The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context; the well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. Interpretatio romana offered Roman names for Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus, but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul; the barbarian invasions beginning in the early fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization. The Gothic settlement of 418 offered a double loyalty, as Western Roman authority disintegrated at Rome; the plight of the Romanized governing class is examined by R. W. Mathisen, the struggles of bishop Hilary of Arles by M. Heinzelmann.
Into the seventh century, Gallo-Roman culture would persist in the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Cisalpine Gaul, Orléanais, to a lesser degree, Gallia Aquitania. The Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead. Roman life, centered on the public events and cultural responsibilities of urban life in the res publica and the sometimes luxurious life of the self-sufficient rural villa system, took longer to collapse in the Gallo-Roman regions, where the Visigoths inherited the status quo in 418. Gallo-Roman language persisted in the northeast into the Silva Carbonaria that formed an effective cultural barrier with the Franks to the north and east, in the northwest to the lower valley of the Loire, where Gallo-Roman culture interfaced with Frankish culture in a city like Tours and in the person of that Gallo-Roman bishop confronted with Merovingian royals, Gregory of Tours. Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages descended from Gallo-Romance: Gallo-Wallon, Franco-Provençal, Ladin and Lombard.
However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Rhaeto-Romance languages, Occitano-Romance languages, Gallo-Italic languages. Gaul was divided by Roman administration into three provinces, which were sub-divided in the third century reorganization under Diocletian, divided between two dioceses and Viennensis, under the Praetorian prefecture of Galliae. On the local level, it was composed of civitates which preserved, broadly speaking, the boundaries of the independent Gaulish tribes, organised in large part on village structures that retained some features in the Roman civic formulas that overlaid them. Over the course of the Roman period, an ever-increasing proportion of Gauls gained Roman citizenship. In 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana extended citizenship to all free-born men in the Roman Empire. During the Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274, Gaul was subject to Alamanni raids because of the civil war. In reaction to local problems the Gallo-Romans appointed their own emperor Postumus.
The rule over Gaul and Hispania by Postumus and his successors is called The Gallic Empire although it was just one set of many usurpers who took over parts of the Roman Empire and tried to become emperor. The capital was Trier, used as the northern capital of the Roman Empire by many emperors; the Gallic Empire ended. The pre-Christian religious practices of Roman Gaul were characterized by syncretism of Graeco-Roman deities with their native Celtic, Basque or Germanic counterparts, many of which were of local significance. Assimilation was eased by interpreting indigenous gods in Roman terms, such as with Lenus Mars or Apollo Grannus. Otherwise, a Roman god might be paired with a native goddess, as with Rosmerta. In at least one case – that of the equine goddess Epona – a native Gallic goddess was adopted by Rome. Eastern mystery religions penetrated Gaul early on; these included the cults of Orpheus, Mithras and Isis. The imperial cult, centred on the numen of Augustus, came to play a prominent role in public religion in Gaul, most at the pan-Gaulish ceremony venerating Rome and Augustus at the Condate Altar near Lugdunum annually on 1 August.
Gregory of Tours recorded the tradition that after the persecution under the co-emperors Decius and Gratus, future pope Felix I sent seven missionaries to re-establish the broken and scattered Christian communities, Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturninus to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Martial to Limoges, Austromoine to Clermont. In the fifth and sixth centuries, Gallo-Roman Christian communities still consisted of independent churches in urban sites, each governed by a bishop; some of the communities had origins. The personal charisma of the bishop set the tone, as fifth-century allegiances, for pagans as well as Christians, switched from institutions to individuals: most Gallo-Roman bishops were drawn from the highest levels of society as appropriate non-military civil roads to advancement dwindled, they represented themselves as bulwarks of high literary standards and Roman traditions against the Vandal and Gothic interlopers. Bishops took on the duties of civil administrator after the contraction of the Roman imperial administration d
A villa was an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery, they re-evolved through the Middle Ages into elegant upper-class country homes. In modern parlance, "villa" can refer to various types and sizes of residences, ranging from the suburban semi-detached double villa to residences in the wildland–urban interface; the villa urbana, a country seat that could be reached from Rome or another city for a night or two the villa rustica, the farm-house estate, permanently occupied by the servants who had charge of the estate, which would centre on the villa itself only seasonally occupied. The Roman villae rusticae at the heart of latifundia were the earliest versions of what and elsewhere became called plantations. Not included as villae were the domus, a city house for the élite and privileged classes.
In Satyricon, Petronius described the wide range of Roman dwellings. Another type of villae is a seaside villa, located on the coast. A concentration of Imperial villas existed on the Gulf of Naples, on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo and at Antium. Examples include the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. Wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome around Tibur (Tivoand Frascati, such as at Hadrian's Villa. Cicero possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of, near Arpinum, which he inherited. Pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their latifundium villas, where they drank their own wine and pressed their own oil; this was an affectation of urban aristocrats playing at being old-fashioned virtuous Roman farmers, it has been said that the economic independence of rural villas was a symptom of the increasing economic fragmentation of the Roman Empire.
Archaeologists have meticulously examined numerous Roman villas in England. Like their Italian counterparts, they were complete working agrarian societies of fields and vineyards even tileworks or quarries, ranged round a high-status power centre with its baths and gardens; the grand villa at Woodchester preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built upon its site. Grave-diggers preparing for burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to punch through the intact mosaic floors; the more palatial villa rustica at Fishbourne near Winchester was built as a large open rectangle, with porticos enclosing gardens entered through a portico. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Roman towns in Britain ceased to expand: like patricians near the centre of the empire, Roman Britons withdrew from the cities to their villas, which entered on a palatial building phase, a "golden age" of villa life. Villae rusticae are essential in the Empire's economy. Two kinds of villa-plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general.
The more usual plan extended wings of rooms all opening onto a linking portico, which might be extended at right angles to enclose a courtyard. The other kind featured an aisled central hall like a basilica, suggesting the villa owner's magisterial role; the villa buildings were independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards. Timber-framed construction fitted with mortises and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window glass have been found, as well as ironwork window grilles. With the decline and collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. In England the villas were abandoned and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, but the concept of an isolated, self-sufficient agrarian working community, housed close together, survived into Anglo-Saxon culture as the vill, with its inhabitants - if formally bound to the land - as villeins.
In regions on the Continent and territorial magnates donated large working villas and overgrown abandoned ones to individual monks. In this way, the Italian villa system of late Antiquity survived into the early Medieval period in the form of monasteries that withstood the disruptions of the Gothic War and the Lombards. About 529 Benedict of Nursia established his influential monastery of Monte Cassino in the ruins of a villa at Subiaco that had belonged to Nero. From the sixth to the eighth century, Gallo-Roman villas in the Merovingian royal fisc were donated as sites for monasteries under royal patronage in Gaul - Saint-Maur-des-Fossés and Fleury Abbey provide examples. In Germany a famous example is Echternach. Kintzheim was Villa Regis, the "villa of the king". Around 590, Saint Eligius was born in a placed Gallo-Roman family at the'villa' of Chaptelat near Limoges, in Aquitaine; the abbey at Stavelot was founded ca 650 on the domain of a former villa near Liège and the abbey of Vézelay had a similar founding.
In post-Roman times a villa re
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Medieval fortification refers to medieval military methods that cover the development of fortification construction and use in Europe from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance. During this millennium, fortifications changed warfare, in turn were modified to suit new tactics and siege techniques. Towers of medieval castles were made of stone or sometimes wood. Toward the part of the era they included battlements and arrow loops. Arrow loops were vertical slits in the wall through which archers inside shot arrows at the attackers, but made it difficult for attackers to get many arrows back through at the defenders. An exact nature of the walls of a medieval town or city would depend on the resources available for building them, the nature of the terrain, the perceived threat. In northern Europe, early in the period, walls were to have been constructed of wood and proofed against small forces. Where stone was available for building, the wood will have been replaced by stone to a higher or lower standard of security.
This would have been the pattern of events in the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw in England. In many cases, the wall would have had an external pomoerium; this was a strip of clear ground adjacent the wall. The word is from the late medieval, derived from the classical Latin post murum. An external pomoerium, stripped of bushes and building, gave defenders a clear view of what was happening outside and an unobstructed field of shot. An internal pomoerium gave ready access to the rear of the curtain wall to facilitate movement of the garrison to a point of need. By the end of the sixteenth century, the word had developed further into pomery. By that time, the medieval walls were no longer secure against a serious threat from an army, as they were not designed to be strong enough to resist cannon fire, they were sometimes rebuilt, as at Berwick on Tweed, or retained for use against thieves and other threats of a lower order. Elaborate and complex schemes for town defences were developed in the Netherlands and France, but these belong to the post-medieval periods.
By 1600, the medieval wall is to have been seen more as a platform for displaying hangings and the pomery as a gathering ground for spectators, or as a source of building stone and a site for its use, respectively. However, a few, such as those of Carcassonne and Dubrovnik, survived well and have been restored to a nearly complete state. Medieval walls that were no longer adequate for defending were succeeded by the star fort. After the invention of the explosive shell, star forts became obsolete as well. Harbours or some sort of water access was essential to the construction of medieval fortification, it was a direct route for fortification. Having direct access to a body of water provided a route for resupply in times of war, an additional method of transportation in times of peace, potential drinking water for a besieged castle or fortification; the concept of rivers or harbours coming directly up to the walls of fortifications was used by the English as they constructed castles throughout Wales.
There is evidence that harbours were fortified, with wooden structures in the water creating a semi-circle around the harbour, or jetties, as seen in an artists reconstruction of Hedeby, in Denmark, with an opening for ships to access the land. These wooden structures would have small bases at either end, creating a'watch' and defense platform. Religion was a central part of the lives of medieval soldiers, churches, chapels and other buildings of religious function were included within the walls of any fortification, be it temporary or permanent. A place to conduct religious services was essential to the morale of the soldiers. Motte-and-bailey was the prevalent form of castle during 12th centuries. A courtyard was protected by a palisade; the entrance was protected by a lifting bridge, a drawbridge or a timber gate tower. Inside the bailey were stables, a chapel; the motte was the final refuge in this type of castle. It was a raised earth mound, varied with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height, from 30 to 90 metres in diameter.
There was a tower on top of the motte. In most cases, the tower was made of timber, though some were made of stones. Stone towers were found in natural mounds, as artificial ones were not strong enough to support stone towers. Larger mottes had towers including the great hall. Smaller ones had only a watch tower. Construction could sometimes take decades; the string of Welsh castles Edward I of England had built were an exception in that he focused much of the resources of his kingdom on their speedy construction. In addition to paid workers, forced levies of labourers put thousands of men on each site and shortened construction to a few years. Nature could provide effective natural defense for the castle. For this reason many castles were built on larger hills, close to rivers, lakes or caves. Materials that were used in the building of castles varied through history. Wood was used for most castles until 1066, they were quick to construct. The reason wood fell into disuse. Soon stone became more popular.
Stone castles took years to construct depending on the overall size of the castle. Stone was stronger and of course much more expensive than wood. Most stone had to be quarried miles away, brought to the building site, but with the invention of the cannon and gunpowd
Antoine de Roquelaure
Antoine de Roquelaure, lord of Roquelaure, Sainte-Christie, Montbert, Baron of Lavardens and Biran was an important sixteenth-century French statesman and close collaborator of Henry IV. He was made marshal of France in 1614 by Louis XIII; the existence of lords of Roquelaure is documented to at least the twelfth century. The Roquelaure family held the fief in conjunction with the lords from; the family acquired the seigneurie of Saint-Aubin in the early fourteenth century when Brunissent de Savaillan, lady of Saint-Aubin and widow of Bertrand II of Roquelaure, granted the fief to her son Pierre de Roquelaure after her second marriage. Antoine de Roquelaure was the third son of Géraud, lord of Roquelaure, Montbert and Le Longard, Catherine de Bezolles; as such he was destined by his father for an ecclesiastical career, but at his father's death, he inherited the seigneurie of Le Longard and placed himself in the service of Antoine of Navarre. Jeanne III of Navarre held him in such high regard that after the death of her husband Antoine in 1563, she granted him the part of the fief of Roquelaure that the crown of Navarre possessed and placed him in the service of her son, only nine years old.
At eighteen, Antoine de Roquelare was still young, Henry soon appreciated the loyalty and devotion of his brilliant companion. Roquelaure came into the full possession of the fief after the death of his two elder brothers, Jean-Bernard and Bernard in the Wars of Religion. Roquelaure formed part of the retinue that accompanied the young Huguenot king to Paris on the occasion of his marriage to Marguerite of Valois in 1572 and participated in his escape four years from confinement during a hunt, he formed part of the group of confidants who counseled the king at his court at Nérac and participated in the siege of Eauze in 1579. After Henry became the legitimate heir to the throne of France in 1589, Roquelaure followed him in all his battles to secure the crown: Coutras and Ivry; as a Catholic, Roquelaure played an important role in convincing Henry to adopt that faith to strengthen his hold on the French crown. His service gained him many charges and benefices which turned him into one of the most important persons of the kingdom.
He was made master of the wardrobe in 1589, a knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit and lieutenant-general of Upper Auvergne, captain of the Palace of Fontainebleau, governor of the County of Foix, lieutenant-general of Guyenne in 1597 and mayor of Bordeaux. On 16 May 1610, Roquelaure was with the king in the carriage in which he was murdered by François Ravaillac. During the regency, Marie de Medicis entrusted to him the suppression of cities which had risen against it, for these services he was honored in 1614 with the title of Marshal of France by Louis XIII, he resigned the post of governor of Guyenne in 1613 and only kept the office of governor of Lectoure, which allowed him to return to his domains. He died in Lectoure in 1625 at the age of 81 years. In 1581 he married Catherine d'Ornesan, who died in 1601, they had six children, but he had no male descendants at the time of the death of his son Jean-Louis in 1610. He remarried in 1611 with Susanne de Bassabat, with whom he had twelve children, among them Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de Roquelaure, his main heir.
A celebrated wit, Gaston was created the first duke of Roquelaure and peer of France in 1652 and was appointed governor of Guyenne in 1679. Gaston's son, Antoine Gaston de Roquelaure, carried on the family reputation for wit. At a young age served in the Franco-Dutch War and in the Nine Years' War, he was made governor of Languedoc in 1706 and received the marshal's bâton in 1724. The second duke of Roquelaure gave his name to the "roquelaure" or "roquelaire", a knee-length cloak, his daughter, Françoise, married Louis Bretagne de Rohan-Chabot in 1708 and as a result the duchy of Roquelaure passed to this family, who sold it coming into the possession of the king. The king sold it to Guillaume Dubarry in 1772. A marquisate of Roquelaure was created in 1766 in favor of Charles de Roquelaure, lord of Saint-Aubin, but it should not be confused with the original peer-duchy. Expilly, Jean-Joseph. Dictionnaire géographique, historique et politique de Gaules et de la France. 6. Amsterdam. Pp. 383–384. La Chesnaye des Bois, Alexandre Aubert de.
Dictionnaire de la noblesse, contenant les généalogies. 12. Pp. 306–319. Lafforgue, Prosper. Histoire de la ville d'Auch depuis le romains jusqu'en 1789. 2. Auch: L.-A. Brun. pp. 300–302, 370
Lupus of Sens
Saint Lupus of Sens was an early French bishop of Sens. He was the son of Betton, Count of Tonnerre, "Blessed Betto," a member of the royal house of the Kingdom of Burgundy; the Romanesque church dedicated to Saint Loup at Naud, 8 km from Provins in Champagne in the east of France is distinguished by the outstanding sculptures in the porch of its great doorway, with an ambitious iconographic program in which Saint Loup mediates entry into the mystery of the Trinity. About 980, archbishop of Sens, made a gift to the Benedictine community of the abbey of Saint-Pierre-le-Vif at Sens of four altars in villa que dicitus Naudus, in honore sancti lupi consecratum—"in the demesne, called Naud, consecrated in honor of Saint Loup"—betokening the presence of a shrine on this site, a priory under the direction of the abbot of Saint-Pierre-le-Vif. Other documents mention Saint-Loup-de-Naud among the possessions of the abbey at Sens, seat of an archbishop with close political ties to the French Crown, who had Paris within his diocese.
Thus, though it lay so close to Provins, a seat of the counts of Champagne and the abbey church was completed by Henri le Libéral, comte de Champagne, the priory at Saint-Loup-de-Naud looked to Sens for its patronage: a visit from the abbot is documented in 1120. In 1160/61 Hugues de Toucy, Archbishop of Sens, presented to the priory the relic of Saint Loup, brought from the abbey of Sainte-Colombe, to that community's dismay; the priory was laid waste by the English in 1432, during the Hundred Years' War and again by the Huguenots in 1567, during the French Wars of Religion. Numerous communes of France are named Saint-Loup. A number of the communes called Saint-Loup in the west of France are not connected with a specific Saint Loup; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. "Saint loup de Naud" the Romanesque church. "Les Rencontres de Provins" A website devoted to all the Saints Loup
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society. It was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the Roman villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe as well as China, it was replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract. Manorialism was characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor, supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor, from the obligatory contributions of a subject part of the peasant population under the jurisdiction of himself and his manorial court; these obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor, in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin. In examining the origins of the monastic cloister, Walter Horn found that "as a manorial entity the Carolingian monastery... differed little from the fabric of a feudal estate, save that the corporate community of men for whose sustenance this organization was maintained consisted of monks who served God in chant and spent much of their time in reading and writing."Manorialism died and piecemeal, along with its most vivid feature in the landscape, the open field system.
It outlasted serfdom as it outlasted feudalism: "primarily an economic organization, it could maintain a warrior, but it could well maintain a capitalist landlord. It could be self-sufficient, yield produce for the market, or it could yield a money rent." The last feudal dues in France were abolished at the French Revolution. In parts of eastern Germany, the Rittergut manors of Junkers remained until World War II. In Quebec, the last feudal rents were paid in 1970 under the modified provisions of the Seigniorial Dues Abolition Act of 1935; the term is most used with reference to medieval Western Europe. Antecedents of the system can be traced to the rural economy of the Roman Empire. With a declining birthrate and population, labor was the key factor of production. Successive administrations tried to stabilise the imperial economy by freezing the social structure into place: sons were to succeed their fathers in their trade, councilors were forbidden to resign, coloni, the cultivators of land, were not to move from the land they were attached to.
The workers of the land were on their way to becoming serfs. Several factors conspired to merge the status of former slaves and former free farmers into a dependent class of such coloni: it was possible to be described as servus et colonus, "both slave and colonus". Laws of Constantine I around 325 both reinforced the semi-servile status of the coloni and limited their rights to sue in the courts; the legal status of adscripti, "bound to the soil", contrasted with barbarian foederati, who were permitted to settle within the imperial boundaries, remaining subject to their own traditional law. As the Germanic kingdoms succeeded Roman authority in the West in the fifth century, Roman landlords were simply replaced by Germanic ones, with little change to the underlying situation or displacement of populations; the process of rural self-sufficiency was given an abrupt boost in the eighth century, when normal trade in the Mediterranean Sea was disrupted. The thesis put forward by Henri Pirenne supposes that the Arab conquests forced the medieval economy into greater ruralization and gave rise to the classic feudal pattern of varying degrees of servile peasantry underpinning a hierarchy of localised power centers.
The word derives from traditional inherited divisions of the countryside, reassigned as local jurisdictions known as manors or seigneuries. The lord held a manorial court, governed by local custom. Not all territorial seigneurs were secular. By extension, the word manor is sometimes used in England to mean any home area or territory in which authority is held in a police or criminal context. In the generic plan of a medieval manor from Shepherd's Historical Atlas, the strips of individually worked land in the open field system are apparent. In this plan, the manor house is set apart from the village, but often the village grew up around the forecourt of the manor walled, while the manor lands stretched away outside, as still may be seen at Petworth House; as concerns for privacy increased in the 18th century, manor houses were located a farther distance from the village. For example, when a grand new house was required by the new owner of Harlaxton Manor, Lincolnshire, in the 1830s, the site of the existing manor house at the edge of its village was abandoned for a new one, isolated in its park, with the village out of view.
In an agrarian society, the conditions of land tenure underlie all economic factors. There were two legal systems of pre-manorial landholding. One, the most common, was the system of holding land "allodially" in full outright ownership; the other was a use of precaria or benefices. To these two systems, the Carolingian monarchs added a third, the aprisio, which linked manorialism with feudalism; the aprisio made its first appearance in Charlemagne's province of Septimania in the south of France, when Charlemagne had to settle the Visigothic refugees who had fled with his retreating forces after the failure of his Zaragoza expedition of 778. He solved this problem by allotting "desert" tracts of uncultivat