Lattice truss bridge
A lattice bridge is a form of truss bridge that uses a large number of small and spaced diagonal elements that form a lattice. Bridges of this type were patented in the 19th century by architect Ithiel Town, are sometimes called Town lattice trusses. A design to allow a substantial bridge to be made from planks employing lower–skilled labor, rather than heavy timbers and more expensive carpenters, this type of bridge has been constructed using a large number of light iron or steel members; the individual elements are more handled by the construction workers, but the bridge requires substantial support during construction. A simple lattice truss will transform the applied loads into a thrust, as the bridge will tend to change length under load; this is resisted by pinning the lattice members to the top and bottom chords, which are more substantial than the lattice members, but which may be fabricated from small elements rather than large beams. The Belfast truss is a cross between the bowstring truss.
It was developed in Ireland. McTear & Co of Belfast, Ireland began fabricating these trusses in wood starting around 1866. By 1899, spans of 24 meters had been achieved, in the 20th century and airplane hangars demanded greater clear spans. Bartonsville Covered Bridge Brown Covered Bridge Burt Henry Covered Bridge Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge Euharlee Covered Bridge Kingsley Covered Bridge Poole's Mill Covered Bridge Root Road Covered Bridge Waterford Covered Bridge Watson Mill Covered Bridge Windsor Mills Covered Bridge Worrall Covered Bridge Frankenfield Covered Bridge Zehnder's Holz Brucke Howard Carroll built the first wrought-iron lattice truss bridge; this was built for the New York Central Railroad in 1859. Bennerley Viaduct Bridge in Brown Township Dowery Dell Viaduct known as Hunnington or Frankley Viaduct Kew Railway Bridge Norwottuck Rail Trail Bridge Willow Creek Bridge, in Pierce County, Nebraska Upper Slate Run Bridge, a'quintangular' lattice truss in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania Lattice girder Brown truss Picture and description of Town's lattice truss Watson Mill Bridge, Georgia, US
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
A covered bridge is a timber-truss bridge with a roof and siding, which in most covered bridges, create an complete enclosure. The purpose of the covering is to protect the wooden structural members from the weather. Uncovered wooden bridges have a lifespan of only 20 years because of the effects of rain and sun, but a covered bridge could last 100 years; the oldest surviving truss bridge in the world is the Kapellbrücke in Switzerland. Modern-style timber truss bridges were pioneered in Switzerland in the mid-1700s; the first known covered bridge constructed in the United States was the Permanent Bridge, completed in 1805 to span the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The structure endured beyond the estimate of 40 years offered by its architect, only being taken down in 1850 to make way for a new bridge more conducive to carrying railroad tracks. About 1,500 covered bridges were built from 1820 and 1900, most were built from 1825 and 1875; the longest built was over the Susquehanna River at 5,960 feet.
Built in 1814, it was washed away in the freshets of 1832. In total, more than 12,000 covered bridges have been built in the United States, about 3,500 of which in Ohio. In the mid-1800s, the development of cheaper wrought iron and cast iron led to metal rather than timber trusses. Metal structures did not need protection from the elements, so no longer needed to be covered; the bridges became obsolete because most were single-lane, had low width and height clearances, could not support the heavy loads of modern traffic. In 1900, Quebec had an estimated 1000 covered bridges. Relative to the rest of North America, Quebec was late in building covered bridges, with the busiest decade for construction being the 1930s; the designs were varied, but around 1905, the design was standardised to the Town québécois, a variant on the lattice truss patented by Ithiel Town in 1820. About 500 of these were built in the first half of the 1900s; the last bridge was built by the Ministry of Colonisation in 1958 in Lebel-sur-Quévillon.
In 1900, New Brunswick had about 400 covered bridges. Today, there are 58. Between 1969 and 2015, the number of surviving covered bridges in Canada declined from about 400 to under 200. Covered bridges are structures with longitudinal timber-trusses which form the bridge's backbone; some were built as railway bridges, using heavy timbers and doubled up lattice work. Most bridges were built to cross streams, the majority had just a single span. All contained a single lane. A few two-lane bridges were built, having a central truss. Many different truss designs were used. One of the most popular designs was the Burr Truss, patented in 1817, which used an arch to bear the load, while the trusses kept the bridge rigid. Other designs included the King, Queen and Howe trusses. Early trusses were designed without an understanding of the engineering dynamics at work. In 1847, American engineer Squire Whipple published the first correct analysis of the way a load is carried through the truss, which enabled him to design stronger bridges with fewer materials.
About 1600 covered bridges remain in the world. The small number of surviving bridges is due to deliberate replacement and the high cost of restoration, they tend to be in isolated places which makes them subject to arson. The oldest covered bridges in America date back to the 1820s: 1825: Hyde Hall and Hassenplug bridges in New York and Pennsylvania 1829: Haverhill-Bath in New Hampshire and Roberts bridges in OhioAs of 2018, fewer than 1,000 authentic covered bridges are left in the United States. New Brunswick, has 58 covered bridges, including the world's longest, the Hartland Bridge. With 82 covered bridges in Quebec, Transports Québec considers the Félix-Gabriel-Marchand Bridge, the province's longest covered bridge, to be an important tourist attraction. In addition to being practical, covered bridges were popular venues for a variety of social activities and are enduring cultural icon; the Edgar Allan Poe story "Never Bet the Devil Your Head" Plot points in the 1988 comedy films Beetlejuice and Funny Farm refer to them.
Diehls Covered Bridge in Pennsylvania is featured in the opening scenes of The 1980's Anthology Horror Television Series Tales from the Darkside that ran, created by George Romero. Covered Bridge Map, an interactive map showing locations of covered bridges in the United States and Canada
Ashtabula County, Ohio
Ashtabula County is the northeasternmost county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,497; the county seat is Jefferson. The county was created in 1808 and organized in 1811; the name Ashtabula derives from Lenape language ashte-pihële,'always enough to go around, to be given away'. Ashtabula County comprises the Ashtabula, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Cleveland–Akron–Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area; the county is best known for having nineteen covered bridges within the county limits, including both the longest and the shortest covered bridges in the United States. Grapes are a popular crop and there are several award-winning wineries in the region owing to the favorable microclimate created by the nearby lake. During the winter, Ashtabula County receives frequent lake-effect snow and is part of the Southeastern Lake Erie Snowbelt. After Europeans arrived in the Americas, the land that became Ashtabula County was part of the French colony of Canada, ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec.
In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,368 square miles, of which 702 square miles is land and 666 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Ohio by area. Across Lake Erie lie Elgin and Norfolk Counties, Canada. Erie County, Pennsylvania Crawford County, Pennsylvania Trumbull County Geauga County Lake County As of the census of 2000, there were 102,728 people, 39,397 households, 27,774 families residing in the county; the population density was 146 people per square mile. There were 43,792 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.07% White, 3.16% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. 2.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
19.3% were of German, 11.6% Italian, 10.6% English, 10.5% Irish, 10.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.2% spoke English, 2.4% Spanish, 0.8% German as their first language. There were 39,397 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,607, the median income for a family was $42,449.
Males had a median income of $33,105 versus $22,624 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,814. About 9.20% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 101,497 people, 39,363 households, 26,495 families residing in the county; the population density was 144.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 46,099 housing units at an average density of 65.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.7% white, 3.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.1% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.9% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 12.6% were English, 11.1% were Italian, 10.0% were American, 5.8% were Polish. Of the 39,363 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 41.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,139 and the median income for a family was $50,227. Males had a median income of $40,879 versus $30,156 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,898. About 11.8% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.7% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Ashtabula County had voted for the Democratic candidate for president in every election between 1988–2012. Trump captured the largest majority in the county since President Nixon in 1972 & he is the first Republican presidential candidate to carry Ashtabula County since 1984. Trump is the first candidate to speak in the county since John F. Kennedy. Ashtabula County fostered a large Finnish American community around the turn of the twentieth century, as a result, the area is home to many Finnish Americans. Ashtabula County has eighteen extant covered bridges.
Of these, nine were constructed prior to 1900. See List of Ashtabula County