Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.
The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.
In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.
However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.
Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.
The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. Cowes has a Non-League football club Cowes Sports F. C. wh
Ventnor is a seaside resort and civil parish established in the Victorian era on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, eleven miles from Newport. It is situated south of St Boniface Down, built on steep slopes leading down to the sea; the higher part is referred to as Upper Ventnor. Ventnor is sometimes taken to include the nearby and older settlements of St Lawrence and Bonchurch, which are covered by its town council; the population of the parish in 2016 was about 5,800. Ventnor became fashionable as both a health and holiday resort in the late 19th century, described as the'English Mediterranean' and'Mayfair by the Sea'. Medical advances during the early twentieth century reduced its role as a health resort and, like other British seaside resorts, its summer holiday trade suffered the changing nature of travel during the latter part of that century, its sheltered location beneath the hilly chalk downland produces a microclimate with more sunny days and fewer frosts than the rest of the island.
This allows many species of subtropical plant to flourish. Ventnor retains a Victorian character, has an active arts scene, is regaining popularity as a place to visit. While Bonchurch and St Lawrence both have churches dating back to the Norman era, the area in-between that became Ventnor was unremarkable until the 19th century. In Anglo-Saxon times it was known as Holeweia, which by the 12th century had become Holeweye, or hollow way. By 1617 its name appears as Ventnor named after the family name le Vyntener. There are indications of Bronze Age settlement, with burial mounds on the nearby downs, excavations have evidenced small scale settlement in the area during both the Iron Age and the early Roman period; these include middens and palaeoenvironmental deposits at Binnel Bay, Woody Bay, St Catherine's Point and Rocken End. The Isle of Wight was the last part of England to be converted to Christianity, Saint Boniface is believed to have preached locally in the 8th century. During the 13th century, the area was covered by the manors of Holloway and Steephill, both belonging to the Lisle family.
A 1992 archaeological survey found evidence of a medieval settlement at Flowers Brook, referred to in a 1327 subsidy roll as Villata de steple. This area was subsequently incorporated into two farms, with some cottages on the site demolished in 1834. Ventnor watermill, on a site just north of the current cascade, is first mentioned in 1327, was destroyed by fire in 1848, rebuilt by 1853, demolished in 1875. In the early nineteenth century, in addition to the mill, Ventnor consisted of a few fishermen's huts by the cove, a couple of inns, a farm. In 1804, it was described by John Britton as a "hamlet...formed by a range of neat cottages chiefly inhabited by fishermen, open to the sea in front, backed by woods and the high downs". The area was divided between the parishes of Newchurch. In 1820 both of the manors were sold to other building speculators; the spur for expansion was the publication in 1830 of the second edition of physician James Clark's book: The influence of climate on disease. This identified the microclimate of Ventnor and the Undercliff as ideal for people with chest complaints, at a time when consumption was a common cause of death.
Thereafter Ventnor developed rapidly into a town, with numerous hotels and boarding houses targeting sick visitors during the winter, a wider range of shops than would be expected for a town of its size. In 1844 Parliament passed an Act "for better paving, lighting and otherwise improving part of the parish of Newchurch, called Ventnor, for establishing a market therein". However, not everyone was enamoured with the fast-growing town: in 1845, after recounting the positive reviews of others, writer John Gwilliam complained of the "intolerable" summer heat and the chalk dust about the town, concluding that to live there would "be one of the greatest punishments that could be inflicted upon me in the Isle of Wight". In 1853 the first newspaper on the island, the Ventnor Mercury, was launched. In 1869 Dr Arthur Hill Hassall opened the Royal National Hospital for Diseases of the Chest in St Lawrence, many local buildings date from the 1860s, by when the current commercial centre of the town was substantially developed.
The nineteenth century saw development aimed at wealthier holidaymakers from Britain and Europe, as British seaside resorts became popular. The first pier from 1860 was washed away. Breakwaters were built in 1863, by the following year, a steamer service to Littlehampton connected with trains to London. In 1866 the Isle of Wight Railway reached Ventnor, in 1870 the iron Royal Victoria Pier was constructed. Subsequent storm damage delayed the full establishment of steamer services until 1888 when they were carrying 10,000 passengers from Bournemouth, Southsea and Shanklin; the railway ran a non-stop train from Ryde to Ventnor, named'The Invalid Express' for the consumptive patients. Ventnor became known as ` Mayfair by the sea' for the number of wealthy Londoners. In 1887, Bartholomew's Gazetteer described Ventnor as "one of the most popular of English health resorts", with the parish
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight
Yarmouth is a town and civil parish in the west of the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. The town is named for its location at the mouth of the small Western Yar river; the town grew near the river crossing a ferry, replaced with a road bridge in 1863. Yarmouth has been a settlement for over a thousand years, is one of the earliest on the island; the first account of the settlement is in Ethelred the Unready's record of the Danegeld tax of 991, when it was called Eremue, meaning "muddy estuary". The Normans laid out the streets on a plan which can still be seen today, it grew being given its first charter as a town in 1135. The town became a parliamentary borough in the Middle Ages, the Yarmouth constituency was represented by two members of Parliament until 1832; until the castle was built, raids by the French hurt the town. Legend has it that the church bells were carried off to Boulogne. Yarmouth Castle was built in 1547, is now in the care of English Heritage, it is a gun platform, built by Henry VIII to fortify the Solent and protect against any attempted invasion of England.
For many years Yarmouth was the seat of the Governor of the Island. It has a quaint Town Hall, rebuilt in 1763. In St. James's Church there is a monument to the 17th century admiral Sir Robert Holmes, at Yarmouth, he obtained it in a raid on a French ship, when he seized an unfinished statue of Louis XIV of France and forced the sculptor to finish it with his own head rather than the king's. In 1784 most of Yarmouth's ancient charters were lost: A ship's captain, drunk after a court dinner, stole what he thought was a case of wine, as he returned to his ship; when he discovered it was a case of books, he threw it overboard. Yarmouth Pier was opened in 1876, it received Grade 2 listed status in 1975. 685 ft long, it's now 609 ft but is still the longest timber pier in England open to the public, a docking point for the MV Balmoral and PS Waverley. Several Sites of Special Scientific Interest lie close to Yarmouth, including Yar Estuary SSSI & Bouldnor And Hamstead Cliffs SSSI; as a port and market town Yarmouth has had local commercial significance.
It still has some boat yards and chandlery, although small it still supports a number of shops, hotels and restaurants, supported by passing trade from the ferry terminal and visiting boat owners. The Wightlink car ferry sails from Yarmouth to Lymington in Hampshire. Southern Vectis operate bus services from Yarmouth bus station, a small building near the ferry terminal, the main route being route 7 serving Totland, Alum Bay, Freshwater and Shalfleet as well as Yarmouth. To reach Yarmouth, route 7 uses Pixley Hill, which has caused some controversy amongst local residents who do not believe the road is large enough for buses; the controversy was started by former route 11 being extended to serve Yarmouth and using the lane in September 2008. In the spring and summer, Southern Vectis operate an open top bus called "The Needles Tour" that runs through Freshwater Bay to Alum Bay and onto the Needles Battery down a bus and pedestrian-only road along the cliff edge. For the more athletic, Yarmouth is on the Isle of Wight Coastal Path.
The parish was once served with services to Newport. Passenger services ended in 1953, the track has long since been removed. In August 2014 the converted and expanded railway station opened as a restaurant. Yarmouth is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom; the 2011 census reported the parish of Yarmouth having 865 usual residents. In 2001 the population was just 791. Yarmouth hosted the popular biannual Old Gaffers festival which included several days of entertainment and shows, but in September 2018 it was announced that the event would no longer be held. Yarmouth marina is the landing point for the Royal Navy's Solent Amphibious Challenge, held in June each year.. Official website of Yarmouth Harbour Commissioners Yarmouth Town Council
The River Medina is the main river of the Isle of Wight, rising at St Catherine's Down near Blackgang and Chale, flowing northwards through the capital Newport, towards the Solent at Cowes. The river is a navigable tidal estuary from Newport northwards, its current state has occurred because the Medina used to be a tributary of what was once the "River Solent" and had a much larger catchment area. As the Solent valley flooded and the island eroded, the river received less water flow and more sediment, causing it to become more tidal; the river is bridged at Newport. Cowes is connected to East Cowes by a chain ferry known as the Cowes Floating Bridge; the name Medina comes from the Old English Meðune meaning "the middle one", the current pronunciation was first recorded as'Medine' in 1196. The river is used by yachtsmen as a safe harbour. Along the banks of the Medina there are many old warehouses and wharves where in the past flying boats and steam ships were developed and built; the Classic Boat Museum displays much of the river's history alongside the history of yachting.
The Island Harbour Marina, at the site of an old tidal mill, is on the river, about two miles from Newport. As well as the chain ferry, the River Medina has several small ferries which cater for sailors. Medina, Western Australia is a suburb in Perth named after it. Rivers of the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Grade I listed buildings on the Isle of Wight
There are over 9,300 Grade I listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the county of Isle of Wight. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance. Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. Grade II* listed buildings on the Isle of Wight Media related to Grade I listed buildings on the Isle of Wight at Wikimedia Commons English Heritage Images of England
Wootton Creek is a tidal estuary that flows into the Solent on the north coast of the Isle of Wight. The estuary has been known in the past as "Fishbourne Creek", "Wootton River" and "Wootton Haven". At the mouth of the estuary is the Wightlink car ferry terminal for connections to Portsmouth. On the west bank of the creek is the village of Wootton, whilst on the east bank is the village of Fishbourne; the estuary is bridged by the main Ryde to Newport road. The estuary is not navigable south of the bridge, tide controls means that water is retained south of the bridge most of the time, in the old mill pond. To the south of the bridge, on the east side of the mill pond, is a Forestry Commission woodland called "Firestone Copse", about 30 acres in size. Since 1993 Wootton Creek and the adjacent Ryde Sands have been designated as SSSIs due to their wide range of intertidal sand flats. "Natural England citation sheet". Information on estuaries from the Isle of Wight Council View Nautical Charts of Wootton Creek and Approaches