old, since 1996, players under 23 years old, with three over-23 year old players, are allowed per squad. African countries have taken particular advantage of this, with Nigeria and Cameroon winning in 1996 and 2000 respectively.
Because of the unusual format, several of the strongest men's national teams have unimpressive Olympic records. Uruguay won the tournament in their first two attempts, in 1924 and 1928, their only appearances before they qualified for the 2012 edition, after an 84-year absence. Argentina won silver twice before the 2004 tournament, but its appearance in Athens, in which it won the first gold medal, was only their seventh overall. Brazil's silver medals in the 1984, 1988 and 2012 editions were the best they had achieved until 2016's gold, since professional athletes were allowed to compete, they failed to qualify in 1992 and 2004. Italy has only won the Olympic title once, in 1936, although it has won two bronzes, has the highest number of appearances in the tournament, at 15, with their last qualify in 2008. France has won the Olympic title only once and has failed to qualify since 1996. Germany's best result was a single bronze medal, in 1988, the reunified team did not make an Olympic appearance until 2016, where they won silver.
Spain has won the gold medal only once
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
The Süper Lig is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system and is run by the Turkish Football Federation. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated from, to, the 1. Lig; the season runs from August with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday; the competition was established as the Millî Lig in 1959 - the first professional nationwide league competition held in Turkey. The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level national competitions; the Süper Lig is 10th in the UEFA coefficient ranking of leagues based on club performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 68 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only six have won the title so far: Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş, Bursaspor. Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica.
The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul League and Millî Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana, Eskişehir, İzmir and Trabzon, to name a few; the first competition to bring forth a national champion was the former Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951. The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues; the National Division was the first national league competition in Turkey. Started in 1937, the Millî Küme consisted of the strongest clubs from the Ankara, İzmir Leagues; the championship lasted until 1950. The Federation Cup was created in 1956 to decide a national champion; this champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two years.
Beşiktaş won both editions, qualified for the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957–58 season after all; the top clubs from Ankara, İzmir competed in the 1959 Millî Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958; the 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet, Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş, Fatih Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, Gençlerbirliği, Göztepe, Hacettepe Gençlik, İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka, Vefa. Only five of those clubs are competing in the Super League: Ankaragücü, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Göztepe; the first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" was Metin Oktay. No clubs were relegated at the end of the first season; the 2. Lig was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig became known as the 1. Lig. Before the creation of a second division, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games.
The top three teams of the seven-team group were promoted to the Millî Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1. Lig, the titled 1. Lig was rebranded as Süper Lig; the Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby is the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world. British Daily Mail ranked it second among the ten greatest football rivalries of all-time. There are 18 clubs in the Süper Lig. During the course of the season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points head-to-head record goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to-head record and goal difference determine the winner; the three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1. Lig and the top two teams from the 1.
Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1. Lig clubs are promoted in their place. Qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the second qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has qualified for European competition through their league finish, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place; as of 14 December 2018 a Founding member of the Süper Ligb Never been relegated from the Süper Lig In total, 14 clubs have won the Turkish championship title, including titles won before the Süper Lig's inception, namely in the former Turkish Football Championship and Turkish National Div