Nassau County, New York
Nassau County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. At the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,400,000 estimated to have increased to 1,400,514 in 2017; the county seat is Mineola and the largest town is the Town of Hempstead. Nassau County is situated in western Long Island, bordering New York City's borough of Queens to the west, Suffolk County to the east, it is the most densely populated and second-most populous county in New York state outside of New York City, with which it maintains extensive rail and highway connectivity, is considered one of the central counties within the New York metropolitan area. Nassau County contains two cities, three towns, 64 incorporated villages, more than 60 unincorporated hamlets. Nassau County has a designated police department, fire commission, elected executive and legislative bodies. A 2012 Forbes article based on the American Community Survey reported Nassau County as the most expensive county and one of the highest income counties in the United States, the most affluent in the state of New York, with four of the nation's top ten towns by median income located in the county.
Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards. The name of the county comes from an old name for Long Island, at one time named Nassau, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, a member of the House of Nassau, itself named for the German town of Nassau; the county colors are the colors of the House of Orange-Nassau. Several alternate names had been considered for the county, including "Bryant", "Matinecock", "Norfolk", "Sagamore". However, "Nassau" had the historical advantage of having at one time been the name of Long Island itself, was the name most mentioned after the new county was proposed in 1875; the area now designated Nassau County was the eastern 70% of Queens County, one of the original 12 counties formed in 1683, was contained within two towns: Hempstead and Oyster Bay. In 1784, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.
Nassau County was formed in 1899 by the division of Queens County, after the western portion of Queens had become a borough of New York City in 1898, as the three easternmost towns seceded from the county. When the first European settlers arrived, among the Native Americans to occupy the present area of Nassau County were the Marsapeque and Sacatogue. Dutch settlers in New Netherland predominated in the western portion of Long Island, while English settlers from Connecticut occupied the eastern portion; until 1664, Long Island was split at the present border between Nassau and Suffolk counties, between the Dutch in the west and Connecticut claiming the east. The Dutch did grant an English settlement in Hempstead, but drove settlers from the present-day eastern Nassau hamlet of Oyster Bay as part of a boundary dispute. In 1664, all of Long Island became part of the English Province of New York within the Shire of York. Present-day Queens and Nassau were just part of a larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved, Suffolk County and Queens County were established, the local seat of government was moved west from Hempstead to Jamaica.
By 1700 little of Long Island had not been purchased from the native Indians by the English colonists, townships controlled whatever land had not been distributed. The courthouse in Jamaica was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. In 1784, following the American Revolutionary War, the Town of Hempstead was split in two, when Patriots in the northern part formed the new Town of North Hempstead, leaving Loyalist majorities in the Town of Hempstead. About 1787, a new Queens County Courthouse was erected in the new Town of North Hempstead, near present-day Mineola, known as Clowesville; the Long Island Rail Road reached as far east as Hicksville in 1837, but did not proceed to Farmingdale until 1841 due to the Panic of 1837. The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition of the old courthouse and the inconvenience of travel and accommodations, with the three eastern and three western towns divided on the location for the construction of a new one.
Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. As early as 1875, representatives of the three eastern towns began advocating the separation of the three eastern towns from Queens, with some proposals including the towns of Huntington and Babylon. In 1898, the western portion of Queens County became a borough of the City of Greater New York, leaving the eastern portion a part of Queens County but not part of the Borough of Queens; as part of the city consolidation plan, all town and county governments within the borough were dissolved. The areas excluded from the consolidation included all of the Town of North Hempstead, all of the Town of Oyster Bay, most of the Town of Hempstead. In 1899, following approval from the New York State Legislature, the three towns were separated from Queens County, the new county of Nassau was constituted. In preparation for the new county, in November 1898, voters had selected Mineol
Thomas Richard Suozzi is an American Democratic politician, CPA and attorney, the U. S. Representative for New York's 3rd district, he was the County Executive of Nassau County, New York, in office from 2002 to 2009. He was first elected to the post in 2001 after four terms as mayor of New York. In 2006, he ran unsuccessfully against Eliot Spitzer for the Democratic nomination for Governor of New York. Suozzi was narrowly defeated for re-election in 2009 by Republican nominee Ed Mangano, in a rematch in 2013 was again defeated, this time by a much larger margin of 59% to 41%. Suozzi sits on the House Armed Services Committee, he is Vice-Chair of the Bipartisan Problem Solvers Caucus, which consists of 22 Democrats and 22 Republican working together to find solutions. He is the Co-Chair of the Long Island Sound Caucus and Co-Chair of the Quiet Skies Caucus; the son of former Glen Cove mayor Joseph A. Suozzi, Thomas Suozzi was born on August 31, 1962 in Glen Cove, his father, was born in Italy and his mother, Marguerite, is of Irish and English descent.
The youngest of five siblings, Tom Suozzi attended Catholic schools, graduating from Chaminade High School, Boston College, Fordham University School of Law. Suozzi and his wife, have three children. In 1993, Suozzi was elected mayor of New York, he was in that municipality's mayoral office for four terms. His father and his uncle, Vincent Suozzi were mayors of Glen Cove prior to Tom Suozzi; as mayor, Suozzi focused on environmental cleanup of industrial sites in Glen Cove. A focal point of his administration was redeveloping superfund sites. In 1994, the Glen Cove incinerator was permanently dismantled. In 1998, the city demolished and redeveloped the defunct Li Tungsten Refinery grounds, a federal superfund site, he was recognized by then-Vice President Al Gore for the city's environmental cleanup efforts and Glen Cove was awarded the Brownfields Award in 1998. Suozzi was elected Nassau County Executive in 2001, becoming the first Democrat elected to the position in traditionally Republican Nassau in 30 years.
He assumed office in the midst of a fiscal crisis. By 1999, Nassau was on the brink of financial collapse: the county faced a $300 million annual deficit, was billions of dollars in debt, its credit rating had sunk to one level above junk status. According to The New York Times, he "earned high marks from independent institutions for his signature achievement, the resuscitation of Nassau's finances."While in office, Suozzi cut spending and reduced borrowing and debt. He oversaw 11 county bond upgrades over the course of two years, eliminated deficits in Nassau, accumulated surpluses. In 2005, Governing Magazine named Suozzi one of its Public Officials of the Year, calling him "the man who spearheaded Nassau County, New York's, remarkable turnaround from the brink of fiscal disaster." According to The New York Times, Suozzi garnered praise for social services like his "no wrong door" program, which centralized access to social services. In 2004, Georgina Morgenstern, a former Nassau County planning department employee, alleged Suozzi and Chief Deputy County Executive Anthony Cancellieri used county employees and functions for illegal fundraising.
Morgenstern said she was retaliated against and terminated without due process, she subsequently filed a multimillion-dollar lawsuit. Suozzi was dismissed from the case and a federal jury in Central Islip rejected Morgenstern's claim that she was fired in retaliation for her criticism of Suozzi. Suozzi declared that he was running for Governor of New York in the Democratic primary against Eliot Spitzer on February 25, 2006; the bid appeared from the start to be somewhat of a long shot given Spitzer's reputation as a "corporate crusader", though Suozzi pointed out that he prevailed as a long shot before when he first ran for Nassau County Executive. Few prominent Democrats outside of Nassau County Democratic Party Chairman Jay Jacobs supported his bid. One of his biggest supporters was founder of the now disbanded Voter Rights Party. Rodriguez became the lead field organizer for the Albany campaign office; the campaign was funded in part by Home Depot co-founder Kenneth Langone, former NYSE CEO Richard Grasso, David Mack of the MTA, many individuals on Wall Street, investigated and prosecuted by Eliot Spitzer.
On June 13, 2006, Suozzi spoke before the New York State Conference of Mayors along with Spitzer and John Faso. Suozzi received a standing ovation by the crowd of mayors. On July 6, 2006, Suozzi announced to his followers that he had collected enough petitions to place himself on the ballot in the primary against Spitzer, he claimed victory to the press in the debate on July 25, 2006 with New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer held at Pace University. He stated. On August 7, 2006, Suozzi announced after much speculation that he would not seek an independent line were he to lose the primary to Spitzer. Suozzi lost the 2009 county executive election to Ed Mangano. After first working in the private sector as an attorney, Suozzi announced that he would seek a rematch against Mangano in 2013, he attacked Mangano for "presiding over a decline in the county", while emphasizing that, while he was County Executive, Suozzi had eight years of balanced budgets and reduced crime. In November, Mangano defeated Suozzi, 59 percent to 41.
In June 2016, Suozzi won a five-way Democratic primary in New York's 3rd congressional district. Suozzi received endorsements from The New York Times, and
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors or fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity; the third-rail system of electrification is unrelated to the third rail used in dual gauge railways. Third-rail systems are a means of providing electric traction power to trains using an additional rail for the purpose. On most systems, the conductor rail is placed on the sleeper ends outside the running rails, but in some systems a central conductor rail is used; the conductor rail is supported on ceramic insulators or insulated brackets at intervals of around 10 feet. The trains have metal contact blocks called collector shoes which make contact with the conductor rail; the traction current is returned to the generating station through the running rails.
In the US, the conductor rail is made of high conductivity steel or steel bolted to aluminium to increase the conductivity. Elsewhere in the world, extruded aluminum conductors with stainless steel contact surface or cap, is the preferred technology due to its lower electrical resistance, longer life, lighter weight; the running rails are electrically connected using wire bonds or other devices, to minimise resistance in the electric circuit. Contact shoes can be positioned below, above, or beside the third rail, depending on the type of third rail used: these third rails are referred to as bottom-contact, top-contact, or side-contact, respectively; the conductor rails have to be interrupted at level crossings and substation gaps. Tapered rails are provided at the ends of each section, to allow a smooth engagement of the train's contact shoes; the position of contact between the train and the rail varies: some of the earliest systems used top contact, but developments use side or bottom contact, which enabled the conductor rail to be covered, protecting track workers from accidental contact and protecting the conductor rail from frost, ice and leaf-fall.
Because third rail systems present electric shock hazards close to the ground, high voltages are not considered safe. A high current must therefore be used to transfer adequate power, resulting in high resistive losses, requiring closely spaced feed points; the electrified rail threatens electrocution of anyone falling onto the tracks. This can be avoided by using platform screen doors, or the risk can be reduced by placing the conductor rail on the side of the track away from the platform, when allowed by the station layout; the risk can be reduced by having an insulated coverboard to protect the third rail from contact, although many systems do not use one. In some modern systems such as the ground-level power supply, the safety problem is avoided by splitting the power rail into small segments, each of, only powered when covered by a train. There is a risk of pedestrians walking onto the tracks at level crossings. In the US, a 1992 Supreme Court of Illinois decision affirmed a $1.5 million verdict against the Chicago Transit Authority for failing to stop an intoxicated person from walking onto the tracks at a level crossing in an attempt to urinate.
The Paris Metro has graphic warning signs pointing out the danger of electrocution from urinating on third rails, precautions which Chicago did not have. The end ramps of conductor rails present a practical limitation on speed due to the mechanical impact of the shoe, 160 km/h is considered the upper limit of practical third-rail operation; the world speed record for a third rail train is 174 km/h attained on 11 April 1988 by a British Class 442 EMU. In the event of a collision with a foreign object, the beveled end ramps of bottom running systems can facilitate the hazard of having the third rail penetrate the interior of a passenger car; this is believed to have contributed to the death of five passengers in the Valhalla train crash of 2015. Third rail systems using top contact are prone to accumulations of snow, or ice formed from refrozen snow, this can interrupt operations; some systems operate dedicated de-icing trains to deposit an oily fluid or antifreeze on the conductor rail to prevent the frozen build-up.
The third rail can be heated to alleviate the problem of ice. Unlike third rail systems, overhead line equipment can be affected by strong winds or freezing rain bringing the wires down and stopping all trains. Thunderstorms can disable the power with lightning strikes on systems with overhead wires, disabling trains if there is a power surge or a break in the wires; because of the gaps in the conductor rail a train can stop in a position where all of its power pickup shoes are in gaps, so that no traction power is available. The train is said to be "gapped". Another train must be brought up behind the stranded train to push it on to the conductor rail, or a jumper cable may be used to supply enough power to the train to get one of its contact shoes back on the third rail. Avoiding this problem requires a minimum length of trains that can be run on a line. Locomotives have either had the backup of an on-board diesel engine system, or have been connected to shoes on the rolling stock; the first idea for feeding elec
Nassau Inter-County Express
The Nassau Inter-County Express is the local bus system serving Nassau County, New York. It serves parts of western Suffolk County, New York as well as eastern portions of the New York City borough of Queens, it was operated under the name of MTA Long Island Bus, the trading name of the Metropolitan Suburban Bus Authority, a division of MTA Regional Bus Operations. In 2011, the owner, Nassau County, decided to outsource the system to a private operator, the French multinational corporation, Veolia Transport, due to a funding dispute with the MTA; the MTA began operating Nassau County bus service in 1973 under the name Metropolitan Suburban Bus Authority, through the merging of 11 private operators: Bee-Line, Inc. and subsidiaries: Rockville Centre Bus Utility Lines Stage Coach Lines: Note: The N70 under Stage Coach was a loop route from Hempstead to Levittown, Bellmore and back to Hempstead. Mid-Island Transit: This operator was acquired by Stage Coach, which would be acquired by Bee-Line. Operated by this operator was a route from today's Broadway Mall to Oyster Bay.
Schenck Transportation and acquired: Nassau Bus Line Universal Auto Bus Jerusalem Avenue Bus Line Hempstead Bus Corporation Roosevelt Bus Line Branch Bus Corporation Hendrickson Bus Corporation denotes original bus routes that are now community shuttle routes In the 1980s, the N28, N46, N50 and N70 were instituted as new routes, with the N20 extended to Hicksville. The 1990s saw the creation of a shuttle around Roosevelt Field, two shuttles designed to take customers from train stations to work sites, a service connecting Nassau County to JFK Airport, with the 2000s seeing a Merrick shuttle and the N8 and N43 routes being created. In 2007, Long Island Bus averaged over 109,000 weekday riders, many of which include customers connecting to other MTA services in the region. By 2011, the MTA had averaged 101,981 weekday riders by the time of the agency's exit from operating the service. In 2010, the future of MTA Long Island Bus became uncertain, as the MTA threatened drastic cuts due to Nassau County's disproportionately small contributions to the operation.
For the past decade, the MTA has provided a unique subsidy to the Nassau County bus system that the other New York City suburban county bus systems have not received. The county's contribution was $9.1 million per year out of a total budget of $133.1 million, the MTA desired that this contribution increase to $26 million. Critics have noted that Westchester County subsidized its similarly-sized Bee-Line Bus System service by $33 million/year, that Suffolk subsidizes its smaller Suffolk County Transit system by $24 million/year; the county hoped to reduce its contribution from $9.1 million to $4.1 million by using a private contractor. By March 2011, the MTA—citing Nassau's refusal to pay its contracted amount—proposed a set of major service reductions which would have eliminated over half of the routes, with the greatest impact on southeastern Nassau County, eliminating all routes operating south of Hempstead Turnpike and east of the Meadowbrook State Parkway. After reviewing the service cut plans, County Executive Ed Mangano considered severing ties with the MTA and privatizing the Long Island Bus system.
A temporary reprieve, via additional state funding, would have sustained service through the end of 2011. However, on April 27, 2011, the MTA voted to cease all bus service in Nassau County after the end of 2011. Mangano announced that he had retained Veolia Transport to operate the system beginning in 2012 through a public-private partnership pending legislative approval. On November 10, 2011, Veolia and Mangano announced that the service was going to be renamed Nassau Inter-County Express, upon Veolia's takeover of the system. All buses, including Able-Ride vehicles, would be painted into a new paint scheme to reflect the change. On December 12, 2011, the legislature unanimously approved the Veolia contract, subsequently approved by the state-controlled Nassau County Interim Finance Authority on December 22, 2011. Veolia began operations January 1, 2012; this Veolia plan was the subject of heated county public hearings in which Long Island Bus riders and employees criticized the plan. In February 2012, Veolia announced service cuts and adjustments to take effect in April 2012.
While there were no route cancellations planned, just over $7 million in cuts to existing routes were planned, with service reductions and route concentrations planned for routes serving northern and eastern Nassau County, beginning in spring 2012, with resources redirected towards busier routes. These cuts included decreased service on 30 routes, including elimination of weekend service and decreased midday service on seven routes; these cuts were criticized as occurring too soon, only six weeks after starting service. The Long Island Bus Rider's Union, a transit advocacy group criticized the cuts, claiming that "the announcements of service adjustments on the website were uncl
Long Island City station
Long Island City is a rail terminal of the Long Island Rail Road in the Long Island City neighborhood of Queens, New York City. Located within the City Terminal Zone at Borden Avenue and Second Street, it is the westernmost LIRR station in Queens and the end of both the Main Line and Montauk Branch; the station is wheelchair accessible. The station is served only during weekday rush hours in the peak direction by diesel trains from the Oyster Bay, Montauk, or Port Jefferson Branches via the Main Line; until November 2012, some LIRR trains ran via the Lower Montauk Branch to and from this station. This station was built on June 26, 1854, rebuilt seven times during the 19th Century. On December 18, 1902, both the two-story station building and office building owned by the LIRR burned down; the rebuilt, fire-proof, station opened on April 26, 1903. Electric service to the station began on June 16, 1910. Before the East River Tunnels were built, this station served as the terminus for Manhattan-bound passengers from Long Island, who took ferries to the East Side of Manhattan to the East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Murray Hill, the James Slip Ferry Port in what is today part of the Two Bridges section of Lower Manhattan.
The passenger ferry service was abandoned on March 3, 1925. A track spur split from the Montauk Branch east of the Long Island City station, running along the south border of the station before curving north to the North Shore Freight Branch running between 48th and 49th Avenues, where there were connections to car floats at what is today the Gantry Plaza State Park; these car floats carried freight trains to and from Manhattan and New Jersey until the mid-20th century. Today, ferry service is operated by NYC Ferry; the station house was torn down again in 1939 for construction of the Queens–Midtown Tunnel, but still continued to operate as an active station, as it does today. This station has three concrete high-level island platforms; the northernmost platform, Platform A, is two cars long and is accessible from Borden Avenue just west of Fifth Street. Platforms B and C are used by employees only, are only accessible from the secured area of the rail yard. All tracks without platforms are used for train storage.
The southernmost four tracks are powered by third rail, while the remaining are only used by diesel-powered trains. Harrison, Richard J.. Long Island Rail Road Memories: The Making of a Steam Locomotive Engineer. New York: Quadrant Press. P. 53. ISBN 0-915276-36-4. Long Island City – LIRRLong Island City LIRR TimetableLong Island City Station Station from Google Maps Street View Northern platform from Google Maps Street View Entrance to Northern platform from Google Maps Street View
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Parks rejected bus driver James F. Blake's order to relinquish her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation, but the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People believed that she was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws. Parks' prominence in the community and her willingness to become a controversial figure inspired the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year, the first major direct action campaign of the post-war civil rights movement, her case became bogged down in the state courts, but the federal Montgomery bus lawsuit Browder v. Gayle succeeded in November 1956.
Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation, she organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP. At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, she had attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers' rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen "tired of giving in". Although honored in years, she suffered for her act. Shortly after the boycott, she moved to Detroit, where she found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American US Representative, she was active in the Black Power movement and the support of political prisoners in the US. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over and there was more work to be done.
In her final years, she suffered from dementia. Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP's 1979 Spingarn Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman to lie in honor in the Capitol Rotunda, becoming the third of only four Americans to receive this honor. California and Missouri commemorate Rosa Parks Day on her birthday February 4, while Ohio and Oregon commemorate the occasion on the anniversary of the day she was arrested, December 1. Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913, to Leona, a teacher, James McCauley, a carpenter, she was of Cherokee-Creek descent with one of her great-grandmothers having been a documented Native American slave. Additionally, she had a Scots-Irish great-grandfather, she suffered poor health with chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, just outside the state capital, Montgomery.
She grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents and younger brother Sylvester. They all were members of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, a century-old independent black denomination founded by free blacks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the early nineteenth century. McCauley attended rural schools until the age of eleven; as a student at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Parks went on to a laboratory school set up by the Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes for secondary education, but dropped out in order to care for her grandmother and her mother, after they became ill. Around the turn of the 20th century, the former Confederate states had adopted new constitutions and electoral laws that disenfranchised black voters and, in Alabama, many poor white voters as well. Under the white-established Jim Crow laws, passed after Democrats regained control of southern legislatures, racial segregation was imposed in public facilities and retail stores in the South, including public transportation.
Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for whites. School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, black education was always underfunded. Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs: I'd see the bus pass every day... But to me, a way of life; the bus was among the first ways I realized there was a white world. Although Parks' autobiography recounts early memories of the kindness of white strangers, she could not ignore the racism of her society; when the Ku Klux Klan marched down the street in front of their house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. The Montgomery Industrial School and staffed by white northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists, its faculty was ostracized by the white community. Bullied by white children in her neighborhood, Parks fought back physically.
She said: "As far back as I remember, I could never think in terms of accept
Long Island Rail Road
The Long Island Rail Road abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, it is one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems owned by the MTA, the other being the Metro-North Railroad in the northern suburbs of the New York area. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since it is one of the oldest railroads in the United States still operating under its original name and charter. There are 124 stations and more than 700 miles of track on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles of route.
As of 2018, the LIRR's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.6 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered in 1834 to provide a daily service between New York and Boston via a ferry connection between its Greenport, New York, terminal on Long Island's North Fork and Stonington, Connecticut; this service was superseded in 1849 by the land route through Connecticut that became part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The LIRR refocused its attentions towards serving Long Island, in competition with other railroads on the island. In the 1870s, railroad president Conrad Poppenhusen and his successor Austin Corbin acquired all the railroads and consolidated them into the LIRR; the LIRR was unprofitable for much of its history. In 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought a controlling interest as part of its plan for direct access to Manhattan which began on September 8, 1910; the wealthy PRR subsidized the LIRR during the first half of the new century, allowing expansion and modernization.
Electric operation began in 1905. After the Second World War, the railroad industry's downturn and dwindling profits caused the PRR to stop subsidizing the LIRR, the LIRR went into receivership in 1949; the State of New York, realizing how important the railroad was to Long Island's future, began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the LIRR was placed under the control of a new Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority. The MCTA was rebranded the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968 when it incorporated several other New York City-area transit agencies. With MTA subsidies the LIRR modernized further, continuing to be the busiest commuter railroad in the United States; the LIRR is one of the few railroads that has survived as an intact company from its original charter to the present. The LIRR operates out of three western terminals in New York City, with a fourth expected by the early 2020s.
Major terminals include: Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest of the western terminals, serving 500 daily trains. It is reached via the Amtrak-owned East River Tunnels from the Main Line in Long Island City; the New York City Subway's 34th Street–Penn Station and 34th Street–Penn Station stations are next to the terminal. It connects LIRR with Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. Atlantic Terminal Flatbush Avenue, in Downtown Brooklyn serves most other trains, it is next to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station complex, providing easy access to Lower Manhattan. Rush-hour trains run to one of two stations in Long Island City, Queens: the Hunterspoint Avenue station, or the Long Island City station on the East River. From Hunterspoint Avenue, the Hunters Point Avenue subway station can be reached for Midtown Manhattan access; the same subway trains can be reached from Long Island City station at the Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue subway station. It connects to the NYC Ferry's East River Ferry to Midtown or Lower Manhattan.
Access to a fourth major terminal is under construction. As early as 2022, the LIRR intends to start service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal via the East Side Access; the East Side Access project will reduce congestion while increasing the number of trains during peak hours. However, some February 2014 estimates push the opening date as far back as September 2024. In addition, the Jamaica station is a major hub transfer point in Jamaica, Queens, it has yard and bypass tracks. Passengers can transfer between trains on all LIRR lines except the Port Washington Branch. A sixth platform with two tracks is under construction and will serve Atlantic Branch shuttle trains to Brooklyn once completed. Transfer is made to separate facilities for three subway services at the Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK station, a number of bus routes, the AirTrain automated electric rail system to JFK Airport; the railroad's headquarters are next to the station. The Long Island Rail Road system has eleven passenger branches