A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
Joystiq was a video gaming blog founded in June 2004 as part of the Weblogs, Inc. family of weblogs, now owned by AOL. It was AOL's primary video game blog, with sister blogs dealing with MMORPG gaming in general and the popular MMORPG World of Warcraft in particular. After declining readership, it was announced that Joystiq would be shut down on February 3, 2015, as part of moves to downsize AOL's operations by shuttering its "underperforming" properties; as of early 2004, Inc. was seeking to add a blog to its repertoire for the sole purpose of covering news related to video games, as evidenced by the now-defunct The Video Games Weblog, founded February 27, 2004. On March 12, Inc. CEO Jason Calacanis announced two spinoff projects: The Unofficial Playstation 3 Weblog and The Unofficial Xbox 2, both of which are now retired, though they would set a precedent for the launching of Joystiq's Fanboy blogs in 2005. However, none of these three initial weblogs were aggressively marketed, The Video Games Weblog made its final post on May 18, 2005, amassing 175 blog entries in total.
All three blogs are now listed as "On Hiatus/Retired" in Inc. directory. David Touve, the primary contributor to these early blogs, would act as Joystiq's features editor for a short time in late 2005 before resigning due to the birth of his child; that year, following 2004's Electronic Entertainment Expo, Peter Rojas, the founder of and lead contributor to the company's flagship blog Engadget, formally introduced Joystiq to the masses, positioning the blog as an extension to Engadget's Gaming subdomain. However, being a separate and wholly video game-related entity, Joystiq allowed for much more in-depth analysis of the video game industry than the consumer electronics-oriented Engadget. While Joystiq had featured content as early as April 2, the blog is not considered to have been launched until Rojas's public revelation on Engadget on Wednesday, June 16, 2004; the first major shakeup in Joystiq's history occurred in June 2005, when senior editor Ben Zackheim, after being offered a position at America Online's Games division, announced his resignation due to a conflict of interest.
He was succeeded by Vladimir Cole, a blogger, hired February 2005 and who held the position of Editor-in-Chief until February 2007, when Christopher Grant took over after Cole took a job with Microsoft's Xbox division. Weblogs, Inc. was acquired in October 2005 by America Online. On November 21, 2005, coinciding with the North American launch of the Xbox 360, Joystiq welcomed its first spinoff project: Xbox 360 Fanboy, a blog devoted to the in-depth coverage of its namesake hardware. For the next three weeks this trend would continue, with PSP Fanboy launching on November 28, WoW Insider on December 6, DS Fanboy on December 12. On February 15, 2006, a sixth blog was introduced: Revolution Fanboy, while March 29 heralded the arrival of PS3 Fanboy, completing Joystiq's trifecta of specialized next-gen coverage. While some have criticized the practice of splintering off Joystiq's primary areas of expertise as nothing more than a thinly veiled bid to increase traffic, Jason Calacanis has justified these actions by asserting that as Joystiq grows so too does its potential audience, thus separate blogs are necessary to fulfill these specialized niches.
On January 26, 2006, Joystiq coined the phrase "DS phat", a nickname for the old-style Nintendo DS that helps differentiate between the old DS and the DS Lite. On November 2, 2007, Massively was launched to cover MMOs in general. On January 27, 2009, the Fanboy sites were rebranded and integrated directly into the main Joystiq site. DS and Wii Fanboy were merged into Joystiq Nintendo, as were PSP and PS3 Fanboy merged into Joystiq PlayStation, Xbox 360 Fanboy became Joystiq Xbox; until 2010, these sites continued to feature specialized posts in addition to relevant content from the main Joystiq site. On June 11, 2010, as part of the new "Futurestiq" iteration of the site, the three platform-specific sites shut down, with staff folded into Joystiq full-time. In January 2012, Ludwig Kietzmann became the editor-in-chief after Grant left to form a new video game news website with Vox Media, owners of The Verge, known as Polygon. In January 2015, co-owned blog TechCrunch reported that AOL was planning to shutter underperforming content properties in the technology and lifestyle verticals, to focus on its stronger properties and advertising sales.
On January 27, 2015, Re/code reported that Joystiq was among the sites that were "likely" to be shut down as part of this restructuring plan. Readership of Joystiq had seen sharp declines. On January 30, 2015, various Joystiq staff members, the site itself, confirmed that the site, along with its spin-offs Massively and WoW Insider, fellow AOL property TUAW, would cease operations after February 3, 2015, it is expected. After the shutdown, on February 10, 2015, the staff of Massively launched a successor site, Massively Overpowered, dedicated to the continuation of their MMO coverage; the Joystiq staff before the closure included editor-in-chief Ludwig Kietzmann, managing editor Susan Arendt, feature content director Xav de Matos, reviews content director Richard Mitchell, news content director Alexander Sliwinski, senior reporter Jess Conditt, contributing editors Sinan Kubba, Danny Cowan, Mike Suszek and Earnest Cavalli. Thomas Schulenberg and Sam Prell maintain the blog on the weekends as the weekend editors and Anthony John Agnello serves as community manager.
Previous Joystiq staff memb
PlayStation TV, known in Japan and other parts of Asia as the PlayStation Vita TV or PS Vita TV, is a microconsole, a non-handheld variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. It was released in Japan on November 14, 2013, North America on October 14, 2014, Europe and Australia on November 14, 2014. Controlled with either the DualShock 3 or DualShock 4 controllers, the PS TV is capable of playing many PlayStation Vita games and applications, either through physical cartridges or downloaded through the PlayStation Store. However, not all content is compatible with the device, since certain features in the PS Vita such as the gyroscope and microphone are not available on the PS TV; the PS TV is able to emulate touch input for both the Vita's front and rear touchpads using the DS3/DS4 controller. In Japan, "PlayStation TV" was the name given to PlayStation 3 retail kiosks from 2006 to 2014, which consisted of a PS3 unit, an LCD monitor and a number of controllers; the system was released in Japan on November 14, 2013.
The device on its own sold for 9,954 yen tax inclusive, whilst a bundle version with an 8 GB memory card and DualShock 3 controller retailed for 14,994 yen. Andrew House, CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment, explains that Sony hopes to use the PS Vita TV to penetrate the Chinese gaming market, where video game consoles have been prohibited; the PS Vita TV was released in five other Southeast Asian countries and the special region of Hong Kong on January 16, 2014. At E3 2014, the system was announced for North America and Europe, under the name PlayStation TV, for release in Q3 2014. Final release dates for the western release were announced at Gamescom 2014. System software update 3.15 was released on April 30, 2014, which enabled PS4 remote play functionality for the PS Vita TV. As of October 2014 the system can be used with PlayStation Network accounts originating from outside the original launch territories of Japan and Asia following the release of system software firmware version 3.30 update, which renames the PS Vita TV system to PS TV within the system menus.
Open beta trials for PlayStation Now functionality on the PS TV began on October 14, 2014 in North America, the same day that PS TV was released there. By the end of March, in Europe, Sony has dropped the price of PlayStation TV by 40% with the new price of €59.99. That same week the sales has increased 1272%. On February 29, 2016, Engadget reported. Sony confirmed shipments were discontinued in Americas and Europe at the end of 2015, however will continue in Asia contrary to reports. Instead of featuring a display screen, the console connects to a television via HDMI. Users can play using a DualShock 3 controller, although due to the difference in features between the controller and the handheld, certain games are not compatible with PS Vita TV, such as those that are dependent on the system's microphone, camera, or gyroscopic features; the device is said to be compatible with over 100 PS Vita games, as well as various digital PlayStation Portable, PlayStation, PC Engine titles, along with a selection of PlayStation 3 titles streamed from the PlayStation Now service.
The device is technically referred to by Sony as the VTE-1000 series, to distinguish it from the handheld PCH-1000/2000 series PS Vita models. According to Muneki Shimada, Sony Director of the Second Division of Software Development, the original PCH-1000 series PlayStation Vita includes an upscaler that supports up to 1080i resolution, however it was decided that the idea for video output for the original Vita was to be scrapped in favor for releasing the PlayStation Vita TV as a separate device for television connectivity; the in-built scaler has been removed from the PCH-2000 series PlayStation Vita model. The system supports Remote Play compatibility with the PlayStation 4, allowing players to stream games from the PlayStation 4 to a separate TV connected to PS Vita TV, allows users to stream content from video services such as Hulu and Niconico, as well as access the PlayStation Store. PS4 Remote Play functionality for the PS Vita TV gained full support with the release of the 1.70 PS4 firmware update.
The device includes the software features such as the Web browser and email client. There are future plans for media server and DLNA support for remote video streaming and image/audio file transfer; the console measures 6.5 cm about the size of a pack of playing cards. It is powered with the same model/type of power adapter, used for the original PlayStation Portable. PC World called the device an amazing invention, praising the opportunity to play Vita and PSP games on the big screen. IGN said the console "may be one of Sony's most exciting new products and could provide a critical edge for the PS4."Various commentators have compared the device to set-top boxes—including media streaming devices and other microconsoles, such as the Ouya. Time said the console could compete well against set-top box competitors with a quality library of games. At launch however, the game library was limited to a subset of PS Vita games, which negatively impacted early reviews; the PlayStation TV, along with the PlayStation 4, won the 2014 Good Design Award from the Japan Institute of Design Promotion.
The PlayStation TV sold 42,172 units during its debut week of release in Japan. The PlayStation TV was marketed alongside God Eater 2, released on the same day as the device, placed at the top of the Japanese software sales charts for that week. Journalist’s criticized the platform’s lack
The PlayStation Portable is a handheld game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment and competed with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video-game consoles. Development of the handheld console was announced during E3 2003 and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before the next E3; the system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004. The PSP was the most powerful portable console, it was the first real competitor of Nintendo's handheld consoles after many challengers, such as SNK's Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage, had failed. Its advanced graphics made the PSP a popular mobile-entertainment device, which can connect to the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 games consoles, computers running Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh software, other PSPs and the Internet; the PSP is the only handheld console to use an optical disc format – Universal Media Disc – as its primary storage medium. It was received positively by most video-game critics and sold 76 million units by 2012.
Several models of the console were released. The PSP line was succeeded by the PlayStation Vita, released in December 2011 in Japan and worldwide in February 2012; the Vita has backward compatibility with many PSP games that were released on the PlayStation Network through the PlayStation Store, which became the main method of purchasing PSP games after Sony shut down access to the PlayStation Store from PSPs on March 31, 2016. Hardware shipments ended worldwide in 2014. Production of UMDs ended when the last Japanese factory making them closed in late 2016. Sony Computer Entertainment first announced development of the PlayStation Portable at a press conference preceding E3 2003. Although samples were not presented, Sony released extensive technical details. CEO Jose Villeta called the device the "Walkman of the 21st century". Several gaming websites were impressed with the handheld's computing capabilities and looked forward to its potential as a gaming platform. In the 1990s, Nintendo had dominated the handheld market since launching its Game Boy in 1989, experiencing close competition only from Bandai's WonderSwan in Japan and Sega's Game Gear.
In January 1999, Sony had released the successful PocketStation in Japan as its first foray into the handheld gaming market. The SNK Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage failed to cut into Nintendo's share. According to an IDC analyst in 2004, the PSP was the "first legitimate competitor to Nintendo's dominance in the handheld market"; the first concept images of the PSP appeared in November 2003 at a Sony corporate strategy meeting and showed it having flat buttons and no analog joystick. Although some reviewers expressed concern about the lack of an analog stick, these fears were allayed when the PSP was unveiled at the Sony press conference during E3 2004. Sony released a list of 99 developer companies. Several game demos such as Konami's Metal Gear Acid and SCE Studio Liverpool's Wipeout Pure were shown at the conference. On October 17, 2004, Sony announced that the PSP base model would be launched in Japan on December 12 that year for ¥19,800 while the Value System would launch for ¥24,800.
The launch was a success. Color variations were sold in bundle packs that cost around $200. Sony announced on February 3, 2005, that the PSP would go on sale in North America on March 24 in one configuration for an MSRP of US$249/CA$299; some commentators expressed concern over the high price, US$20 higher than that of the Japanese model and more than $100 higher than the Nintendo DS. Despite these concerns, the PSP's North American launch was a success. Sony said 500,000 units were sold in the first two days, though it was reported that this figure was below expectations; the PSP was intended to have a simultaneous PAL region and North American launch, but on March 15, 2005, Sony announced that the PAL region launch would be delayed because of high demand for the console in Japan and North America. The next month it announced that the PSP would be launched in the PAL region on September 1, 2005, for €249/£179. Sony defended the high price by saying North American consumers had to pay local sales taxes and that the Value Added Tax was higher in the UK than the US.
Despite the high price, the console's PAL region launch was a success, selling more than 185,000 units in the UK. All stock of the PSP in the UK sold out within three hours of launch, more than doubling the previous first-day sales record of 87,000 units set by the Nintendo DS; the system enjoyed great success in other areas of the PAL region. The PlayStation Portable uses the common "bar" form factor; the original model measures 6.7 by 2.9 by 0.9 inches and weighs 9.9 ounces. The front of the console is dominated by the system's 4.3-inch LCD screen, capable of 480 × 272 pixel video playback with 24-bit color, outperforming the Nintendo DS. On the unit's front are four PlayStation face buttons; the system has two shoulder buttons, a USB 2.0 mini-B port on the top of the console, a WLAN switch and power cable input on the bottom. The back of the PSP features a read-only Universal Media Disc drive for access to movies a
Free Realms was a massive multiplayer online role playing video game, developed by Sony Online Entertainment for the PC, PlayStation 3, set in a fantasy-themed world named Sacred Grove. The game was released on April 2009 for Windows; the game restricted to free-to-play up to level 20, although there was access to additional game content via a membership fee. The game allowed the player to fight, interact with other players, more; the game was shut down on March 31, 2014. The game was available to play free of charge; the PC version was accessed via the Free Realms web site or, through game arcade sites Candy Stand or Miniclip. During character creation a 3D client downloaded in the background and streamed as the user played. A version of FreeRealms for Mac was announced at SOE Fan Faire 2010 for release "within the next 3 months." The Mac version was released on November 2, 2010. The PlayStation 3 version was released on March 31, 2011 on the US PlayStation Store and on September 11, 2011 in the EU and was accessible via the PlayStation Network.
Free Realms offered an optional membership for a single player, which allowed for 3 characters to be created per account. Only one character can be played at a time. Before Free Realms was shut down, SOE planned to offer a "family" membership that would allow multiple logins at the same time. Separate to memberships is the Station Cash currency which can be used for premium features across Sony Online Entertainment games. In the New York Times, Free Realms was well received; the reviewer, Seth Shiesel, noted "For Sony Online, Free Realms is a triumph of the company’s own reinvention." USA Today reviewer Marc Saltzman gave Free Realms a 4/5 score, noting "Sony Online Entertainment's Free Realms is an extraordinary online adventure, sure to please tweens and teens looking for a fun and free fantasy world." Eurogamer gave the game a positive review, MMO editor Oli Welsh describing the game as "an effortlessly light and addictive indulgence". MMOHuts gave the game a 4/5 and noted that "Free Realms is one of the most feature-rich free MMORPGs available and it’s all delivered in a beautiful package".
In a review of Free Realms at USA Network's Character Arcade, David Chapman stated that the game "is a deep game experience for a free to play model. There's never a shortage of things to do... if you never pay a dime to Sony." John Smedley, president of Sony Online Entertainment, revealed that one million users had signed up to Free Realms 18 days after its launch. As of July 24, 2009, it had nearly five million registered users. Sony Online Entertainment announced in February 2010 that the game had eight million registered users. In April 2010, it was announced that the game had ten million players, with two million players signing up in March 2010. A Free Realms comic, released for $4.99 per issue, holds twelve issues each of which contain unique one time code redeemable for an in game virtual reward. Published by DC Comics' Wildstorms, it is based on the Sony Online Entertainment MMORPG; the comic is written by J. S. Lewis, writer of the "Gray Griffon" series of young-adult fantasy books, with the art by Allen Martinez and Jon Buran.
The comic features Dane Kensington, an aspiring Brawler who sets out on his adventure in hopes of becoming stronger. Main website at the Wayback Machine
The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles, it was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 offered backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. In 2006, Sony announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console.
Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backwards compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.
Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.
Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch; the PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player. While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals.
Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs to demon
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s