SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rooster

A rooster is a male gallinaceous bird, known as a cockerel or cock, with cockerel being younger and rooster being an adult male chicken. The term "rooster" originated in the United States as a puritan euphemism to avoid the sexual connotation of the original English "cock", is used throughout North America. "Roosting" is the action of perching aloft to sleep at night, done by both sexes. Sperm transfer occurs by cloacal contact between the male and female, in a maneuver known as the “cloacal kiss”; the rooster can not guard several nests of eggs at once. He guards the general area where his hens are nesting, attacks other roosters that enter his territory. During the daytime, a rooster sits on a high perch 0.9 to 1.5 m off the ground, to serve as a lookout for his group. He sounds a distinctive alarm call if predators are nearby and will crow to assert his territory. Roosters always start crowing before four months of age. Although it is possible for a hen to crow as well, crowing is one of the clearest signs of being a rooster.

The rooster is portrayed as crowing at the break of dawn. However, while many roosters crow shortly after waking up, this idea is not true. A rooster will crow at any time of the day; some roosters are vociferous, crowing constantly, while others only crow a few times a day. These differences are dependent both upon individual personality. A rooster can be seen sitting on fence posts or other objects, where he crows to proclaim his territory. Roosters have several other calls as well, can cluck, similar to the hen. Roosters make a patterned series of clucks to attract hens to a source of food, the same way a mother hen does for her chicks. Rooster crowing contests are a traditional sport in several countries, such as Germany, the Netherlands, the United States and Japan; the oldest contests are held with longcrowers. Depending on the breed, either the duration of the crowing or the times the rooster crows within a certain time is measured. A capon is a castrated rooster. In the caponization procedure, the bird's testes are removed.

As a result of this procedure, certain male physical characteristics will experience stunted development: The comb and wattles cease growing after castration, giving a capon's head a dwarfed appearance. The hackle and saddle feathers grow unusually long. Caponization affects the disposition of the bird. Removal of the bird's testes eliminates the male sex hormones, lessening the male sex instincts and changing their behaviour: the birds become more docile, less active, tend not to fight; this procedure produces a unique type of poultry meat, favoured by a specialized market. The meat of normal uncastrated roosters has a tendency to become coarse and tough as the birds age; this process does not occur in the capon. As caponized roosters grow more than intact males, they accumulate more body fat; the concentration of fat in both the light and dark areas of the capon meat is greater than in that of the uncastrated males. Overall, it is thought that capon meat is more tender and flavorful than regular chicken.

A cockfight is a contest held in a ring called a cockpit between two gamecocks or cocks, with the first use of the word gamecock appearing in 1646. After the term "cock of the game" used by George Wilson, in the earliest known book on the secular sport of cockfighting in The Commendation of Cocks and Cock Fighting in 1607. Gamecocks are not typical farm chickens; the cocks are specially trained for increased stamina and strength. The comb and wattle are removed from a young gamecock because, if left intact, they would be a disadvantage during a match; this process is called dubbing. Sometimes the cocks are given drugs to increase their stamina or thicken their blood, which increases their chances of winning. Cockfighting is considered a traditional sporting event by some, an example of animal cruelty by others and is therefore outlawed in most countries. Wagers are made on the outcome of the match, with the surviving or last-bird-standing being declared the winner. There are religious significance and aspects of the rooster and the cockfight which are exampled by the religious belief of Tabuh Rah, a religious and spiritual cockfight where a rooster is used in religious custom by allowing him to fight against another rooster in the Balinese Hinduism spiritual appeasement exercise of Tabuh Rah, a form of animal sacrifice, where ritual fights take place outside the temple and follow an ancient and complex ritual as set out in the sacred lontar manuscripts.

Within the religious schema of Christianity and the cockfight within a religious and sacred context, there are numerous representations of the rooster or the cock and the cockfight as a religious vessel found in the Catacombs from the earliest period as well as similar illustrations of cocks in fighting stance taken from the Vivian Bible. The cockerel "waltz", when the cockerel struts in a half circle with one wing extended down, is an aggressive approach signifying to females his dominance, the female will submit by running or moving away from the cockerel in acknowledgement. On rare occasions, the hen will attempt to fight the cockerel for dominance. Once dominance is established, the cockerel will waltz again; when other cockerels are in the hen yard, this waltz is used m

Erie Maritime Museum

Erie Maritime Museum is a maritime museum located on Presque Isle Bay which rests on the waterfront in downtown Erie, Pennsylvania. It is managed by the Pennsylvania Museum Commission; when it opened its doors on May 21, 1998, it became the first new Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission-affiliated museum in twenty years. Alongside its extensive indoor exhibits, it serves as the homeport for the US Brig Niagara, a modern recreation of the 1813-US Brig Niagara which served as Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's relief flagship during the Battle of Lake Erie. While the museum focuses on the War of 1812 in the "frontier", it is designed to celebrate Erie's rich maritime heritage; the Erie Maritime Museum is administered by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and is partnered with the Flagship Niagara League, a 501 non-profit, educational associate, chartered by the PHMC to facilitate the brig Niagara. The Erie Maritime Museum is housed inside the former Penelec Front Street Station.

From 1917 until the 1980s, the building was used to generate Erie, Pennsylvania's electricity and steam heat. Inside were five coal-fired steam generators. Remnants of Penelec's presence on the property can be found to this day. Visitors to the museum can view the original smoke stack. Additionally, once inside, guests are able to view a General Electric steam-powered generator and the station's original crane, which still works today; when Penelec decided to shut down their Front Street operation, the goal was to tear down the structure. Plans changed; when the current version of the US Brig Niagara was completed in 1990, it needed a new home. In 1993, Niagara was berthed at the end of Holland Street, just to the east of its current location. In 1997 the Erie Maritime Museum began constructing its exhibits and displays. In May 1998, Niagara was moved to her current home and the Erie Maritime Museum opened its doors; the museum offers a wide range of multimedia and interactive exhibits coupled with interpretive programs that illustrate the region's maritime heritage.

When in homeport, the Niagara herself is the major "exhibit". Berthed within yards of the museum, Niagara is visible from the building's bay side picture window; the present-day Niagara is a sail training vessel, meaning she is not always present at the museum for deck tours. Oftentimes during the warmer months, she can be found in ports across the Great Lakes. Former General Electric steam-powered electricity generating station from the Pennsylvania Electric Company's Front Street station. Julian Oliver Davidon's epic painting of the Battle of Lake Erie is on display on the main floor; the 54-by-102-inch masterpiece focuses on the climax of the Battle of Lake Erie. Painted from 1885–87, the artwork captures the Brig Niagara, "Crossing the T" and opening fire on both HMS Detroit and Queen Charlotte thereby leading to the British surrender at Put-In-Bay, the first time in world history that an entire British squadron surrendered to their enemy; the Battle of Lake Erie exhibit covers a thematic background, featuring information about the issues behind the War of 1812, size differences between the American and Canadian forces and why Erie, Pennsylvania was chosen for building the American Great Lakes fleet.

The centerpiece exhibit on the first floor of the museum features a reconstruction of the midships section of USS Lawrence. The replicated Lawrence, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's first flagship during the Battle of Lake Erie, comes complete with mast and rigging to foster hands-on learning in the ways of sail handling. Another display is the adjoining section of the Lawrence' replica, blasted with live ammunition from the current Niagara's own carronades at the National Guard training facility in Fort Indiantown Gap, near Harrisburg; this "live fire" exhibit of Lawrence recreates the carnage inflicted upon both ships and men during the Battle of Lake Erie and throughout the Age of Fighting Sail. Fighting Sail presents a life size upper-portion of a working mast taken directly from Niagara; this exhibit focuses on the construction of wooden sailing vessels, shipboard life, 19th Century Navy medicine, a gun deck recreation from Lawrence, building tools and more. USS Wolverine, the United States Navy's first iron-hulled warship and 19th-20th century Navy.

Other exhibits inside the museum include: Model Making and Lifesaving in Erie, Lake Erie Fishing Industry, Joe Divell's Lake Diving, Maritime Archaeology, US Brig Niagara Reconstruction, etc. The museum, which adjoins the Raymond Blasco Erie County Library, is located at 150 East Front St. List of maritime museums in the United States List of museum ships Erie Maritime Museum website

Incas in Central Chile

Inca rule in Chile was brief. The main settlements of the Inca Empire in Chile lay along the Aconcagua and Maipo rivers. Quillota in Aconcagua Valley was the Incas' foremost settlement; the bulk of the people conquered by the Incas in Central Chile were Diaguitas and part of the Promaucae. The exact date of the conquest of Central Chile by the Inca Empire is not known. A study of ceramics from 2014 suggest Inca influence in Central Chile begun as early as 1390, it is accepted that Central Chile was conquered during the reign of Topa Inca Yupanqui and most early Spanish chronicles point out that conquest occurred in the 1470s. Beginning with 19th-century historians Diego Barros Arana and José Toribio Medina, various scholars have pointed out that the incorporation of Central Chile to the Inca Empire was a gradual process, it is accepted that incorporation into the empire was through warfare which caused a severe depopulation in the Transverse Valleys of Norte Chico, the Diaguita homeland. Chronicler Diego de Rosales tells of an anti-Inca rebellion in the Diaguita lands of Coquimbo and Copiapó concurrent with the Inca Civil War.

This rebellion would have been brutally repressed by the Incas who gave rebels "great chastise". One theory claims Central Chile was conquered by the Inca Empire from the east after Inca troops crossed the Andes at Valle Hermoso and Uspallata Pass; this attack from the east would have been done in order to avoid the more direct but inhospitable routes crossing the Atacama Desert. José Toribio Medina claimed in 1882 that the Incas entered Central Chile from both east. Troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached Maule River and had a battle with Mapuches from Maule River and Itata River there. Yet, the location of the battle is uncertain with historian Osvaldo Silva conjecturing it close to Concepción; the battle of Maule refers to a battle that took place in connection to Incan expansion into Central Chile. The main account is that of Garcilaso de la Vega a chronicler of Spanish descent. Historian Osvaldo Silva disputes the vacinities of Maule River as the location of the battle claiming instead that the battle could have occurred anywhere between Maipo and Bío Bío rivers, while he is inclined locate to battle close to Concepción at the mouth of Bío Bío River.

The traditional view based on the writings of Garcilaso de la Vega hold that the battle of the Maule halted Inca advance. However, Osvaldo Silva suggest instead that it was the social and political framework of the Mapuche that posed the main difficulty in imposing imperial rule. After securing the regions of northern Chile, Copiapó, Coquimbo and the Maipo Valley around what is now Santiago, the Inca general Sinchiruca sent 20,000 men down to the valley of the Maule River; the Picunche people, who inhabited this last region south of Maipo Valley up to the Itata River, refused to submit to the rule of the Inca and called on their allies south of the Maule. This defiance gave them their distinctive name of Purumaucas from the quechua purum awqa meaning "savage enemy"; the Spanish corrupted the name into Promaucaes. The Incas crossed the Maule River, keeping their old custom, they sent messengers to require these Purumaucas to submit to the rule of the Inca or resort to arms; the Purumaucas had determined to die before losing their freedom and responded that the victors would be masters of the defeated and that the Incas would see how the Purumaucas obeyed.

Three or four days after this answer, the Purumaucas and their allies arrived and camped in front of the Incas' camp with 18,000 - 20,000 warriors. The Incas tried diplomacy, offering peace and friendship, claiming they were not going to take their land and property but to give them a way to live as men; the Purumaucas responded saying that they came not to waste time in vain words and reasoning, but to fight until they won or died. The Incas promised battle the next day; the following day both armies left their camps and fought all day without either gaining an advantage and both suffering many wounded and dead. At night they both retired to their positions. On the second and third day they fought with the same results. At the end of the third day of battle, both factions saw that they had lost more than half their number in dead, the living were all wounded. On the fourth day, neither side left their own camp, fortified, as they hoped to defend them if their opponents attacked; the fifth and sixth days were passed in the same manner but by the seventh the Purumaucas and their allies retired and returned home claiming victory.

The southern border of the Inca Empire is believed by most modern scholars to be situated between Santiago and Maipo River or somewhere between Santiago and Maule River. The traditional view among Chilean historians and historians of the Inca Empire is that Maule River was the frontier; this view was first presented by William Prescott in 1847 and followed by Miguel Luis Amunátegui, Diego Barros Arana, Ricardo E. Latcham, Francisco Antonio Encina and Grete Mostny. Contrary to this, a frontier at Maipo River was first argued in modern times by José Toribio Medina in 1882 and joined by Jaime Eyzaguirre; some early Spanish conquistadors suggest the Maipo River or a nearby area as boundary including Pedro Mariño de Lobera, Hernando de Santillán, Gerónimo de Quiroga, Jerónimo de Vivar and Pedro de Valdivia's letter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. On the other hand, Spanish chroniclers Miguel de Olavarría and Diego de Rosales claimed instead the Inca frontier lay much more to the south at the Bío Bí