Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Luis Echeverría Álvarez is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party who served as the 50th President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. At 97, he is the oldest living former Mexican president, his presidency was characterized by his authoritarian manners, the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre against student protesters, the Dirty War against leftist dissent in the country, the economic crisis that occurred in Mexico towards the end of his term. At the international stage, he attempted to become a leader of the so-called "Third World", the countries that were not aligned with either the US or the USSR during the Cold War. In 2006, he was indicted and ordered under house arrest for his role in the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre and the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre, but in 2009 the charges against him were dismissed, he was born in Mexico City to Catalina Álvarez. Echeverría joined the faculty of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1947 and taught political theory, he rose in the hierarchy of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and became the private secretary of the party president, Rodolfo Sánchez Taboada.
Echeverría served as Interior Secretary under President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz from 1964 to 1970. He maintained a hard line against student protesters throughout 1968. Clashes between the government and protesters culminated in the Tlatelolco massacre in October 1968, a few days before the 1968 Summer Olympics were held in Mexico City. In a separate incident, he ordered the transfer of 15% of the Mexican military to the state of Guerrero to counter guerrilla groups that were operating there. On 22 October 1969, Díaz Ordaz summoned Alfonso Martínez Domínguez—the PRI party president—and other party leaders to his office in Los Pinos to reveal Echeverría as his successor. Martínez Domínguez asked the president if he was sure of his decision and Díaz Ordaz replied, "Why do you ask? It's the most important decision of my life and I've thought it over well." On 8 November 1969, PRI announced Echeverría as the presidential candidate. At one point during his campaign for the presidency, Echeverría called for a moment of silence to remember the victims of the Tlatelolco massacre, an act that enraged President Díaz Ordaz and prompted him to call for Echeverría's resignation.
Although Echeverría was a hardliner in Díaz Ordaz's administration and considered responsible for the Tlatelolco massascre, he became "immediately obsessed with making people forget that he had done it." Echeverría was the first president born after the Mexican Revolution. Once Echeverría inaugurated as president, he embarked on a massive program of populist political and economic reform, nationalizing the mining and electrical industries, redistributing private land in the states of Sinaloa and Sonora to peasants, imposing limits on foreign investment, extending Mexico's patrimonial waters to 370 kilometres. State spending on health, housing construction and food subsidies was significantly increased, the percentage of the population covered by the social security system was doubled, he enraged the left because he did not bring the perpetrators of the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre to justice. He angered the business community with his populist rhetoric and his moves to nationalize industries and redistribute land.
He was unpopular within the file of his own party. After decades of economic growth under his predecessors, the Echeverría administration oversaw an economic crisis during its final months, becoming the first in a series of Presidencies in Mexico that faced severe economic crises during the next two decades. Echeverría was accused of irresponsible government spending, increasing inflation, cronyism, symbolized by appointing his childhood friend and eventual successor, José López Portillo, as Finance Minister as well as by devaluing the peso, from 12.50 pesos per dollar in 1954 to 20 pesos per dollar in late 1976. During his period in office, the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976; that caused a gradual loss of prestige in the ruling party, at least in terms of its economic policies, at home and abroad. At the end of his term, Mexico was in a state of economic crisis. On 8 October 1974, Echeverría issued a decree creating the new Mexican states of Baja California Sur and Quintana Roo.
Echeverría nationalized the barbasco industry in the late 1970s. Wild barbasco was the natural source of hormones that were the key component in the contraceptive pill. Nationalization and the creation of the state-run company PROQUIVEMEX came as the importance of Mexico to the industry was waning. During the administration of Echeverría, a new Federal Election Law was approved: Lowered the number of members a party needed to become registered from 75,000 to 65,000 Increased the number of Congress seats chosen according to proportional representation principle from 20 to 25 Introduction of a permanent voting card Established the age of candidacy at 21, from 30. Following the PRI tradition, Echeverría handpicked his successor for the Presidency, chose his Finance Minister and childhood friend, José López Portillo, to be the PRI Presidential candidate for the 1976 elections. Due to a series of events and an internal conflict in the opposition party PA
Cabinet of Mexico
The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. It consists of nineteen Secretaries of State, the head of the federal executive legal office and the Attorney General. In addition to the legal Executive Cabinet there are other Cabinet-level administration offices that report directly to the President of the Republic. Officials from the legal and extended Cabinet are subordinate to the President; the term "Cabinet" does not appear in the Constitution, where reference is made only to the Secretaries of State. Article 89 of the Constitution provides that the President of Mexico can assign and remove Secretaries of State. Article 26 of the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration creates the several cabinet secretariats, the Organic Law of the Attorney General's Office creates the office of the Attorney General; the Executive Cabinet does not play a collective executive role. The main interaction that Cabinet members have with the legislative branch are regular testimonials before Congressional committees to justify their actions, coordinate executive and legislative policy in their respective fields of jurisdiction.
The Executive Cabinet members are nominated by the President and they must be approved by the Senate. Cabinet Secretaries are selected from past and current governors and other political office holders. Private citizens such as businessmen or former military officials are common Cabinet choices, it is not rare for a Secretary to be moved from one Secretariat to another. For example, former Secretary of Energy Fernando Canales Clariond had served as Secretary of Economy and former Secretary of Education Josefina Vázquez Mota had served as Secretary of Social Development; some positions are not part of the legal Executive Cabinet, but have cabinet-level rank therefore their incumbents are considered members of the extended cabinet. Some of the cabinet-level administration offices are: Executive Cabinet CIA: Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Mexico
José López Portillo
José Guillermo Abel López Portillo y Pacheco, was a Mexican lawyer and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party who served as the 51st President of Mexico from 1976 to 1982. López Portillo was the only official candidate in the 1976 Presidential election, being the only President in recent Mexican history to win an election unopposed. López Portillo was the last of the so-called economic nationalist Mexican presidents, his tenure was marked by heavy investments in the national oil industry after the discovery of new oil reserves, which propitiated initial economic growth, but gave way to a severe debt crisis after the international oil prices fell down, leading Mexico to declare a sovereign default in 1982. As a result of the crisis, the last months of his administration were plagued by widespread capital flight, leading López Portillo to nationalize the banks three months before leaving office, his presidency was marked by widespread government corruption and nepotism.
Shortly after leaving office, during the presidency of his successor Miguel de la Madrid, numerous officials who had worked under the López Portillo administration were prosecuted for corruption, the most notorious cases being Arturo Durazo and Jorge Díaz Serrano. Although López Portillo himself was suspected of having been involved in corruption as well, he was never charged with any crimes. López Portillo was born in Mexico City, to his father José López Portillo y Weber, an engineer, historian and academic, to Refugio Pacheco y Villa-Gordoa, he was the grandson of José López Portillo y Rojas, a lawyer and man of letters. He was the great-great-great grandson of José María Narváez, a Spanish explorer, the first to enter Strait of Georgia, in present-day British Columbia, the first to view the site now occupied by Vancouver, he studied law at the National Autonomous University of Mexico before beginning his political career. After graduating, he began his political career with the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1959.
He held several positions in the administrations of his two predecessors before being appointed to serve as finance minister under Luis Echeverría, a close friend from childhood, between 1973 and 1975. López Portillo was elected unopposed in 1976, though in any event the PRI was so entrenched that he was assured of victory when Echeverría chose him as the PRI's candidate. To date, he is the last Mexican president to run unopposed; when he entered office, Mexico was in the midst of an economic crisis. He undertook an ambitious program to promote Mexico's economic development with revenues stemming from the discovery of new petroleum reserves in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco by Petróleos Mexicanos, the country's publicly owned oil company. In 1980, Mexico joined Venezuela in the Pact of San José, a foreign aid project to sell oil at preferential rates to countries in Central America and the Caribbean; the economic confidence that he fostered led to a short-term boost in economic growth, but by the time he left office, the economy had deteriorated and gave way to a severe debt crisis and a sovereign default.
One of his last acts as president, announced during his annual State of the Nation address on September 1, 1982, was to order the nationalization of the country's banking system. During his presidential term, his critics accused him of nepotism. An electoral reform conducted during his presidential term increased the number of members of the Chamber of Deputies to 400: 300 being elected single-seat constituencies by plurality vote and 100 being elected according to proportional representation; the reform furthermore opened the electoral process for small opposition parties. In 1981, the Cancun Summit, a North-South dialogue, took place; the summit was attended by 22 heads of state and government from industrialized countries and developing nations. During López Portillo’s presidential term, Mexico supported the Sandinista National Liberation Front in Nicaragua. In 1977, after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, Mexico resumed diplomatic relations with Spain. Pope John Paul II visited Mexico for the first time.
In the year leading to the end of his term as president on December 1, 1982, López Portillo chose two candidates as possibilities to replace himself, following the succession ritual established by his party. One, Javier García Paniagua, would have been appointed if a man of greater political skill were needed; the other his successor, was Miguel de la Madrid, chosen for his financial and administrative skills, which were deemed much more necessary after the devaluation of the peso in February 1982 and the subsequent economic crisis. On September 1, 1982, at his final annual Address to the Congress, López Portillo gave a famous speech where he condemned businessmen and bankers responsible for the capital flight, claimed that the crisis was not his fault, announced the nationalization of the banks, asked for forgiveness over his mistakes as President and the economic crisis, he famously broke in tears during his speech after asking for the forgiveness of Mexico's poor. This passionate speech, did little to repair his image, he remains one of the most unpopular Mexican presidents in recent history.
López Portillo was the last economic nationalist president to emerge from the ranks of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Subsequent presidents have all been for free trade. López Por
National Autonomous University of Mexico
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation. UNAM's campus is a UNESCO World Heritage site, designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, physics, human-computer interaction, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. UNAM obtained its autonomy from the government in 1929; this has given the university the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government.
This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. UNAM was the birthplace of the student movement of 1968, which turned into a nationwide rebellion against autocratic rule and began Mexico's three-decade journey toward democracy; the university was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain and brought to a definitive closure in 1865 by Maximilian I of Mexico. Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church, he aimed to merge and expand Mexico City's decentralized colleges of higher education and create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism.
The project unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and the National Preparatory schools. The new university's challenges were political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum; this opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera. By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed. In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race".
Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system; the strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations led to autonomy for the university; the institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education. During the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín; the government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Catholics opposed as an infringement on academic freedom. Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos fought against socialist education. UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, which validated their educational function. In an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943.
However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, opposing the establishment of majors in industrial relations and communications. In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952; the University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day. In 1957 the Doctorate Council was created to organize graduate studies. Another major student strike, again over examination regulations, occurred in 1966. Students forced the rector to resign; the Board of Regents did not accept this resignation, so the professors went on
President of Mexico
The President of Mexico known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces; the current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018. The office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again; the constitution and the office of the President follow the presidential system of government. Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president, as well as the qualifications for the office, he is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union".
To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met: Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico able to exercise full citizenship rights, with at least one parent, a natural-born citizen of Mexico. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years. Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not be a secretary of state or under-secretary of state, attorney general, governor of a State, or head of the government of Mexico City, unless "separated from the post" at least six months prior to the election. Not have been president even in a provisional capacity; the ban on any sort of presidential re-election dates back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution. It is so entrenched in Mexican politics that it has remained in place as it was relaxed for other offices.
In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a second consecutive term. Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election. However, the president remained barred from re-election if it is nonsuccessive; the presidential term was set at four years from 1821 until 1904, when President Porfirio Díaz extended it to six years for the first time in Mexico's history, again from 1917 to 1928 after a new constitution reversed the change made by Diaz in 1904. The presidential term was set at six years in 1928 and has remained unchanged since then; the president is elected by direct, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected. Former President Felipe Calderón won with 36.38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the vote, his predecessor Carlos Salinas won with a majority of 50%.
The most recent former president, Enrique Peña Nieto won 38% of the popular vote. The current President, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected in 2018 with a modern-era record of 53% share of the popular vote; the history of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party. From until 1988, the PRI ruled Mexico as a virtual one-party state. Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, selected the PRI's candidate in the next election in a procedure known as "the tap of the finger"; until 1988, the PRI's candidate was assured of election, winning by margins well over 70 percent of the vote—results that were obtained by massive electoral fraud.
In 1988, the PRI ruptured and the dissidents formed the National Democratic Front with rival center-left parties. Discontent with the PRI, the popularity of the Front's candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas led to worries that PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari would not come close to a majority, might be defeated. While the votes were being counted, the tabulation system mysteriously shut down; the government declared Salinas the winner, leading to stronger than allegations of electoral fraud. The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace, this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the part of the 20th century; the first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, in his term several reforms were enacted to ensure fairness and transparency in elections. As a consequence of these reforms, the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a P
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old