The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Grange-over-Sands is a town and civil parish located on the north side of Morecambe Bay in Cumbria, England. Part of Lancashire, the town was created as an urban district in 1894. Since 1974, following local government re-organisation, the town has been administered as part of the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, though it remains part of the Duchy of Lancaster, it had a population of 4,114 at the 2011 Census. Travelling by road, Grange Over Sands is 13.1 miles to the south of Kendal, 25 miles to the east of Barrow-in-Furness and 28.1 miles to the west of Lancaster. The town developed in the Victorian era from a small fishing village, the arrival of the railway made it a popular seaside resort on the north side of Morecambe Bay, across the sands from Morecambe. The'over-Sands' suffix was added in the late 19th or early 20th century by the local vicar, fed up with his post going to Grange in Borrowdale near Keswick. In 1932 a lido was built on the seafront, which remained in use until 1993.
In 2011 it was listed Grade II. There is a campaign to restore and re-open it; the River Kent used to flow past the town's mile-long promenade but its course migrated south, away from Grange. The sands or mudflats with dangerous quicksands became a grass meadow now grazed by small flocks of sheep. Following sustained easterly winds in the early part of 2007, the river began to switch its course back across the bay; the clean, sea air and local spring water were believed to be of benefit to tuberculosis sufferers, in 1891 one of the first sanatoriums in the country was established at Meathop. There is the Grange-over-Sands Church of England Primary School. There is no secondary school, so most pupils attend the nearby schools in either Cartmel or Milnthorpe; the town is a centre for tourists exploring the southern Lakeland fells, is home to a number of hotels, B&Bs and holiday properties. Within the town itself, there is a traffic-free promenade. Above the town is Hampsfield Fell, crowned by'Hampsfell Hospice', a sturdy limestone tower monument built in 1846 by the vicar of Cartmel.
This offers extensive views in better conditions. On the roof, a large compass pointer and list of peaks identify the greater and lesser landmarks in the panorama. Inside, painted boards commemorate its construction, praise the view and welcome the visitor. Hampsfell is the subject of a chapter of Wainwright's book The Outlying Fells of Lakeland, it reaches 727 feet. The summit of Hampsfell is surrounded by several incised areas of limestone pavement. Adjacent to Grange are Lindale, to the north-east, Cartmel to the north-west, with its priory to which the village was once the'grange' or farm, Allithwaite to the west; the country house Holker Hall, built on land which once belonged to the priory, is nearby. Until its move to Backbarrow in 2010, the stables at Holker Hall housed the Lakeland Motor Museum. Grange-over-Sands railway station, which serves the town, was opened by the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway on 1 September 1857 and is now served by the Furness Line, giving connections to Ulverston and Barrow-in-Furness to the west, Lancaster, Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Airport.
The main road access is the A590, which runs between the Barrow-in-Furness. Before the building of the railway, the main way of reaching Grange was the road across the Sands of Morecambe Bay from Hest Bank. In 2003 a new public swimming pool, the "Berners Pool", was opened; the pool, which cost £3.5 million, was designed by architects Hodder Associates and won a RIBA Design Award in 2004. However it suffered from high running costs and structural problems and was closed in 2006 when the Community Trust which ran it became insolvent, it was subsequently demolished in 2013 and replaced by affordable housing. A new pool and leisure centre was subsequently planned as part of the redevelopment of the Grange Lido site; however this development was opposed. As of September 2018, the future of the site was still being debated. A local free newspaper, Grange Now, which reports on local news, is published monthly and is delivered to over 5,000 homes on the Cartmel Peninsula. Listed buildings in Grange-over-Sands Grange Fell Church, Grange-over-Sands Welcome to Grange-over-Sands The Cumbria Directory - Grange-Over-Sands
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
The Furness line is a British railway between Barrow-in-Furness and Lancaster, joining the West Coast Main Line at Carnforth. A predominantly passenger line, it serves various towns along the Furness coast, including Barrow-in-Furness and Grange over Sands, it runs through Lancashire. Regional services on the line start from Manchester Airport and Preston, while local services start from Preston and Lancaster; the majority of services along the line terminate at Barrow-in-Furness, however some services continue along the Cumbrian Coast Line to Millom and Carlisle. The line was constructed by the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway and the Furness Railway between 1846 and 1857, today has services operated by Northern. Along with the Cumbrian Coast Line, the route is considered one of the most scenic in England; the line was designated a community rail partnership by the Department for Transport in 2012. The line is electrified between Lancaster and Carnforth where the route leaves the West Coast Main Line, which allowing for sleeper services between Barrow and London Euston.
The line was opened in stages between 1857 to link the mineral industries in the area. The area was isolated before the railway opened, with the only road crossing to reach the area over Morecambe Bay; the Furness Railway was first proposed in November 1843, linking the slate quarries of Kirkby in Furness and iron ore in the Lindal in Furness area to a deep water berth at Roa Island. It was intended to be used as a mineral railway, however provisions were made for a branch to Barrow and a link to Ulverston, the largest local town at the time; the line expanded to link up with what is today the Cumbrian Coast Line, in addition to an extension to Ulverston in 1854. In 1857, the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway completed its route, linking to the Carlisle and Lancaster Railway; the line began to expand, purchasing the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway. The railway company refused to purchase the Whitehaven Junction railway, leading to a situation where the Furness Railway was influenced by the London and North Western Railway.
The line continued to develop in the 1880s in the Barrow area. A through station was constructed, removing the need to reverse as was the case at the Strand terminus. A passenger station had been opened at Ramsden Dock a year before to connect with the new Isle of Man and Belfast steamer services. In the early 20th century, passenger numbers had continued to decline; as a result, an effort was made to modernise the line as a tourist railway, linking the country to the Lake District. This began a new era for the area, bringing thousands of tourists to Windermere. Under the Big Four, the line was brought under the control of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway on 31 December 1922; the Roa Island branch was closed in 1936, however the rest of the network remained open until the formation of British Railways. The Coniston branch closed in 1962 and the Lakeside branch in 1965, with part of the route being preserved as the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway. Sleeper services to London Euston ceased in 1990.
Following the privatisation of British Rail in the 1990s, services were transferred to First North Western. First TransPennine Express took over the operation of regional express services to Manchester and Preston in 2004, while local services were transferred to Northern Rail. Class 37 locomotives hauling Mark 2 carriages were used on the line between May 2015 and May 2018, operating through services along the Cumbrian Coast line due to a shortage in rolling stock following the move of Class 170'Turbostar' units to Chiltern Railways; the change was controversial locally as the trains were old, unreliable. Class 68 locomotives were introduced onto services temporarily in January 2018, until through running of loco-hauled stock ended in May 2018. Today, all services on the line are operated by Northern who operate a variety of regional express and local services to Lancaster and Manchester using a variety of Sprinter diesel multiple units and Class 185'Desiro' units subleased from TransPennine Express.
Following a recasting of rail franchises in the North of England by the Department for Transport, all services on the line are now operated by Northern. Regional services to Manchester and Preston were operated by First TransPennine Express until 31 March 2016, TransPennine Express Class 185s used by the previous franchise were used on some services to Manchester Airport by Northern; the line received a modernised timetable in May 2018, with additional services to Manchester Airport to be introduced in December 2018. The service is unusual amongst those on the West Coast Main Line as it does not yet have a clockface timetable; this means that there are several gaps in varying between 30 and 90 minutes. The new timetable was criticised by local schools due to the introduction of earlier services between Barrow and Ulverston. Following a recasting of rail franchises in the North of England by the Department for Transport, all services on the line were transferred to Northern in April 2015. Services operated by First TransPennine Express will be operated by new'Northern Connect' services from December 2019, enhancing the previous service with at least eight trains per day to Manchester Airport.
The enhanced service will use new, air-conditioned Class 195'Civity' units and offer free onboard WiFi and faster journey times. In addition to the introduction of Northern Connect services, an enhanced local service will be introduced with 21tpd in both directions, compared to between 18-20tpd today. Additional services are to be extended from Lancaster to Preston to allow better links to Manche
Morecambe Bay is a large estuary in northwest England, just to the south of the Lake District National Park. It is the largest expanse of intertidal mudflats and sand in the United Kingdom, covering a total area of 310 km2. In 1974, the second largest gas field in the UK was discovered 25 miles west of Blackpool, with original reserves of over 7 trillion cubic feet. At its peak, 15 % of Britain's gas supply came from the bay, it one of the homes of the high brown fritillary butterfly. The rivers Leven, Keer and Wyre drain into the Bay, with their various estuaries making a number of peninsulas within the bay. Much of the land around the bay is reclaimed. Morecambe Bay is an important wildlife site, with abundant birdlife and varied marine habitats, there is a bird observatory at Walney Island; the bay has rich cockle beds. There are seven main islands in all to the north. Walney is larger than the others, with its southern tip marking the north-western corner of the Bay. Sheep, Piel and Foulney Islands are tidal and can be walked to at low tide with appropriate care.
Local guidance should be sought if walking to Chapel or Piel islands as fast tides and quicksand can be dangerous. Roa Island is linked to the mainland by a causeway, while Barrow Island has been connected to the mainland as part of the docks system at Barrow-in-Furness; the extensive sandflats are the remains of a vast sandur or outwash plain established by meltwaters as the last ice age waned. Sea-level was still some 3m below present day levels at the start of the Holocene some 11,000 years ago; the Greek geographer and astronomer Claudius Ptolemy referred in his writings to Morikambe eischusis as a location on Britain's west coast, lying between the Ribble and the Solway. Sixteenth century scholar William Camden identified the locality as being near Silloth, hence the similar name of that bay but the eighteenth century antiquarian John Horsley who translated Ptolemy into English in 1732 favoured it being the bay on the Lancashire/Cumberland border. In 1771 historian John Whitaker took up this latter suggestion and the name appeared on maps subsequently.
The first recorded to do so being one associated with Father Thomas West's Antiquities of Furness of 1774. Camden believed the name originated with two words meaning crooked sea whilst West offered up white/beautiful haven though current thought is that it refers to a curve of the sea. There have been royally appointed local guides for crossing the bay for centuries; this difficulty of crossing the bay added to the isolation of the land to its north which, due to the presence of the mountains of the Lake District, could only be reached by crossing these sands or by ferry, until the Furness Railway was built in 1857. This skirts the edge of the bay; the London-Glasgow railway briefly runs alongside the bay - the only place where the West Coast Main Line runs alongside the coast. The bay is notorious for its quicksand and fast moving tides. On the night of 5 February 2004, at least 21 Chinese immigrant cockle pickers drowned after being cut off by the tides; this tragedy led some commentators to suggest that the cockle beds should be closed until improved safety measures could be introduced.
Morecambe Bay is home to several of the UK's offshore wind farms: West of Duddon Sands, Burbo Bank, Walney and Ormonde. Some 319,100 people live along the coastline of Morecambe Bay, with many of these people residing in the towns listed in the table below; the largest town in the vicinity of the bay is Barrow-in-Furness located to its west, whilst the town which adopted its name from the bay follows. Morecambe relied on the bay for many years, as a popular seaside holiday destination, whilst Barrow still relies on the seas for a large percentage of its economy - ship and submarine construction; the bay has Britain's second-largest natural gas field, in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone with a seal of Mercia Mudstone and a Carboniferous source. The South Morecambe Field, covering an area of 32 square miles, was discovered in 1974 and the first gas came ashore in 1985; the North Morecambe Field, found in 1976, 8 miles to the north, is 11 square miles and started production in 1994. Both are operated by Centrica Energy.
They are 25 miles west of Blackpool in 30 metres of water. The combined gas reserves on discovery were estimated at 179 billion cubic metres. A further 0.65tcf is recognised in the satellite fields of Bains, Dalton, Millom East and Millom West, a number of smaller fields have been identified. The gas is landed at three terminals at Westfield Point in Barrow-in-Furness, collectively referred to as the Rampside Gas Terminal; the South Morecambe Central Processing Complex is connected via a 36-inch pipeline to the South Morecambe terminal. North Morecambe gas has a different composition so the unmanned Drilling and Production Platform is linked by a separate 36" wet sealine to the North Morecambe Terminal, where it is stripped of water, CO2 and nitrogen; the Rivers Terminal has a dedicated pipeline for sour gas from the Calder field, which must be stripped of hydrogen sulphide before processing by the North Morecambe Terminal. The hydrogen sulphide is converted to sulphuric ac
The Hundred of Roose was a hundred in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It has its origins in the pre-Norman cantref of Rhos and was formalised as a hundred by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, its area was about 102 square miles. The area became an English "plantation" in the 12th century, part of the English-speaking Little England beyond Wales; the name Roose is derived from the earlier Welsh name Rhos, describing its position nearly surrounded by water. It is bounded to the east by the tidal Western Cleddau, south by Milford Haven and west by St. Brides Bay. Rhos locally means "promontory"; the English form is a corruption of the Welsh. The pre-Norman Cantref of Rhos was a Medieval administrative division, which became the Hundred of Roose and was formalised by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542; the pre-Norman history of the cantref is uncertain. It had been popularly assumed that the chief town of Haverfordwest does not pre-date the Norman conquest; however archaeological discoveries in Pembrokeshire as early as the 1920s by Sir Mortimer Wheeler at Wolfscastle earlier Iron Age and Roman coinage and artefact discoveries, recent excavations by the Dyfed Archaeological Trust under the direction of Heather James at Carmarthen in the 1980s point convincingly to Roman penetration to the westernmost parts of Wales.
A Roman road running west of Carmarthen has been identified with the possibility of Roman Fortlets at Whitland and Haverfordwest. The strategic position of Haverfordwest with its defensive bluff overlooking the lowest fordable point on the Western Cleddau accessible to sea traffic suggest a Roman origin modest in scale for the town from about 96 AD; the ecclesiastical centre was one of the several churches of the local St. Ismael, most St. Ishmael's; the hundred, with its capital at Haverfordwest was the original centre of the Norman/English "plantation" in the 12th century, it has been English-speaking since forming the core of Little England beyond Wales. The cantref was said in the post-Norman period to be divided into two or three commotes; the Red Book of Hergest mentions Castell Gwalchmei commote. The former is an English name, the "commotes" correspond to the Norman lordships; the northern part of Hwlffordd commote was sometimes distinguished as Roch commote. None of these is to be a real native Welsh subdivision, the small Cantref of Rhos was not divided into commotes.
The fragmentary Norman lordships are shown in the map. Rhos