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A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry and other sciences are useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and base metals, they are in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are important contributors to climate change discussions. James Hutton is viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had been supposed to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land.

Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795. Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism, the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, led by Abraham Werner, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level dropped over time; the first geological map of the United States was produced in 1809 by William Maclure. In 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States; every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him. The results of his unaided labors were submitted to the American Philosophical Society in a memoir entitled Observations on the Geology of the United States explanatory of a Geological Map, published in the Society's Transactions, together with the nation's first geological map; this antedates William Smith's geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks.

Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830. This book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism; this theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earth's history and are still occurring today. In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earth's features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not accepted at the time. For an aspiring geologist, training includes significant coursework in physics and chemistry, in addition to classes offered through the geology department. Most geologists need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students spend portions of the year the summer though sometimes during a January term and working under field conditions with faculty members. Many non-geologists take geology courses or have expertise in geology that they find valuable to their fields.

Geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines: Economic geology: the study of ore genesis, the mechanisms of ore creation, geostatistics. Engineering geology: application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, construction and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for. Geochemistry: the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, the study of the behaviour of their minerals. Geochronology: the study of isotope geology toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism and geological events. Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that create them Hydrogeology: the study of the origin and movement of groundwater water in a subsurface geological system. Igneous petrology: the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization and volcanological phenomena.

Isotope geology: the case of the isotopic composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock and planetary formation. Metamorphic petrology: the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals and rocks. Marine geology: the study of the seafloor. Marine geology has strong ties to physical plate tectonics. Palaeoclimatology: the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earth's atmosphere within the Earth's history. Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record and the construction of a palaeontological history of the Earth. Pe

Speed Metal (compilation)

Speed Metal is a budget-priced Compilation of popular released songs in the Thrash and Speed Metal genres released by Priority Records in 1991. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic wrote: For a budget-priced ten-track collection, Speed Metal is a pretty good sampler of the state of the genre circa 1991; the collection doesn't play by the rules, including cuts such as Motorhead's "Ace of Spades," which were undeniably influential but not speed metal per se. Neverthelesss, this is a reasonably effective overview, considering its price, containing cuts by Testament, Death Angel, Flotsam & Jetsam, Metal Church, Excel and Pantera. Trial By Fire Road Mutants Suffer The Masses Prayer For The Dying Questions Ace Of Spades Badlands Cowboys From Hell Blaze Some Hate Terrified

On Immunity: An Inoculation

On Immunity: An Inoculation is a nonfiction book by Eula Biss published by Graywolf Press in 2014. It is about vaccination of children. Bill Gates endorsed it on Twitter, saying "On Immunity is a great book, not out to demonize anyone who holds opposing views." 2014 New York Times Best Books of the Year, one of "10 Best Books". 2014 National Book Critics Circle Award, finalist. 2015 Mark Zuckerberg book club selection February. Benjamin H. Chin-Yee, "Vaccination and Its Discontents: Review of On Immunity by Eula Biss", University of Toronto Medical Journal, Vol. 92, No. 3

Heinrich Lossow

Heinrich Lossow was a German genre painter and illustrator. He was a prolific pornographer in his spare time. Heinrich Lossow's father was a Bremen sculptor, his father moved to Munich in 1820 to study under Ernst Mayer. In Munich, Arnold Hermann Lossow married and had three children: Carl Lossow in 1835, Friedrich Lossow in 1837, Heinrich Lossow in 1843; the three boys had an affinity for art. Heinrich would outlive all of his siblings, he first trained under his father but would go on to study under Karl Theodor von Piloty at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts. He traveled through France and Italy perfecting his art, his was an illustrator for publishers, including one for an edition of William Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. In his life, he served as a curator at the Schleissheim Palace

Armenia‚ÄďAzerbaijan relations in the Eurovision Song Contest

Armenia has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest, a pan-European music competition, since 2006, while Azerbaijan has participated since 2008. The continuing conflict between the two countries over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh, considered to be a de jure part of Azerbaijan by the United Nations, but has been under control of the Armenia-backed de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since 1993, has affected the Eurovision Song Contest on several occasions. Conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan first appeared in 2006, when Azerbaijani media criticized the event's website for listing Nagorno-Karabakh as the birthplace of Armenia's first representative, André, as it was part of the Azerbaijan SSR at the time. Conflicts notably escalated throughout the 2009 contest: during the semi-finals, Azerbaijani officials objected to the depiction of the Nagorno-Karabakh monument We Are Our Mountains during an introductory video for the Armenian entry. Armenia responded during the finals by displaying multiple images of the monument whilst presenting its results.

Following the contest, allegations emerged that Azerbaijan's state broadcaster had tampered with its feed of the broadcast to censor the Armenian entry, that the Azerbaijani government was interrogating citizens who voted for Armenia, accusing them of being unpatriotic and a threat to security. Following an inquiry, Azerbaijan was fined by the European Broadcasting Union for breaching the privacy of voters. Following the 2010 Junior Eurovision Song Contest, Armenian media claimed that Azerbaijan's broadcaster had cut off the broadcast when it became apparent that Armenia had won. Accordingly, as Azerbaijan prepared to host the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest following its victory in 2011, a group of Armenian musicians led a boycott effort, the country would withdraw from the contest, causing the broadcaster to be fined for the late notice. Armenia returned in the 2013 edition, held in Sweden; the move was criticized by an Azerbaijani politician and a representative of the country's state broadcaster, who felt that Armenia's participation could have been a symbol of peace between the two nations, that the decision would further damage the country's reputation.

Conflicts between the two countries began to develop again during the lead-up to the 2015 contest, where allegations emerged that the Armenian entry, "Don't Deny", was a call for recognition of the Armenian Genocide. As Azerbaijan denies the genocide, officials from the country issued a statement threatening Armenia for attempting to use Eurovision as an outlet for its "political ambitions"; the song was subsequently renamed "Face the Shadow" to address concerns over its alleged political themes. The following year, Armenian representative Iveta Mukuchyan was reprimanded by organizers for displaying the flag of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic during the first semi-final. In 2006—the first year in which Armenia participated, the official Eurovision website listed the birthplace of its performer André as being in the "Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh". Media outlets in Azerbaijan criticized the contest's organizers for recognizing the republic given that the region was an autonomous oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR when André was born in 1979.

The birthplace listing on André's profile was removed entirely. Azerbaijan would make its own Eurovision debut in 2008—marking the first time both Armenia and Azerbaijan competed against each other at the contest; the Armenian entry, "Qélé, Qélé" by Sirusho, finished in 4th place, while Azerbaijan's inaugural entry, "Day After Day", finished 8th. During the first semi-final of the 2009 contest, the "postcard" video introducing the performance of the Armenian entry "Jan Jan" depicted, amongst other monuments, We Are Our Mountains, an art piece located in Nagorno-Karabakh's capital city of Stepanakert. Due to the country's claims over the region, Azerbaijani officials objected to the portrayal of We Are Our Mountains as being an Armenian landmark. For the finals telecast, the video was edited to remove the statue. In protest of the decision, multiple photographs of We Are Our Mountains were displayed during the presentation of voting results from Armenia. Despite the controversy, 1,065 Armenians voted for the Azerbaijani entry, enough to give the country a single point.

A total of 43 Azerbaijanis voted for the Armenian entry. Following the contest, reports surfaced that the local Azerbaijani broadcaster, İctimai Television, had attempted to censor the Armenian performance from its broadcast of the final, had obscured the voting number for the entry in an effort to discourage voting for it. İTV denied these claims, provided footage showing that its broadcast was untampered with. In August 2009, a number of Azerbaijanis who had voted for Armenia's entry during the contest were summoned for questioning at the Ministry of National Security in Baku, during which they were accused of being "unpatriotic" and "a potential security threat". One of those summoned, Rovshan Nasirli said that his interrogators told him that they had the names and addresses of all 43 Azerbaijanis who had voted for Armenia. Following these reports, Svante Stockselius, executive supervisor of the Eurovision Song Contest, announced the launch of an enquiry into the incidents. In their response, İctimai TV s