Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word stadium originated. In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the capacity is an actual building. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the venue is not officially considered a stadium. Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for football, or soccer. A large amount of sports venues are used for concerts. Stadium is the Latin form of the Greek word stadion, a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet, as feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion =600 ft, in a historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller. The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length — about 185 m -, the English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length.
Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, initially the Games consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the Stadium and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted a version of the Olympic Games in 1870,1875,1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, the first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872.
Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium and Anfield stadium. In the U. S. However, many of these caught fire. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some only a few years. Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world, walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
Cheney is a city in Spokane County, United States. The full-time resident population was 10,590 as of 2010 census, Eastern Washington University is located in Cheney, and its population grows to approximately 17,600 people on a temporary basis when classes at Eastern Washington University are in session. Named for Boston railroad tycoon Benjamin Pierce Cheney, Cheney was officially incorporated on November 28,1883, the City of Cheney is located in Spokane County and is home to 10,590 residents according to the 2010 Census. Cheney is proud of its small nature, which is enhanced by the diverse influence of Eastern Washington University. The Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League have held the majority of their training camps at EWU, from 1976–1985. Cheney developed into the city known today because of its ties to education, trail riding. This provided an economic base for the community and was the result of a much larger event that took place in the United States. In 1858, the last Indian uprising occurred in Eastern Washington, Cheney, a director of the Northern Pacific Railroad.
Benjamin P. Cheney was the eldest son of a blacksmith who was born in 1815 at Hillsborough, at age 16, he started work as a stagecoach driver between Nashua and Keene. Five years he had become an agent in Boston and soon organized an express between Boston and Montreal. The only time Cheney actually visited the town of Cheney was on September 18,1883, Cheney donated a few bucks to establish the Benjamin P. Cheney Academy in the town. The railroad donated 8 acres of land so that the facility could be built. In 1880 the railroad was graded through the town, and in 1883 the town was incorporated with the laid out in the shape of a triangle with the base parallel to the tracks. The railroad tracks were not in a true east-west line, however, so the town is askew with the map. After a stormy series of changes caused by legislative acts. Contenders for the honor were Cheney and Spokane Falls, Cheney received a majority of the votes, but because of alleged irregularities at the polls the election was won by Spokane Falls.
When this was taken to court, a court judge agreed to a ballot recount. Such recount failed to materialize and the citizens of Cheney took matters into their own hands, the Grand Steal was not contested and was confirmed by a court decision in 1881
Colin Murray Cowherd is an American sports media personality. Cowherd is the host of The Herd with Colin Cowherd on Fox Sports Radio and he is a host of Speak For Yourself - on FS1. While he was to leave at the end of the month, Cowherd was suspended from ESPN on July 24,2015, Cowherd was roommates with Coach Jim McElwain at Eastern Washington. Cowherd grew up in Grayland, Washington and he began his career as the play-by-play voice for the San Diego Padres Double-A affiliate Las Vegas Stars. He eventually became a director at KVBC in Las Vegas, Nevada. He served as sports anchor at WTVT in Tampa, Florida. In 1996, he moved to Portland, where he worked as an anchorman for KGW-TV. In 2001, The Herd moved from a time slot on all-sports radio KFXX to the morning drive time. In 2003, Cowherd was selected to replace Tony Kornheiser for the time slot on ESPN Radio. Cowherds show, The Herd with Colin Cowherd, is a talk radio show broadcast on Fox Sports Radio. From 2004 to 2015, it was transmitted to ESPN Radio affiliates throughout the United States, in 2008, the Herd added a simulcast on ESPNU.
The show features commentary on news, perspective on other news stories. Although a sports broadcast, he reflects on personal life. Demographics and regional preferences are frequent topics of his program, the majority of his conversations primarily center around the National Football League, college football, and the National Basketball Association. He, Michelle Beadle and Charissa Thompson co-hosted the TV show SportsNation on ESPN2 from 2009 to 2012, SportsNation was designed to take the pulse of the nation. Cowherd and Thompson were given two choices to select from and they attempted to determine which choice was the audiences favorite, Cowherd announced in September 2012 that he would be leaving the program, his last month as host was December 2012. Marcellus Wiley took over for Cowherd in January 2013, in fall 2013, Cowherd began hosting the ESPN Sunday morning pro and college football talk show Colins New Football Show. In 2013, Cowherds first book, You Herd Me, ill Say It If Nobody Else Will, was published
Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas and hard rock mining, the health care and government sectors are significant to the states economy.
Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan.
It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky Mountains
Albertsons Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium in the western United States, located on the campus of Boise State University in Boise, Idaho. It is the field of the Boise State Broncos of the Mountain West Conference. Known as Bronco Stadium for its first 44 seasons, it was renamed in May 2014 when Albertsons, opened 47 years ago in 1970, it was a track & field stadium and hosted the NCAA track & field championships twice, in 1994 and 1999. Albertsons Stadium is widely known for its unusual blue playing surface, installed in 1986 and it was the first non-green playing surface in football history and remained the only one among NCAA Division I FBS schools for over 20 years. Since 1997, it has hosted the Famous Idaho Potato Bowl, Albertsons Stadium is located at the east end of the BSU campus, bordered by Broadway Avenue to the east, University Drive to the south, and the Boise River to the north. The elevation of its field is 2,695 feet above sea level. Albertsons Stadium is the first venue to hold its name, when it was Bronco Stadium, it was the fourth venue and second of the same name at Boise State, the three on-campus stadiums were built in 1940,1950, and 1970, respectively.
During its first years at its campus, BJC football was played at Public School Field. The site was the home of East Junior High School from 1953 to 2009, after the college moved to its present campus in 1940, College Field opened in September 1940 with lights and a seating capacity of 1,000. Also called Chaffee Field, it was used through 1949 for junior college football, in the 1950s it became the baseball field, until right field was displaced by the construction of the Student Union Building, which opened in 1967. The baseball field migrated slightly east, until it was eliminated in 1980 by the construction of the BSU Pavilion and it was in approximately the same location as the present stadium, but aligned northwest to southeast. The 45° offset was designed to keep the sun of mid-October out of the players eyes. From the 1920s through 1968, the University of Idaho Vandals usually played one game per season in Boise. After Boise State joined the Big Sky in 1970, Idaho discontinued its practice of scheduling games in Boise.
The Boise College football program upgraded from college to four-year status in 1968. The school became Boise State College in 1969 and the Broncos were accepted into the NCAA in October, a month the school was voted into the Big Sky Conference, effective fall 1970. Following the 1969 football season, the first Bronco Stadium was razed in November, Boise State began NCAA competition in 1970 in the College Division in a brand new venue. The first game at the new Bronco Stadium was on September 11, the $2.2 million concrete stadium opened with a seating capacity of 14,500 and a green AstroTurf playing field, configured in the traditional north-south direction, and an all-weather running track
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earths oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales. The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change, the term above sea level generally refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a sea level is a difficult problem because of the many factors that affect sea level. Sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of time and this is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point, for example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point.
One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land, hence a change in MSL can result from a real change in sea level, or from a change in the height of the land on which the tide gauge operates. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the datum was MSL at the Victoria Dock, in Hong Kong, mPD is a surveying term meaning metres above Principal Datum and refers to height of 1. 230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and it is used for a part of continental Europe and main part of Africa as official sea level. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001, height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum.
It is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to sea level, and in the atmospheric sciences. An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, in aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is increasingly used to define heights, differences up to 100 metres exist between this ellipsoid height and mean tidal height. The alternative is to use a vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is typically illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, for one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Mountain West Conference
The Mountain West Conference is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the NCAA Division I FBS. The MW officially began operations in July 1999, the MW covers a broad expanse of the Western United States, with member schools located in California, Hawaii, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming. Craig Thompson has served as Commissioner of the MW since its founding in 1999, before forming the Mountain West Conference, seven of its eight charter members had been longtime members of the Western Athletic Conference. Half of these had been members of that conference from 1962. Overall, each school that has ever been either a full or football-only member of the MW spent at least three years in the WAC before joining the Mountain West, the 2013–14 academic year was the 15th anniversary season of the MW. The WAC, which had announced plans to expand beyond its then-current 10 members to at least 12. Ultimately, the WAC took in three of the four SWC schools left out of the Big 12 merger—Rice University, Southern Methodist University, the newly expanded WAC was soon wracked by tension between the established and new members.
The final straw came in spring 1998, when BYU and Utah proposed a permanent split into two eight-team divisions, the WACs 16 teams had been divided into four four-team quadrants, two of which rotated between the Mountain and Pacific Divisions every two years. A two-division setup would have forced some schools into an unnatural alignment because of the distribution of the conference. Air Force was the most strident opponent of this proposal, threatening to become an independent and they invited the WAC members New Mexico, San Diego State, and UNLV, to join them in what became the Mountain West Conference. The next move for the MW came in 2005, when the conference added TCU, on June 11,2010, Boise State University agreed to join the conference as its tenth member. On June 17,2010, Utah announced it would be leaving the Mountain West to join what would become the Pac-12 Conference, both schools accepted and would become the tenth and eleventh members of the league. BYU announced on August 31,2010 that it would leave the Mountain West Conference and go Independent in football, on November 29,2010, TCU announced all athletic teams would move to the Big East Conference effective in 2012.
On December 10,2010, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa accepted a bid to become the 10th member of the conference for football only and these changes would leave the Mountain West Conference with 10 teams for the 2012 football season. However, two of the three schools that qualified are no longer with the conference, on October 14,2011, the Mountain West and C-USA announced a plan for a football only alliance. However, when the two discussed their plans with the NCAA, they were told that due to NCAA rules. As a result, the Mountain West and C-USA backed away from a full merger, in the end, this alliance never materialized due to both conferences soon adding new teams. On May 2,2012, San Jose State and Utah State agreed to join the conference for the 2013–14 academic year
NCAA Division I
Division I is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. This level was called the University Division of the NCAA, in contrast to the lower level College Division. For football only, Division I was further subdivided in 1978 into Division I-A, Division I-AA, in 2006, Division I-A and I-AA were renamed Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision, respectively. FCS teams are allowed to award scholarships, a practice technically allowed. FBS teams have to meet attendance requirements, while FCS teams do not need to meet minimum attendance requirements. Another difference is post season play, starting with the 2014 postseason, a four-team playoff called the College Football Playoff, replaced the previous one game championship format. Even so, Division I FBS football is still the only NCAA sport in which a champion is not determined by an NCAA-sanctioned championship event. All D-I schools must field teams in at least seven sports for men and seven for women or six for men and eight for women, with at least two team sports for each gender.
Division I schools must meet minimum financial aid awards for their athletics program, Several other NCAA sanctioned minimums and differences that distinguish Division I from Divisions II and III. Each playing season has to be represented by each gender as well, there are contest and participant minimums for each sport, as well as scheduling criteria. Mens and womens teams have to play all but two games against Division I teams, for men, they must play one-third of all their contests in the home arena. The NCAA has limits on the financial aid each Division I member may award in each sport that the school sponsors. Equivalency sports, in which the NCAA limits the total financial aid that a school can offer in a sport to the equivalent of a set number of full scholarships. Roster limitations may or may not apply, depending on the sport, the term counter is key to this concept. The NCAA defines a counter as an individual who is receiving financial aid that is countable against the aid limitations in a sport.
The number of scholarships that Division I members may award in sport is listed below. In this table, scholarship numbers for head-count sports are indicated without a point, for equivalency sports, they are listed with a decimal point. An exception exists for players at non-scholarship FCS programs who receive aid in another sport, participants in basketball are counted in that sport, unless they play football