Roque del Este
Roque del Este is a small uninhabited island in the Canary Islands, located 11 kilometres northeast of the island of Lanzarote. The island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago, administratively part of the municipality of Teguise. Roque del Este is the easternmost island of the Chinijo archipelago, it is the second smallest. Like the rest of the Canary Islands, it is of volcanic origin, its highest point is 84 m. The island is part of the integral nature reserve Los Islotes, part of the natural park Chinijo Archipelago. Media related to Roque del Este at Wikimedia Commons
The Chinijo archipelago is an archipelago located in the northeastern part of the Canary Islands, north of the island of Lanzarote. The archipelago includes the islands of Montaña Clara, Graciosa, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste; the archipelago belongs to the municipality of Teguise. La Graciosa is the only inhabited island; the population is around 700. The archipelago is part of the natural park Parque natural del Archipiélago Chinijo, designated in 1986; the natural park, total area 91.12 km2 includes part of the rocky north coast of the island Lanzarote. The area of the natural park overlaps with that of a separately designated marine reserve; the European Union designated a Special Protection Area for birds in 1994. Media related to Chinijo Archipielago at Wikimedia Commons
Gran Canaria, is the second most populous of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa, part of Spain. As of 2018 the island had a population of 846,717 that constitutes 40% of the population of the archipelago. Gran Canaria is located in the Atlantic Ocean about 150 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Africa and about 1,350 km from Europe. With an area of 1,560 km2 and an altitude of 1,956 m at the Pico de las Nieves, Gran Canaria is the third largest island of the archipelago in both area and altitude. Gran Canaria is the third most populated island in Spain after Tenerife and Mallorca. In Ancient History, Gran Canaria was populated by the North African Canarii, who may have arrived as early as 500 BC; the Canarii called the island Tamarán. In the Medieval period, after over a century of European incursions and attempts at conquest, the island was conquered on April 29, 1483 by the Crown of Castile, under Queen Isabella I; the conquest succeeded after a campaign that lasted five years, it was an important step towards the expansion of the unified Spain.
The capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was founded on June 24, 1478, under the name "Real de Las Palmas", by Juan Rejón, head of the invading Castilian army. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the Port of Las Palmas on his first trip to the Americas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is, jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. Gran Canaria is located west of Fuerteventura; the island is of volcanic origin made of fissure vents. Gran Canaria's surface area is 1,560 km² and its maximum elevation is 1,949 metres, it has a round shape, with a diameter of 50 km. About 80% of the volume of the island was formed during the Miocene period eruptions, between 14 and 9 million years ago; this is called the "Old Cycle" and is estimated to have lasted some 200,000 years and have emitted about 1000 km3 of fissural alkali basalt. This cycle continued with the emission of trachytes and peralkaline rocks; this period was followed by one of erosion.
A second cycle of volcanic eruptions, known as the "Roque Nublo cycle", took place between 4.5 and 3.4 million years ago. This shorter cycle emitted about 100 km3. Most of the inland peaks were formed by erosion from these materials; this period started with fissural basalts, but ended with violent eruptions of pyroclastic flows. Some phonolitic features, like the Risco Blanco, were formed in its last stages; the third or recent cycle is held to have started some 2.8 million years ago and is considered to be still active. The last eruptions are held to have occurred some 3500 years ago; the changes in volume and, weight of the island have caused the island to rise above the previous sea level during erosive periods and to sink during eruptive periods. Some of these "fossil beaches" can be seen in the cliff faces of the more eroded northern coast; until the conquest, Gran Canaria had extensive forests, but suffered extensive deforestation as a result of continuous logging, land divisions and other intensive uses.
This reduced the forest cover to just 56,000 hectares, making the island the most deforested of the Canary Islands. However, in the twentieth century reforestation of the ridge of the island was begun, recovering some of the lost forest mass. Much of the summit of the island is forested due to reforestation. Gran Canaria is in the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, it lies within the Province of Las Palmas, a Spanish province which consists of the eastern part of the Canary Islands community. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is the provincial capital, one of the two capitals of the Canary Islands along with Santa Cruz de Tenerife; the island of Gran Canaria is governed by the Cabildo insular de Gran Canaria. Gran Canaria itself is divided into twenty-one smaller municipalities: The island has a population of 846,717 with 378,628 of those in the capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Gran Canaria is the second most populous island of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife. Gran Canaria has roads extending into the mountain areas.
In the late 20th century, its motorways, among the first in the Canary Islands, were opened and run around Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, were extended to the north coast and the airport and subsequently to the south coast in response to increased tourist traffic. The high-speed motorways are GC1, GC2, GC31, dual carriageways GC4 and GC5; the western and the north-western parts, with the fewest inhabitants, are linked only with main roads. Public transport around Gran Canaria is provided by an extensive bus network, known in the local dialect as guaguas; the Autoridad Única del Transporte de Gran Canaria manages the network and operates a number of bus stations across the island, including San Telmo and Santa Catalina bus stations in Las Palmas and Galdar. Bus tickets may be purchased with cash, AUTGC operates a contactless electronic ticket called the TransGC Card, valid across the whole network. Inter-urban bus services across the island are operated by the Global bus company. Global was created in 2000 after the merger of two bus companies and Salcai.
Local bus services in Las Palmas are run by the municipal bus company, Guaguas Municipales de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Gran C
Montaña Clara is a small uninhabited islet belonging to the Chinijo Archipelago, in the northeastern part of the Canary Islands, only a short distance northwest of La Graciosa. The islet area is only 1.33 km². The highest point of the island is 256 m above sea level. Being a refuge for marine birds, the island is part of the integral nature reserve Los Islotes, part of the natural park Chinijo Archipelago. In August 2007 the island was offered for sale by the heirs to the last owner, Mariano López Socas, mayor of a small Lanzarote town. Parque Natural del Archipiélago Chinijo.
Province of Tenerife
Province of Tenerife Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, is a province of Spain, consisting of the western part of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. It consists of about half of the Atlantic archipelago: the islands of Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Palma, it occupies an area of 3,381 km². It includes a series of adjacent roques, its capital is the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the island of Tenerife. In 2008 the province had 1,018,510 inhabitants and a density of 313.57 /km², making it the province of Spain with the sixth highest population density, higher than that of the province of Las Palmas. 24% live in the capital. Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the capital of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands. There are 54 municipalities in the province. Tenerife is the most populated island in the province of the Canary Islands and most populous island of Spain; the island of Tenerife has the highest altitude of Spain. Earlier issued vehicle license plates in this province bear the first two letters "TF".
Nowadays the plates share the same numbering system as in mainland Spain. This province was established in 1927, when the Canarias province was divided into two provinces: Las Palmas and the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. In 1982, both provinces became part of the newly founded autonomous community of the Canary Islands; this province contains three of Spain's national parks, more than any other province: the Caldera de Taburiente National Park on La Palma, the Garajonay National Park on La Gomera, the Teide National Park on Tenerife, encompassing Teide, Spain's highest mountain and an inactive volcano. Mount Teide: is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, its 3,718-metre -high summit is the highest point in Spain, the highest point above sea level in the islands of the Atlantic, it is the third highest volcano in the world measured from its base on the ocean floor, after Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea located in Hawaii. The volcano and its surroundings comprise the Teide National Park, is one of the most visited National Parks in the world, with a total of 2.8 million visitors, according to the Instituto Canario de Estadística.
The park has an area of 18,900 hectares and was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 29 June 2007. Auditorio de Tenerife: Was designed by architect Santiago Calatrava Valls, construction began in 1997 and was completed in 2003; the auditorium was inaugurated on 26 September of that year with the presence of Felipe de Borbón, Prince of Asturias, was visited by former U. S. President Bill Clinton; the building is framed within the tenets of late-modern architecture of the late 20th century. The majestic profile of the auditorium has become an architectural symbol of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, it is regarded as the finest modern building in the Canary Islands and one of the most emblematic buildings of Spanish architecture. The Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria: The place where the image of the Virgin of Candelaria can be found, this sanctuary is built in neoclassical style, is visited daily by the parishioners, who visit the Villa Mariana out of devotion to the Virgin. Is the first Marian shrine of the Canary Islands, the principal catholic center of peregrination of the Canary Islands and one of the principal ones of Spain, the basilica hosts more than 2,5 million visitors annually.
San Cristóbal de La Laguna: Is third-most populous city of the archipelago and second-most populous city of the island. Its economy is business-oriented; the urban area dominates the southern parts. Tourism covers the northern coast; the main industry includes some manufacturing. La Laguna historical center was declared World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1999. In 2010 after a survey, La Laguna was listed as the city with the best reputation in the Canary Islands and the third no provincial capital city of Spain with the best reputation, but behind Gijon and Marbella. Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre: Is a museum based in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, it contains many significant archaeological finds and is considered the best repository of objects from the Prehispanic Canary Islands; the museum houses significant paleontological, botanical and marine and terrestrial vertebrate collections, in an excellent state of preservation, is considered the best Natural Library of the Canary Islands. The museum integrates the Archaeological Museum of Tenerife, the Bioantropología's Canary Institute and the Museum of Natural Sciences of Tenerife.
The museum is located in the downtown area of Santa Cruz, in the former Civil Hospital, a building that constitutes an example of the neoclassical architecture of Canary Islands. The archaeological section was founded in 1958; the museum holds the largest collection on the culture of the Guanche and has one of the most modern methods of presentation of mummies. It is an internationally renowned museum and has participated in international meetings on archeology, but its fame is due to its formidable collection of Guanche mummies. Los Cristianos: Is a town situated on the south coast of Tenerife. Located in the municipality of Arona between the cone of the mountain Chayofita and the greater mountain Guaza; the town centre is around the Los Cristianos
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
Fuerteventura is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the North Africa region, politically part of Spain. At 1,660 square kilometres, it is the second largest of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife. Fuerteventura in 2018 had 113,275 inhabitants, it was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in May 2009. Its capital is Puerto del Rosario; the island's name is a compound word formed by the Spanish words for "strong" and "fortune". Traditionally, Fuerteventura's name has been regarded as a reference to the strong winds around the island and the resulting danger to nautical adventurers. However, it might have referred instead to luck or destiny. In 1339 the Mallorcan navigator Angelino Dulcert, in the Planisferio de Angelino Dulcert, referred to the island as "Forte Ventura". Another theory is that the island's name derives from "Fortunatae Insulae", the name by which the Romans knew the Canary Islands; the indigenous name of the island, before its conquest in the 15th century, was Erbania, divided into two regions, from which the name majorero derives.
However, it has been suggested that, at some point, Maxorata was the aboriginal toponym of the entire island. The first settlers of Fuerteventura are believed to have come from North Africa; the word Mahorero or Maho is still used today to describe the people of Fuerteventura and is derived from the ancient word'mahos', a type of goatskin shoe worn by these original inhabitants. They lived in caves and semi-subterranean dwellings, some of which have been excavated, revealing remnants of early tools and pottery. In antiquity, the island was known o.a. as Planaria, in reference to the flatness of most of its terrain. In the 11th century BC, Phoenician settlers landed in Lanzarote. Several Spanish and Portuguese expeditions to the islands were organized around 1340, followed by Moors and European slave traders. At the end of the Iberian conquest, the island was divided into two Guanches kingdoms, one adhering to King Guize and the other to King Ayoze; the territories of these kingdoms were called Jandía respectively.
They were separated by a wall. Some remains have been preserved; the ancient name for the island, Erbania, is derived from this wall's name. The island's conquest began in earnest in 1402, commanded by French knights and crusaders Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle, they arrived with only 63 sailors out of the original 283. After arriving and settling in Lanzarote, the invaders made some first excursions to the neighboring islands. In 1404, Bethencourt and Gadifer founded Betancuria, on the West coast, the first settlement on the island. After numerous difficulties, Gadifer took charge of the invasion, while Bethencourt returned to Spain to seek the recognition and support of the Castilian king. In 1405, de Béthencourt completed his conquest of the island, establishing its capital in Betancuria. In 1424 Pope Martin V, through the Betancuria Brief, edicted the establishment of the Bishopric of Fuerteventura, which encompassed all the Canary Islands save for the island of Lanzarote; the origin of this bishopric is directly related to the events that occurred after the Great Schism, in that the bishop of San Marcial del Rubicón of Lanzarote did not recognize the papacy of Martin V, instead adhered to anti-Pope Benedict XIII.
The Bishopric of Fuerteventura was based in the Parish of Santa María de Betancuria, bestowing upon the latter the status of Grant Cathedral. After the reabsorbtion of the Diocese of San Marcial del Rubicón by the papacy of Pope of Martin V, the Bishopric of Fuerteventura was abolished in 1431, only seven years after it was created; the first census recorded a population of some 1,200 inhabitants. The population increased thereafter. In 1476 the territory became the Señorío Territorial de Fuerteventura, subjected to the Catholic Monarchs. In years, the island was invaded by the Spanish and the English. Over time, the island endured numerous pirate raids. A Berber-led expedition invaded in 1593. Various castles were built along the coastline; the population was moved inland as a second protective measure. Because of the raids, a first Captain General was dispatched to Fuerteventura, accompanied by a number of Sergeant Majors, to defend the island in the name of the Crown. At that time Betancuria became the religious capital of the island.
Two major pirate attacks took place within a month of each other. Two separate bands of English privateers attempted to loot the town of Tuineje; these attacks were however averted by the local population and the island's militia. This successful repelling of the invaders is celebrated at a re-enactment that takes place in Gran Tarajal every year in October; the island's garrison was instated in 1708. Its colonel assumed the title of Governor at Arms, a hereditary, lifelong appointment which has remained in the Sánchez-Dumpiérrez family. In time, this family garnered power over the other islands through alliances with the family of Arias de Saavedra and the Lady of Fuerteventura. During the same year the Assistant Parish of La Oliva and Pájara was created, to become operational in 1711. On December 17, 1790 the Assistant Parish of Tuineje was created, which became a new parish division on June 23, 1792 under the bishop Tavira, with lands