Flybe styled as flybe, is a British airline based in Exeter, England. Until its sale to Connect Airways, it was the largest independent regional airline in Europe. Flybe carries 8 million passengers a year between 81 airports across the UK and the rest of Europe, with over 210 routes across 15 countries, its two hubs are Manchester and Birmingham airports but it has a number of codeshares allowing connections to long-haul flights from airports such as London Heathrow, Paris CDG, Dublin and Amsterdam. The airline is a member of the European Regions Airline Association; the airline launched in 1979 as Jersey European Airways following the merger of Intra Airways and Express Air Services. In 1983 the airline was sold to Walker Steel Group, which owned Spacegrand Aviation, the two airlines were merged under the Jersey European name in 1985. Jersey European was renamed British European in 2000, received its current name in 2002. In February 2019, the airline was sold to the Connect Airways consortium, backed by Virgin Atlantic and Stobart Aviation.
Connect Airways intends Flybe and Stobart Air to subsequently operate under the Virgin Atlantic brand, though they will retain their own Air Operator Certificates. Flybe started operations on 1 November 1979 as Jersey European Airways as a result of a merger of the Jersey-based Intra Airways and the Bournemouth-based Express Air Services, was founded by John Habin, a resident of Jersey and the majority investor. After selling Aviation Beauport and other business interests, Habin established some key routes from Jersey Airport to the UK, before selling the airline in November 1983 to Jack Walker's Walker Steel Group, which owned the Blackpool-based charter airline Spacegrand Aviation; the two airlines were run separately, with shared management, until 1985 when they amalgamated under the Jersey European name, with the airline's headquarters moving to Exeter Airport. The airline became British European in June 2000, shortening this title to Flybe on 18 July 2002 and repositioning itself as a full-service, low-fare airline.
On 3 November 2006 it was announced that Flybe would buy BA Connect, except for that airline's services out of London City Airport. The takeover was complete in March 2007; the expanded airline's owners were Rosedale Aviation Holdings, Flybe staff and – as a result of the BA Connect takeover – International Airlines Group. The acquisition increased Flybe's route network in both the UK and continental Europe, making Flybe Europe's largest regional airline. On 14 January 2008 it was announced that Flybe had signed a franchise agreement with Scottish airline Loganair, to commence on 26 October 2008 following the termination of Loganair's franchise agreement with British Airways on 25 October 2008; the agreement would see Loganair aircraft flying in Flybe colours on 55 routes from Scotland. In 2008, in order to avoid losing a £280,000 rebate from Norwich Airport, Flybe advertised for "actors", as well as offering free return flights to Dublin on its website; as a result, the environmental group Friends of the Earth called on the government to launch an investigation into the aviation industry.
Chief executive officer Jim French was recognised in the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours List with a CBE for his services to the airline industry. On 10 December 2010, Flybe floated an IPO on the London Stock Exchange, with trading in shares commencing on the same day. Full public release of shares followed on 15 December 2010; the share price was set at 295p, valuing the company at £215 million, raising £66 million for the company, half of, to pay for fleet expansion. On 23 May 2013, it was reported that Flybe had sold its slots at Gatwick Airport to EasyJet for £20 million, that the slots would be handed over to EasyJet on 29 March 2014. CEO and chairman Jim French retired in August 2013, leaving the post of CEO to Saad Hammad of EasyJet, while Simon Laffin became chairman. By November 2013, Hammad had shaken up the operation, requesting the resignations of three top managers within six weeks of his arrival. Out of 158 routes flown at the time, over 60 did not cover their direct operating expenses and the costs of crew and aircraft.
On 23 April 2014, Flybe announced that it would launch domestic and international flights from London City Airport from 27 October 2014 after signing a five-year deal with the airport. The airline is expecting to carry around 500,000 passengers a year, with all five allocated aircraft being based around the Flybe network overnight. In March 2014, it was announced; this new scheme included new interior features and new uniforms. British Airways sold most of its remaining stake in the airline in June 2014, it had been reduced to 5% by share issues. In early 2015 it was announced that Flybe had negotiated a six-year agreement with SAS Scandinavian Airlines to fly 4 ATR 72–600 aircraft on their behalf, starting in October 2015. On 4 March 2015, Flybe announced new routes from Cardiff Airport bringing the number of routes to eleven. Flybe stated their intention to create a new base at Cardiff Airport and in Summer 2015 based two Embraer 195 aircraft there, which has since increased to three. On 10 November 2015, Flybe announced that it would base two Embraer 195 aircraft at Doncaster Sheffield Airport, starting new routes to Amsterdam, Berlin Tegel, Paris CDG, Alicante, Málaga and Newquay as of 27 March 2016.
This announcement came on the same day that Flybe announced that they would be pulling flights from Bournemouth Airport. Dublin Airport was added in October 2016. On 26 October 2016, it was announced that Hammad would be standing down as CEO with immediate effe
Kingdom of the Isles
The Kingdom of the Isles comprised the Hebrides, the islands of the Firth of Clyde and the Isle of Man from the 9th to the 13th centuries AD. The islands were known to the Norse as the Suðreyjar, or "Southern Isles" as distinct from the Norðreyjar or Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland. In Scottish Gaelic, the kingdom is known as Rìoghachd nan Eilean; the historical record is incomplete, the kingdom was not a continuous entity throughout the entire period. The islands concerned are sometimes referred to as the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, although only some of the rulers claimed that title. At times the rulers were independent of external control, although for much of the period they had overlords in Norway, England, Scotland or Orkney. At times there appear to have been competing claims for all or parts of the territory; the islands involved have a total land area of over 8,300 square kilometres and extend for more than 500 kilometres from north to south. Viking influence in the area commenced in the late 8th century, whilst there is no doubt that the Uí Ímair dynasty played a prominent role in this early period, the records for the dates and details of the rulers are speculative until the mid-10th century.
Hostility between the Kings of the Isles and the rulers of Ireland, intervention by the crown of Norway were recurring themes. The Laxdaela Saga contains mention of several persons who are said to have come to Iceland from Sodor, which appears to be these Suðreyjar, before or around the middle of the 10th century. An invasion by Magnus Barefoot in the late 11th century resulted in a brief period of direct Norwegian rule over the kingdom, but soon the descendants of Godred Crovan re-asserted a further period of independent overlordship; this came to an end with the emergence of Somerled, on whose death in 1164 the kingdom was split in two. Just over a century the islands became part of the Kingdom of Scotland, following the 1266 Treaty of Perth; the principal islands under consideration are as follows: The Isle of Man, located in the Irish Sea equidistant from modern England, Northern Ireland and Wales. The islands of the Firth of Clyde some 140 kilometres to the north, the largest of which are Bute and Arran.
The southern Inner Hebrides to the west and north of the Kintyre peninsula, including Islay, Jura and Iona. The Inner Hebrides to the north of Ardnamurchan, made up of the Small Isles, Skye and their outliers; the Outer Hebrides, aka the "Long Island" to the west, separated from the northern Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch. These islands referred to as the Sudreys, have a total land area of 8,374 square kilometres of which: the Isle of Man is 572 square kilometres, 7% of the total the Islands of the Clyde 574 square kilometres, 7% of the total the Inner Hebrides 4,158 square kilometres, 50% of the total and the Outer Hebrides 3,070 square kilometres, 36% of the total. Anglesey in modern Wales may have been part of the insular Viking world from an early stage. Orkney is some 180 kilometres east-northeast of the Outer Hebrides, Shetland is a further 80 kilometres further northeast and Norway some 300 kilometres due east of Shetland; the total distance from the southern tip of the Isle of Man to the Butt of Lewis, the northern extremity of the Outer Hebrides, is 515 kilometres.
The presence of the monastery on Iona led to this part of Scotland being well documented from the mid-6th to the mid-9th centuries. However, from 849 on, when Columba's relics were removed in the face of Viking incursions, written evidence from local sources all but vanishes for three hundred years; the sources for information about the Hebrides and indeed much of northern Scotland from the 8th to the 11th century are thus exclusively Irish, English or Norse. The main Norse text is the Orkneyinga Saga, which should be treated with care as it was based on oral traditions and not written down by an Icelandic scribe until the early 13th century; the English and Irish sources are more contemporary, but may have "led to a southern bias in the story" as much of the Hebridean archipelago became Norse-speaking during the period under consideration. The archaeological record for this period is scant in comparison to the numerous Neolithic and Iron Age finds in the area. Scholarly interpretations of the period "have led to divergent reconstructions of Viking Age Scotland" and Barrett has identified four competing theories, none of which he regards as proven.
It is clear that the word "king", as used by and of the rulers of Norwegian descent in the isles, was not intended to convey sovereign rule. This is different from the way, it should be borne in mind that different kings may have ruled over different areas and that few of them can be seen as exerting any kind of close control over this "far-flung sea kingdom". Precise dates are sometimes a matter of debate amongst historians. Prior to the Viking incursions the southern Hebrides formed part of the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. North of Dál Riata, the Inner and Outer Hebrides were nominally under Pictish control although the historical record is sparse. According to Ó Corráin "when and how the Vikings conquered and occupied the Isles is unknown unknowable", although from 793 onwards repeated raids by Vikings on the British Isles are recorded. "All the islands of Britain" were devastated in 794 with Iona being sacked in 802 and 806
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Chronicles of Mann
The Chronicles of the Kings of Mann and the Isles or Manx Chronicle is a medieval Latin manuscript relating the early history of the Isle of Man. The main part of the manuscript is believed to have been composed and written in 1261 or 1262 at Rushen Abbey on the island, shortly after the time of the Cistercian abbey's dedication in 1257, the final event retold by the original scribe; the manuscript is written in ink on vellum, with pages 15 cm by 20 cm. The Chronicles are a look back, year-by-year from 1016, over the significant events in Manx history of that time. Written in Latin, it records the island's role as the centre of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, the influence of its kings and religious leaders, as well as the role of Rushen Abbey itself –, founded at the invitation of Olaf I Godredsson, one of the Norse kings; the original scribe wrote a list of popes which ends with Pope Urban IV. It is probable. Entries for the earlier years are notably shorter than those towards the end of the original section of the manuscript, no doubt due to events having occurred within living memory of the time of writing, thus more detail being available.
Many of the dates of the earlier annals are put around 15 years earlier than the actual event, none of these entries before 1047 are directly related to the Isle of Man, having been copied from a source shared with the Chronicle of Melrose. Several further notes were added by the abbey's Cistercian monks, taking the Chronicles up to 1316; the manuscript contains a copy of Bonizo of Sutri's Cronica Romanorum pontificum and a territorial survey. A record of the bishops of the Western Isles to John Donkan is appended to the Chronicles. After the abbey was dissolved in 1540 the manuscript is thought to have passed through a number of private hands until being presented by Roger Dodsworth to Sir Robert Cotton in 1620/1. Cotton's collection of medieval and early modern manuscripts was one of the founding collections of the British Museum and is now cared for by the British Library in London. There have been campaigns to move the Chronicles permanently to the Isle of Man. In 2014 it was confirmed that the Celtic League will be demanding the return of the Chronicles to the Isle of Man.
1016–1030: King Canute's marriage to Emma, the birth of their son Harthacanute, Canute's journeys to Denmark and Norway. 1031–1066: Foundation of Bury St. Edmunds Abbey, the death of Canute. Death of King Edward the Confessor. 1066–1079: Battle of Stamford Bridge, William the Conqueror's victory at the Battle of Hastings. Conquest of the Isle of Man by Godred Crovan. 1079–1098: Foundation of the Cistercian order at Cîteaux in France. 1102–1152: Commencement of reign of King Olaf. Foundations of Savigny Abbey, Furness Abbey, Rievaulx Abbey, Calder Abbey, Melrose Abbey, Holme Cultram Abbey. Grant of land at Rushen to Furness Abbey by King Olaf. 1165–1187: Murder of Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin. Visit by a papal legate to the Isle of Man. Marriage of King Godred, conducted by the Abbot of Rievaulx. 1228–1237: Death of King Olaf on St Patrick's Isle, burial at Rushen Abbey. 1250–1256: Start of reign of King Magnus 1256–1274: Completion of the Abbey Church of St Mary's at Rushen, dedication by Richard, Bishop of Sodor and Man.
List of Bishops: A list of the Bishops of the Diocese of Sodor and Man until Simon Orcadensis, who had died in 1248. The bishop at the time of the writing of the manuscript, was not included. Broderick, G.. The Chronicles of the Kings of Mann and the Isles. 2nd ed. Douglas, 1995. Munch, P. A. and Rev. Alexander Goss. Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum; the Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys. 2 vols. Manx Society 22-3. Douglas, 1874. Available in html A full digital facsimile of the manuscript is available on the British Library's Digitised Manuscripts website. Additional photographs are available on the British Library's Online Gallery; the Years 1016–1030 The Years 1031–1066 The Years 1066–1079 The Years 1079–1098 The Years 1102–1152 The Years 1165–1187 The Years 1228–1237 The Years 1250–1256 The Years 1256–1274 The Bishops of the Church of Sodor Text of the Chronicle of Mann – Manx Society.
Stornoway is the main town of the Western Isles and the capital of Lewis and Harris in Scotland. The town's population is around 8,000, making it by far the largest town in the Hebrides, as well as the second largest island town in Scotland after Kirkwall in Orkney; the traditional civil parish of Stornoway, which includes various nearby villages, has a combined population of just over 10,000. Stornoway is administrative centre of the Outer Hebrides, it is home to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar and a variety of educational and media establishments. Observance of the Christian Sabbath has long been an aspect of the island's culture. Recent changes mean that Sunday on Lewis now more resembles Sunday on the other Western Isles or the mainland of Scotland; the town was founded by Vikings with the Old Norse name Stjórnavágr. The settlement grew up around a sheltered natural harbour near the centre of the island. At some point in the mid 1500s, the ancient MacLeod castle in Stornoway'fell victim to the cannons of the Duke of Argyle'.
By the early 1600s rumbling trade wars came to a head, all further government attempts to curtail traditional shipping rights were resisted by the islanders, as was an attempt by James VI, King of Scotland, to establish on the island the Scottish trading company known as the Fife Adventurers around 1598. As a result, James VI transferred Lewis to the MacKenzies of Seaforth in 1610. In 1844, the MacKenzies sold Stornoway, the Isle of Lewis as a whole, to Sir James Matheson who built the present Lews Castle on a hill overlooking the bay of Stornoway. Fragmentary ruins of the old Stornoway Castle had survived in the bay until that time, can be seen in Victorian photographs, but Matheson destroyed them in 1882, in order to expand the harbour. In 1918, Matheson sold the island to 1st Viscount Leverhulme. Lord Leverhulme held the island for a short time, his economic plans for the island overstretched his finances. Faced with failure in Lewis, he gave; the Stornoway Trust continues to administer the parish for the people.
Today the harbour hosts a fishing fleet somewhat reduced from its heyday, a small marina and moorings for pleasure craft, a small shipyard and slipway, three larger piers for commercial traffic and Stornoway Lifeboat Station, run by the RNLI and home to a Severn-class lifeboat, Tom Sanderson. Her Majesty's Coastguard operates a Maritime Rescue Sub Centre from a building near the harbour. A lighthouse, seaweed processing plant and a renewable energy manufacturing yard are situated on Arnish Point at the mouth of the harbour and visually dominate the approaches. Arnish Point is earmarked by AMEC as the landfall for its proposed private sub-sea cable which would export the electricity generated from the Lewis Windpower wind farm with a planning application for 181 turbines submitted to the Scottish Executive. In 2008 the Scottish Government rejected the plans - the company responsible is planning their next move; the Arnish area was surveyed by SSE for a second sub-sea cable but lost out in favour of Gravir to the south as the preferred site.
SSE prefers Arnish Point as of 2016. The manufacturing yard was established in the 1970s as a fabrication plant for the oil industry but suffered regular boom and bust cycles; the downturn in business from the North Sea oil industry in recent years led to a move away from serving this market. The yard is now earmarked as a key business in the development of the whole Arnish Point industrial estate and has received large amounts of funding in recent years. In 2007 the Arnish yard was taken over by its third tenant in as many years. Cambrian Engineering fell into liquidation as did Aberdeen-owned Camcal Ltd with large-scale redundancies. Both firms were affected by the absence of a regular stream of orders and left a chain of large debts impacting upon local suppliers. Altissimo Ltd is a new firm backed by a group of Swiss and Dutch investors, has purchased the Camcal name from the previous operator. In December 2007, the yard won a contract to construct 49 towers for wind turbines in Turkey; this will ensure employment for around 70 employees for over six months.
On 1 January 1919, the Iolaire sank at the entrance of the harbour, one of the worst maritime disasters in Scottish or UK waters, with a death toll of 205 men, who were returning home from World War I. Like much of the British Isles, Stornoway has an oceanic climate, with little variation of temperature and damp conditions throughout the year.. Winters are exceptionally mild for such a northerly location. Summers are cool. Precipitation falls as rain, October through January are the wettest months due to frequent, sometimes intense storms from the North Atlantic, which can bring heavy rain and high winds. April through July represents a markedly drier season, when storm frequency and intensity diminish markedly. Ju
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t
Castle Rushen is a medieval castle located in the Isle of Man's historic capital, Castletown, in the south of the island. It towers over the Market Square to the harbour to the north-east; the castle is amongst the best examples of medieval castles in the British Isles, is still in use as a museum and educational centre. The castle cannot be dated to the nearest 100 years, although construction is thought to have taken place during the reigns of the late-12th-century and early-13th-century rulers of the Isle of Man – the Kings of Mann and the Isles; the last such king, Magnús Óláfsson, is recorded in the Chronicle of Mann to have died at the castle in 1265. The original Castle Rushen keep; the site was fortified to guard the entrance to the Silver Burn. From its early beginnings, the castle was continually developed by successive rulers of Mann between the 13th and 16th century; the limestone walls dominated much of the surrounding landscape, serving as a point of dominance for the various rulers of the Isle of Man.
By 1313, the original keep had been reinforced with towers to the south. In the 14th century, an east tower and curtain wall were added; the keep of Castle Rushen's first line of defence is an outer wall, 25 feet high and 7 feet thick. Attached to the wall are five towers, which in the post-defensive era of Castle Rushen were used for civilian administrative functions; the keep itself has walls 7 feet thick at the top. Four towers sit atop the keep, the main one in the north rising to a height of 80 feet and other three to around 70 feet; the entrance to the keep is protected by a drawbridge and a fortified inner gatehouse entrance with two portcullises with a killing area between them covered by three so-called murder holes, through which the defenders could attack any intruders trapped between the two portcullises. On either side of the gatehouse are located guard houses, which were converted into prison cells in the history of the castle; when on duty, the garrison would spend most of its time in the gatehouses.
Inside the gatehouse is a lower level with a tide mill for grinding corn. The castle included a medieval chapel, housing Castle Rushen's clock mechanism; the still functioning Castle Rushen clock is a notable landmark in Castletown, having been presented by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1597, while she controlled the island during a dispute. The outer parts of the castle is protected by a moat and a glacis, with the glacis extending as far as the moat around the entire land front of Castle Rushen. After its initial construction and use by the Norse-Gaelic rulers of the Isle of Man, the castle changed hands between the Scots and the English; the Isle of Man was transferred to Scotland the year after Magnús Óláfsson's death as part of the Treaty of Perth, ending the 1263–1266 Scottish–Norwegian War. On 18 May 1313, the Scottish king Robert the Bruce invaded the Isle of Man at Ramsey; the island was captured in five days, the only resistance occurring at Castle Rushen, defended by Dungal MacDouall.
After a short siege Robert captured the castle, gaining the Isle of Man as an outpost securing the approaches to western Scotland and the Hebrides. After several more changes of hands the English and their supporters prevailed; the English king Edward I Longshanks claimed that the island had belonged to the Kings of England for generations and he was reasserting their rightful claim to the Isle of Man. From 1405 to 1738 the Isle of Man was controlled by the Stanley family, beginning with Sir John Stanley, given the title of King of Mann by Henry IV of England in 1405; the title King of Mann was replaced in 1521 by the title Lord of Mann, held today by the reigning British monarch. During the English Civil War of 1642–1651 James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, the Lord of Mann from 1627–1651, sided with the Royalist cause. Known as The Great Stanley, James established a secondary Royalist court at Castle Rushen before leaving to fight the Parliamentarians in England. In August 1651 James sailed with two frigates, bringing 300 Royalists from the Isle of Man to meet Charles II in Lancashire.
Having fought several battles during the Civil War's third phase, Lord Derby was captured at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651 and executed at Bolton on 15 October 1651. When James left the Isle of Man he left his wife, Countess Charlotte – the renowned successful defender of Lathom House in 1644 – in command of the Isle of Man; the French-born Charlotte Stanley held Castle Rushen until a rebellion led by Manx nationalist Illiam Dhône and the mutiny of her own garrison forced her to surrender to invading Parliamentarian forces led by Colonel Robert Duckenfield by the end of October 1651. As the defensive value of the Castle declined it was in continuous use as an administrative centre. In the 18th century a mint was located within its grounds, as was the still active southern law court of the Isle of Man; the Manx law books were stored in The Lord's Treasury at Castle Rushen. The Castle was a meeting place in the 16th century for the 24 Keys – an early name for the Manx Parliament's lower house, the House of Keys.
The Keys had no permanent residence until 1710. From 1710 the Keys met at the Bishop Wilson's library in Castletown before moving to a dedicated building in 1821. Since 1874 the House of Keys has been located in the Isle of Man's post-1869 capital of Douglas; the 18th century saw the castle in steady decay. By the end of the century it was converted into a prison. Though the castle was