Italian cuisine is food typical of Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and economic changes, with roots stretching to antiquity. Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World and the introduction of potatoes, bell peppers and sugar beet, this last introduced in quantity in the 18th century. Italian cuisine is known for its regional diversity between the north and the south of the Italian peninsula, it offers an abundance of taste, is one of the most popular and copied in the world. It influenced several cuisines around the world. Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only two to four main ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 4th century BCE.
Food and culture were important at that time as we can see from the cookbook which dates back to first century BC. Through the centuries, neighbouring regions, high-profile chefs, political upheaval, the discovery of the New World have influenced its development. Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation; the country was split. Regional cuisine is represented by some of the major cities in Italy. For example, Milan is known for its risottos, Bologna is known for its tortellini and Naples is famous for its pizzas and spaghettis; the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem, he said that flavors should not be masked by herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish. Simplicity was replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed.
By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices and herbs. The Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers; the Romans reared goats for butchering, grew artichokes and leeks. With culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach and rice. During the 12th century, a Norman king surveyed Sicily and saw people making long strings made from flour and water called atriya, which became trii, a term still used for spaghetti in southern Italy. Normans introduced casseroles, salt cod, stockfish, all of which remain popular. Food preservation was either physical, as refrigeration did not exist. Meats and fish dried, or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, to cure pork. Root vegetables were preserved in brine.
Other means of preservation included immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat. For preserving fruits, liquor and sugar were used; the northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, as much Mediterranean cuisine was spread by Arab trade. The oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in Naples. Dishes include "Roman-style" cabbage, ad usum campanie which were "small leaves" prepared in the "Campanian manner", a bean dish from the Marca di Trevisio, a torta, compositum londardicum which are similar to dishes prepared today. Two other books from the 14th century include recipes for Roman pastello, Lasagna pie, call for the use of salt from Sardinia or Chioggia. In the 15th century, Maestro Martino was chef to the Patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican, his Libro de arte coquinaria describes a more elegant cuisine. His book contains a recipe for Maccaroni Siciliani, made by wrapping dough around a thin iron rod to dry in the sun.
The macaroni was cooked in capon stock flavored with saffron. Of particular note is Martino's avoidance of excessive spices in favor of fresh herbs; the Roman recipes include cabbage dishes. His Florentine dishes include eggs with Bolognese torta, Sienese torta and Genoese recipes such as piperata, squash and spinach pie with onions. Martino's text was included in a 1475 book by Bartolomeo Platina printed in Venice entitled De honesta voluptate et valetudine. Platina puts Martino's "Libro" in regional context, writing about perch from Lake Maggiore, sardines from Lake Garda, grayling from Adda, hens from Padua, olives from Bologna and Piceno, turbot from Ravenna, rudd from Lake Trasimeno, carrots from Viterbo, bass from the Tiber and shad from Lake Albano, snails from Rieti, figs from Tuscolo, grapes from Narni, oil from Cassino, oranges from Naples and eels from Campania. Grains from Lombardy and Campania are mentioned as is honey from Taranto. Wine from the Ligurian coast, Greco from Tuscany and San Severino, Trebbiano from Tuscany and Piceno are mentioned in the book.
The courts of Florence, Rome and Ferrara were centra
Limburger is a cheese that originated in the Herve area of the historical Duchy of Limburg, which had its capital in Limbourg-sur-Vesdre, now in the French-speaking Belgian province of Liège. The cheese is known for its strong smell caused by the bacterium Brevibacterium linens; the Herve name has become the modern European protected name for the cheese, while the Limburger name is used for the same style when made in other regions. Herve cheese, or "Fromage de Herve", is still produced in the territory of the old Duchy of Limburg, in Belgium, where according it has been produced since the 15th century. Herve is located near Liège, the borders separating Belgium from the Netherlands and Germany; the "Land of Herve" is a hilly area between the Meuse rivers. The Duchy existed until the French Revolution as a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the cheese style became popular in other areas, known by the name of its country of origin. In the US, it was first produced in 1867 by Rudolph Benkerts in his cellar from pasteurized goat's milk.
A few years 25 factories produced this cheese. The Chalet Cheese Cooperative in Monroe, Wisconsin is the only American company that makes this cheese, it is manufactured in Canada, where it is a German-Canadian cultural marker, by the Oak Grove Cheese Company in New Hamburg, Ontario. In its first month, the cheese is more crumbly, similar to the texture of feta cheese. After about six weeks, the cheese becomes softer along the edges but is still firm on the inside and can be described as salty and chalky. After two months of its life, it is creamy and much smoother. Once it reaches three months, the cheese produces its notorious smell because of the bacterium used to ferment Limburger cheese and many other smear-ripened cheeses; this is Brevibacterium linens, the same one found on human skin, responsible for body odor and foot odor. One of the most traditional ways of eating limburger is the limburger sandwich. After three months, when the cheese has ripened, it becomes spreadable; the cheese is spread thick on firm-textured 100% rye bread, with a large, thick slice of onion, is served with strong black coffee or lager beer.
Alternatively, chunks or slices of the cheese up to 1.5 cm thick can be cut off the block and placed in the sandwich. This sandwich remains popular among the descendants of German immigrants in the Midwestern United States, in places like Wisconsin and Ohio. However, it is markedly less popular among the descendants born after about 1960 because of the permeating smell and the inconvenience of going to specialty cheese and sausage shops to obtain it. In Wisconsin, the Limburger sandwich can be found on menus at certain restaurants, accompanied by brown mustard. Limburger and its characteristic odor are a frequent butt of jokes. Reactions to, misinterpretations of, the smell of Limburger cheese were gags used in numerous Little Rascals and Three Stooges comedy shorts; the arch-enemy of the Biker Mice from Mars has the name Lawrence Limburger, complete with terrible body odor. A study showing that the malaria mosquito is attracted to the smell of Limburger and to the smell of human feet earned the Ig Nobel Prize in 2006 in the area of biology.
The results of the study were published in the medical journal The Lancet on 9 November 1996. 100 g of Limburger contains: 27 g of total fat. 327 calories, of which 240 calories are from fat. 90 mg of cholesterol 800 mg of sodium 20 g of protein Liederkranz cheese List of German cheeses List of cheeses Notes Media related to Limburger cheese at Wikimedia Commons TED-talk about "Cheese, dogs and a pill to kill mosquitoes and end malaria" at TEDxMaastricht,·Apr 2012
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Edam is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland. Edam is traditionally sold in rounded cylinders with a pale yellow interior and a coat, or rind, of red paraffin wax. Edam ages and travels well, does not spoil; these qualities made it the world's most popular cheese between the 14th and 18th centuries, both at sea and in remote colonies. A major producer of Edam is the FrieslandCampina company in The Netherlands. In the U. S. the May-bud brand is sold by a subsidiary of Kraft Foods. Most "young" Edam cheese sold in stores has a mild flavour salty or nutty, no smell when compared to other cheeses; as the cheese ages, its flavour sharpens, it becomes firmer. Edam may have as little as 28% fat in dry matter. Modern Edam is softer such as Cheddar, due to its low fat content. Mild Edam goes well with fruit such as peaches, melons and cherries. Aged Edam is eaten with traditional "cheese fruits" like pears and apples. Like most cheeses, it is eaten on crackers and bread, may be eaten with crackers following the main course of a meal as a dessert of "cheese and biscuits".
Pinot gris, dry Riesling, semidry Riesling, Sparkling wine and Shiraz/Syrah are some recommended wines to accompany this cheese. Edam cheese is popular in North America, the Nordic countries, many other countries around the world. In the Maghreb region, it is known as red cheese. In Spain and some of its former colonies, such as the Philippines and many Latin American countries, the cheese is known as queso de bola and was long considered a delicacy. In the Mexican state of Yucatán, queso de bola is prepared as queso relleno. A ball of cheese is carved out, it is braised in chicken stock, served sliced with the chicken stock, thickened with cornstarch and spiced tomato sauce. It is the most common cheese used in Czech Republic and very used as base of the snack smažený sýr, popular in the country and in neighbouring Slovakia where it may be served with a slice of ham, always with tartar sauce or mayonnaise. In Belize, where it was once one of the few commercially available cheeses, it may be known as queso de calavera or queso de colorado, eaten when well-aged and sharp with bread and coffee.
In the Philippines, queso de bola is popular during Christmas in the Philippines, when Filipinos feast with family and friends. It is customarily served with jamón and pan de sal during the Noche Buena, the traditional feast taken around midnight of Christmas Eve and lasting until the early hours of Christmas Day; the cheese is associated with Christmas in Sweden and Norway due to its red color, is found on the Christmas Julbord buffet. Edam has been treated and humorously in a variety of cultural art forms. In the novel All Quiet on the Western Front, the main character believes its red outer covering is a sign of impending death, it is a wine flavour nuance in Sideways and an object of desire in the animated film Shopper 13. The book title East of Edam, a playful take on East of Eden by John Steinbeck, appears in the film Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit. Edam is a seriocomic pivot in the Australian film Three Dollars. Actor Jason Flemyng advertised Edam in the UK. Edam was tested by the MythBusters in episode 128 for its putative suitability as cannon ammunition against a ship's sail, but it bounced off the sail without damaging it.
List of cheeses Babybel
Maasdam cheese is a Swiss-style Dutch cheese. Made from cow's milk, it is aged for at least 4 weeks, it ripens faster than other Dutch cheeses. Maasdam has internal holes from the ripening process, a smooth, yellow rind. Sometimes, it is waxed like Gouda; the cheese was created to compete with Swiss Emmental by being less expensive and quicker to produce. In the process of making a cheese with the same general components as Swiss cheeses, the Dutch ended up with a cheese, nutty and sweet, but softer than Emmental due to a higher moisture content; the style was introduced in 1984 by the Baars company as the trademarked Leerdammer cheese, though it is now made by other Dutch companies under the name Maasdammer. It is called after the village of Maasdam in the province of Zuid-Holland. List of cheeses – A list of cheeses by place of origin Food portal
Kanterkaas is a Dutch yellow cheese made from cow's milk. Apart from the plain variety, there is Kanterkomijnekaas, flavored with cumin and Kanternagelkaas flavored with both cumin and cloves. Kanter is Dutch for'edge' and refers to the sharp angle at the point where the side of the cheese wheel meets the base, it was granted a Protected Designation of Origin by the European Union in 2000 and may only be produced in the province of Friesland and the Westerkwartier area. The unprotected name Frisian clove cheese is used for other Dutch cheeses which are similar to Kanternagelkaas. Kanterkaas has a flat cylindrical shape; the edge between the side and the base is rounded between the side and the top. Each cheese can weigh between 3 kg to 8.5 kg. The cheese is made in two fat content categories: 20+ and 40+. 20 + Kanterkaas contains a maximum of 25 % of fat in the dry matter. Twelve days after production, it must have a humidity content of not more than 48.5%. 40 + Kanterkaas has a fat content ranging between 44 % in the dry matter.
Twelve days after production, it must have a humidity content of not more than 41.5%. The rind of Kanterkaas and Kanternagelkaas may be'natural' or treated with a colorless or yellow coating material. In addition to these a red coating material may be used for Kanterkomijnekaas; the taste of the cheese changes noticeably as it ages. Plain kanterkaas has a sharp to strong flavor. Kanterkomijnekaas is fragrant, flavored and mild to strong. Kanternagelkaas tastes fragrant, flavored and sharp to strong