Rwanda the Republic of Rwanda, is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is elevated; the climate is temperate to subtropical, with two dry seasons each year. The population is predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu and Twa; the Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy. Scholars disagree on differences between the Hutu and Tutsi. Christianity is the largest religion in the country; the sovereign state of Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who took office in 2000. Rwanda today has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations report suppression of opposition groups and restrictions on freedom of speech.
The country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times. Rwanda is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament. Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages, followed by Bantu peoples; the population coalesced first into clans and into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power and enacting anti-Hutu policies. Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy; the Hutu population revolted in 1959. They massacred numerous Tutsi and established an independent, Hutu-dominated state in 1962. A 1973 military coup saw a change of leadership; the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990. The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, died together when their aeroplane was shot down in April 1994.
Social tensions erupted in the 1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. The RPF ended the genocide with a military victory. Rwanda's economy suffered in wake of the 1994 genocide, but has since strengthened; the economy is based on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector. Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, visitors pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan culture drums and the choreographed intore dance. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art; the name "Rwanda" is derived from the Rwanda-Rundi word rwanda meaning "domain" or an "area occupied by a swarm". The official name of the country was "Rwandese Republic" until May 2003, when the adoption of a new national constitution changed it to its current name of "Republic of Rwanda".
Modern human settlement of what is now Rwanda dates from, at the latest, the last glacial period, either in the Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC. Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools; these early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda today. Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, clearing forest land for agriculture; the forest-dwelling Twa moved to the mountain slopes. Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations. An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering the existing society. Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose and was a class distinction rather than a racial one.
The earliest form of social organisation in the area was the clan. The clans were not limited to genealogical lineages or geographical area, most included Hutu and Twa. From the 15th century, the clans began to coalesce into kingdoms. One of these, the Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan, became dominant from the mid-eighteenth century; the kingdom reached its greatest extent during the nineteenth century under the reign of King K
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. In Europe, a lady-in-waiting was a noblewoman, but of lower rank than of the woman on whom she attended. Although she may either have been a retainer or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a courtesan or companion to her mistress than a servant. In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting referred to as palace woman, was in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high-ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a court lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services, she could become his wife or concubine. Lady-in-waiting or court lady is a generic term for women whose relative rank and official functions varied, although such distinctions were often honorary.
A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, when she has such freedom, her choices are heavily influenced by the sovereign, her parents, her husband, or the sovereign's ministers. The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court. During the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, Hincmar describes the royal household of Charles the Bald in the De Ordine Palatii from 882, in which he states that court officials took orders from the queen as well as the king. Merovingian queens are assumed to have had their personal servants, in the 9th century it is confirmed that Carolingian queens had an entourage of guards from the nobility as a sign of their dignity, some officials are stated to belong to the queen rather than the king. In the late 12th century, the queens of France are confirmed to have had their own household, noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. During the Middle Ages, the household of a European queen consort was small and the number of employed ladies-in-waiting, rather than wives of noblemen accompanying their husbands to court, was small: in 1286, the queen of France had only five ladies-in-waiting in her employ, it was not until 1316 that her household was separated from that of the royal children.
The role of ladies-in-waiting in Europe changed during the age of the Renaissance, when a new ceremonial court life, where women played a significant part, developed as representation of power in the courts of Italy and spread to Burgundy, from Burgundy to France, to the rest of the courts of Europe. The court of the Duchy of Burgundy was the most elaborate in Europe in the 15th century and became an example to France when the French royal court expanded in the late 15th century and introduced new offices for both men and women to be able to answer to the new renaissance ideal. From small circle of married femmes and unmarried filles, with a humble place in the background during the Middle Ages, the number of French ladies-in-waiting were expanded, divided into an advanced hierarchy with several offices and given an important and public role to play in the new ceremonial court life in early 16th-century France; this example was followed by other courts in Europe, where courts expanded and became more ceremonial during the 16th century, the offices and visibility of women expanded in the early modern age.
During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, most European courts started to reduce their court staff due to new economic and political circumstances which made court representation more questionable. The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette and dances prevalent at court. A number of tribes and cultural areas in the African continent, such as the Lobedu people of Southern Africa, had a similar custom on ladies-in-waiting in historic times. Within certain traditional states of the Bini and Yoruba peoples in Nigeria, the queen mothers and high priestesses were considered "ritually male" due to their social eminence. Due to this fact, they were attended on by women who belonged to their harems in much the same way as their male counterparts were served by women who belonged to theirs. Although these women functioned as ladies-in-waiting, were members of powerful families of the local nobility in their own right, were not used for sexual purposes, they were none-the-less referred to as their principals' wives.
In the late Middle Ages, when the court of the emperor no longer moved around the household of the empress, as well as the equivalent household of the German princely consorts, started to develop a less fluid and more strict organisation with set court offices. The court model of the Duchy of Burgundy, as well as the Spanish court model, came to influence the organisation of the Austrian imperial court during the 16th-century, when the Burgundian Netherlands and Austria was united through the Habsburg dynasty. In the early and mid 16th-century, the female courtiers kept by female Habsburgs in the Netherlands and Austria was composed of one hofmesterees or dame d'honneur who served as the principal lady in wa
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994. In 1995, it became located in Arusha, under Resolution 977.. In 1998 the operation of the tribunal was expanded in Resolution 1165. Through several resolutions, the Security Council called on the tribunal to complete its investigations by end of 2004, complete all trial activities by end of 2008, complete all work in 2012; the tribunal had jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity, violations of Common Article Three and Additional Protocol II of the Geneva Conventions. As of 2009, the tribunal had finished 50 trials and convicted 29 accused persons, another 11 trials were in progress and 14 individuals were awaiting trial in detention.
13 others were still at large, some suspected to be dead. The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, began in 1997. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister, pleaded guilty. According to the ICTR's Completion Strategy, in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1503, all first-instance cases were to have completed trial by the end of 2008 and all work was to be completed by 2010, it had been discussed that these goals may not be realistic and were to change. The United Nations Security Council called upon the tribunal to finish its work by 31 December 2014 to prepare for its closure and transfer of its responsibilities to the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals which had begun functioning for the ICTR branch on 1 July 2012; as of spring 2015, the Residual Mechanism had taken over much of the operations of the tribunal, the tribunal announced on 2 February 2015 that it was reducing staff with the goal of wrapping up operations and closing the tribunal by the end of 2015. The Tribunal was closed on 31 December 2015.
In March 2010, the ICTR announced plans to digitize all video recordings of the trials, both audio and video, in all three languages. This was part of a larger project; the Rwandan genocide refers to the mass slaughter of more than 800,000 ethnic Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu by government-directed gangs of Hutu extremist soldiers and police in Rwanda. The duration of the 1994 genocide is described as 100 days, beginning on April 6 and ending in mid-July. Tension between the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi had developed over time but was emphasized late in the nineteenth century and early in the twentieth century as a result of German and Belgian colonialism over Rwanda; the ethnic categorization of the two were an imposed and an arbitrary construct based more on physical characteristics than ethnic background. However, the social differences between the Hutu and the Tusi have traditionally allowed the Tutsi, with a strong pastoralist tradition, to gain social and political ascendancy over the Hutu, who were agriculturalists.
The distinction under colonial powers allowed Tutsis to establish ruling power, until a Hutu revolution in 1959 abolished the Tutsi monarchy by 1961. The hostility between the two groups continued, as “additional rounds of ethnic tension and violence flared periodically and led to mass killings of Tutsi in Rwanda, such as in 1963, 1967, 1973.” The establishment of the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its invasion from Uganda furthered ethnic hatred. A ceasefire in these hostilities led to negotiations between the government and the RPF in 1992. On April 6, 1994 a plane carrying President Juvenal Habyarimana, Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi was shot down, killing everyone on board; the Hutu held the RPF accountable, began the genocide, targeted at both Tutsis and Hutu moderates. Most of the killing during the Rwandan genocide was carried out by the radical Hutu groups known as the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi. Radio broadcasts were an integral part of the genocide, which further fueled the genocide by encouraging Hutu civilians to kill their Tutsi neighbours, labeled as “cockroaches” in need of extermination.
Despite its colossal scale within such a short period of time, the genocide was carried out entirely by hand with the utilization of machetes and clubs. Various atrocities committed include the rape of thousands of Tutsi women, as well as the dismemberment and disfigurement of victims; the killers were people the victims knew personally—neighbours, former friends, sometimes relatives through marriage. At least 500,000 Tutsis were killed, 2 million refugees left for refugee camps of neighboring Burundi, Tanzania and former Zaire; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda is regarded as a major failure. The international response to the Rwandan genocide was poor. For weeks, the major power nations denied; the United States refused to call the incident "genocide" because using the term would make an obligation for the United States to send troops. In July 1994, after the genocide was over, the UN Security Council called for an investigation of the events, acted
In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away and confinement of a person against their will. Thus, it is a composite crime, it can be defined as false imprisonment by means of abduction, both of which are separate crimes that when committed upon the same person merge as the single crime of kidnapping. The asportation/abduction element is but not conducted by means of force or fear; that is, the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly, e.g. in the belief it is a taxicab. Kidnapping may be done to demand for ransom in exchange for releasing the victim, or for other illegal purposes. Kidnapping can be accompanied by bodily injury. Kidnapping of a child is known as child abduction, these are sometimes separate legal categories. Kidnapping of children is by one parent against the wishes of a parent or guardian. Kidnapping of adults is for ransom or to force someone to withdraw money from an ATM, but may be for the purpose of sexual assault.
In the past, presently in some parts of the world, kidnapping is a common means used to obtain slaves and money through ransom. In less recent times, kidnapping in the form of shanghaiing men was used to supply merchant ships in the 19th century with sailors, whom the law considered unfree labour. Criminal gangs are estimated to make up to $500 million a year in ransom payments from kidnapping. Kidnapping has been identified as one source by which terrorist organizations have been known to obtain funding; the Perri and MacKenzie article identified "tiger" kidnapping as a specific method used by either the Real Irish Republican Army or Continuity Irish Republican Army, in which a kidnapped family member is used to force someone to steal from their employer. Bride kidnapping is a term applied loosely, to include any bride "abducted" against the will of her parents if she is willing to marry the "abductor", it still is traditional amongst certain nomadic peoples of Central Asia. It has seen a resurgence in Kyrgyzstan since the fall of the Soviet Union and the subsequent erosion of women's rights.
Express kidnapping is a method of abduction used in some countries from Latin America, where a small ransom, that a company or family can pay, is demanded. Tiger kidnapping is taking a hostage to make a loved one or associate of the victim do something: e.g. a child is taken hostage to force the shopkeeper to open the safe. The term originates from the long preceding observation, like a tiger does on the prowl. Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is a hybrid offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment. A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of life imprisonment that results from conviction. Article 282 prohibits hostaging. Part 1 of Article 282 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category. Part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth category if the victim has been killed.
Part 4 allows sentencing people. Part 1, 2 and 3 will apply to them. Kidnapping is an offence under the common law of Wales. Lord Brandon said in 1984 R v D: First, the nature of the offence is an attack on, infringement of, the personal liberty of an individual. Secondly, the offence contains four ingredients as follows: the taking or carrying away of one person by another. In all cases of kidnapping of children, where it is alleged that a child has been kidnapped, it is the absence of the consent of that child, material; this is the case regardless of the age of the child. A small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent; this means. It is a question of fact for the jury whether an older child has sufficient understanding and intelligence to consent. Lord Brandon said: "I should not expect a jury to find at all that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent." If the child did consent to being taken or carried away, the fact that the person having custody or care and control of that child did not consent to that child being taken or carried away is immaterial.
If, on the other hand, the child did not consent, the consent of the person having custody or care and control of the child may support a defence of lawful excuse. It is known as Gillick competence. Regarding Restriction on prosecution, no prosecution may be instituted, except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions, for an offence of kidnapping if it was committed against a child under the age of sixteen and by a person connected with the child, within the meaning of section 1 of the Child Abduction Act 1984. Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence. Kidnapping is punishable with fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate. A parent should only be prosecuted for kidnapping their own child "in exceptional cases
Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division, Rubaga Division. Surrounding Kampala is the growing Wakiso District, whose population more than doubled between 2002 and 2014 and as of 2014 Wakiso was reported to stand at over 2 million. Kampala was named the 13th fastest growing city on the planet, with an annual population growth rate of 4.03 percent, by City Mayors. Kampala has been ranked the best city to live in East Africa ahead of Nairobi and Kigali by Mercer, a global development consulting agency based in New York City. Before the arrival of the British colonists, the Kabaka of Buganda had chosen the zone that would become Kampala as a hunting reserve; the area, composed of rolling hills with grassy wetlands in the valleys, was home to several species of antelope impala. When the British arrived, they called it "Hills of the Impala"; the language of the Baganda, adopted many English words because of their interactions with the British.
The Baganda translated "Hill of the Impala" as Akasozi ke'Empala – "Kasozi" meaning "hill", "ke" meaning "of", "empala" the plural of "impala". In Luganda, the words "ka'mpala" mean "that it is of the impala", in reference to a hill, the single word "Kampala" was adopted as the name for the city that grew out of the Kabaka's hills"; the city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs, the Lubiri Palace, the Buganda Parliament and the Buganda Court of Justice. In 1890, British colonial administrator Capt. Frederick Lugard constructed a forum along Mengo Hill within the city, which allowed for the British to occupy much of the territory controlled by the Baganda, including Kampala. In 1894, the British government established a protectorate within this territory, in 1896, the protectorate expanded to cover the Ankole, Toro Kingdom, Bunyoro kingdoms as well. In 1905, the British government formally declared the entire territory to be a British colony.
From that time until the independence of the country in 1962, the capital was relocated to Entebbe, although the city continued to be the primary economic and manufacturing location for Uganda. In 1922, the Makerere Technical Institute, now known as Makerere University, started as the first collegiate institution both within Kampala, within the British colonies on the east coast of Africa. Following the 1962 independence, Kabaka Edward Mutesa a Buganda king, became the became the first executive President of Uganda but over thrown by Milton Obote, the prime minister and became president of Uganda, held the position until 1971, when former sergeant Idi Amin deposed his government in a military coup. Idi Amin proceeded to expel all Indian residents living within Kampala, attacked the Jewish population living within the city. In 1978, he invaded the neighboring country of Tanzania, in turn, the government there started the Uganda–Tanzania War, which caused severe damage to the buildings of Kampala.
The city has since been rebuilt with new construction of hotels, shopping malls, educational institutions, hospitals and the improvement of war torn buildings and infrastructure. Traditionally, Kampala was known to be a city of seven hills, but over time it has been proven to have a lot more. Kampala has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. A facet of Kampala's weather is. While the city does not have a true dry season month, it experiences heavier precipitation from August to December and from February to June. However, it's between February and June that Kampala sees heavier rainfall per month, with April seeing the heaviest amount of precipitation at an average of around 169 millimetres of rain. Kampala has been mentioned as a lightning-strike capital of the world; the main campus of Makerere University is in the Makerere Hill area of the city. Kampala hosts the headquarters of the East African Development Bank on Nakasero Hill and the Uganda Local Governments Association on Entebbe Road.
Kampala was built on seven hills, but as its size has increased, it has expanded to more hills than seven. The original seven hills are: The first hill in historical importance is Old Kampala Hill on which Fort Lugard the first seat of the British colonialists in Uganda; the second is Mengo Hill, the Kibuga(capital of Buganda kindgom at the start of British colonial rule The third is Kibuli Hill, home to Muslim faction of the Buganda religious wars of the 1888-1892 and current site of the Kibuli Mosque. The fourth is Namirembe Hill, home to the Anglican faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars and site of Namirembe Anglican Cathedral; the fifth is Lubaga Hill, home to the White Fathers Catholic faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars.and site of the Rubaga Catholic Cathedral. The sixth is Nsambya Hill site of the former Cathedral of St Peter's Nsambya and allocated to the British Catholic Mill Hill Mission during the signing of the Uganda Agreement; the seventh is Nakasero Hill on whose summit is Fort Nakasero a British military installation built after relocating from Fort Lugard in Old Kampala the hill was the site of European Hospital.
Other features of the city include the Uganda Museum, the Ugandan National Theatre, Nakasero Market, St. Balikuddembe Market. Kampala is known for its nightlife, which includes several casinos, notably Casino Simba in the Garden City shopping centre, Kampala Casino, and
Mutara III Rudahigwa
Mutara III Rudahigwa was King of Rwanda between 1931 and 1959. He was the first Rwandan king to be baptised, Roman Catholicism took hold in Rwanda during his reign, his Christian names were Charles Léon Pierre, he is sometimes referred to as Charles Mutara III Rudahigwa. Rudahigwa was born in March 1911, in the royal capital of Rwanda, Nyanza, to King Yuhi V Musinga, Queen Kankazi, the first of his eleven wives, he was a member of the Tutsi Abanyiginya clan. In 1919 he began his education at the Colonial School for Chiefs' Sons in Nyanza, subsequently becoming his father's secretary in 1924. In January 1929 he was administered a province. Rudahigwa became king on 16 November 1931, the Belgian colonial administration having deposed his father, Yuhi V Musinga, four days earlier, he took the royal name Mutara. He is sometimes referred to as Charles Mutara III Rudahigwa, he was the first Rwandan king to convert to Catholicism, converting in 1943 and taking the Christian name Charles Léon Pierre. His father had refused to convert to Christianity, the Rwandan Catholic Church perceived him as anti-Christian and as an impediment to their civilising mission.
Rudahigwa had been secretly instructed in Christianity by Léon Classe, the head of the Rwandan Catholic Church, since 1929, was groomed by the Belgians to replace his father. In 1946 he dedicated the country to Christ making Christianity a state religion, his conversion spearheaded a wave of baptisms in the protectorate. His reign coincided with the worst recorded period of famine in Rwanda between 1941 and 1945, which included the Ruzagayura famine, during which time 200,000 out of the nation's population of around two million perished. Knight Commander with Star of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, 1947 by Archbishop Giovanni Battista Dellepiane, Apostolic Delegate to Democratic Republic of Congo. During Rudahigwa's reign there was a marked stratification of ethnic identity within Ruanda-Urundi, the Belgian-ruled mandate of which Rwanda formed the northern part. In 1935 the Belgian administration issued identity cards formalising the ethnic categories, Tutsi and Twa. After World War II, a Hutu emancipation movement began to grow throughout Ruanda-Urundi, fuelled by increasing resentment of the inter-war social reforms, an increasing sympathy for the Hutu within the Catholic Church.
Although in 1954 Rudhahigwa abolished the ubuhake system of indentured service that exploited Hutus, this had little real practical effect. The monarchy and prominent Tutsi sensed the growing influence of the Hutu and began to agitate for immediate independence on their own terms, culminating in Rudahigwa's demand for independence from Belgium in 1956. In 1957, a group of Hutu scholars wrote the "Bahutu Manifesto"; this political manifesto denounced the "exploitation" of the Hutus by the ethnic Tutsi and called for their liberation from first Tutsi, Belgian, rule. Hutu political parties formed after that, with future-president Gregoire Kayibanda forming the Hutu Social Movement, Joseph Gitera creating Association for Social Promotion of the Masses. On 24 July 1959, Rudahigwa arrived in Usumbura, for a meeting with Belgian colonial authorities arranged by Father André Perraudin; the following day, he visited his Belgian doctor at the colonial hospital. The Belgian authorities put out conflicting explanations for his death.
One was that he complained of a severe headache and been treated by his doctor, but collapsed as he left the hospital of what was determined, by three doctors, to be a cerebral haemorrhage. Another Belgian explanation was. An autopsy was not carried out due to the objections of Queen Mother Kankazi. Rumours that he had been deliberately killed by the Belgian authorities were rife, tensions rose: ordinary Rwandans gathered along routes and stoned Europeans' cars. Rumours that he was in poor health, suffering from the effects of excessive drinking, as well as the effects of untreated syphilis, are claims unverified by any evidence. A Twa attendant of the king said he was in great health at the time, supported by his active engagement in sporting activities including vigorous games of tennis. Rudahigwa was succeeded by Jean-Baptiste Ndahindurwa, as Kigeli V. Mutara married Nyiramakomali on 15 October 1933 and they divorced in 1941, he married Rosalie Gicanda, a Christian, in a church wedding on 13 January 1942.
After Rudahigwa's death, Rosalie Gicanda remained in Rwanda. She was murdered in 1994 during the Rwandan Genocide on the orders of Idelphonse Nizeyimana, he was detained, convicted by a UN war crimes court, sentenced to life imprisonment. Généalogies de la noblesse Vicariat Apostolique du Ruanda Kabgayi. Detailed genealogical record of Rwandan nobility: Scanned copy Plain text copy
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region. They were referred to as the Watutsi, Wahuma, Wahima or the Wahinda; the Tutsi form a subgroup of the Banyarwanda and the Barundi peoples, who reside in Rwanda and Burundi, but with significant populations found in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania.. Tutsis are nilotic and the second largest population division among the three largest groups in Rwanda and Burundi. Small numbers of Hema and Furiiru people live near the Tutsi in Rwanda; the Northern Tutsi who reside in Rwanda are called Ruguru, while southern Tutsi that live in Burundi are known as Hima, the Tutsis who resides in Masisi, in Kivu and they are known as Banyamasisi and the Tutsi that inhabit the Kivu plateau in the Congo go by Banyamulenge. The definitions of "Hutu" and "Tutsi" people may have changed through location. Social structures were not stable throughout Rwanda during colonial times under the Belgian rule.
The Tutsi aristocracy or elite was distinguished from Tutsi commoners, wealthy Hutu were indistinguishable from upper-class Tutsi. When the Belgian colonists conducted censuses, they wanted to identify the people throughout Rwanda-Burundi according to a simple classification scheme, they defined "Tutsi" as anyone owning more than ten cows or with the physical feature of a longer nose, or longer neck associated with the Tutsi. Tutsis were said to have arrived in the Great Lakes region from the Horn of Africa. Tutsis have lived in the areas where they are for 400–500 years, leading to considerable intermarriage with the Hutu, a Bantu people in the area. Due to the history of intermingling and intermarrying of Hutus and Tutsis and historians have come to agree that Hutu and Tutsis cannot be properly called distinct ethnic groups. Modern-day genetic studies of the Y-chromosome indicate that the Tutsi, like the Hutu, are of Bantu extraction. Paternal genetic influences associated with the Horn of Africa and North Africa are few, are ascribed to much earlier inhabitants who were assimilated.
However, the Tutsi have more haplogroup B paternal lineages than do the Hutu. Trombetta et al. found 22.2% of E1b1b in a small sample of Tutsis from Burundi, but no bearers of the haplogroup among the local Hutu and Twa populations. The subclade was of the M293 variety, which suggests that the ancestors of Tutsis in this area may have assimilated some Southern Cushitic-speaking pastoralists, its parental marker E-V1515 is thought to have originated in the northern part of the Horn of Africa around 12,000 to 14,000 years ago. There are no peer-reviewed genetic studies of the Tutsi's maternal lineages. However, Fornarino et al. report that unpublished data indicates that one Tutsi individual from Rwanda carries the India-associated mtDNA haplogroup R7. In general, the Tutsi appear to share a close genetic kinship with neighboring Bantu populations the Hutus. However, it is unclear whether this similarity is due to extensive genetic exchanges between these communities through intermarriage or whether it stems from common origins: generations of gene flow obliterated whatever clear-cut physical distinctions may have once existed between these two Bantu peoples – renowned to be height, body build, facial features.
With a spectrum of physical variation in the peoples, Belgian authorities mandated ethnic affiliation in the 1920s, based on economic criteria. Formal and discrete social divisions were imposed upon ambiguous biological distinctions. To some extent, the permeability of these categories in the intervening decades helped to reify the biological distinctions, generating a taller elite and a shorter underclass, but with little relation to the gene pools that had existed a few centuries ago; the social categories are thus real, but there is little if any detectable genetic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. Tishkoff et al. found their mixed Hutu and Tutsi samples from Rwanda to be predominately of Bantu origin, with minor gene flow from Afro-Asiatic communities. Their average height is 5 feet 9 inches, although individuals have been recorded as being taller than 7 feet. Prior to the arrival of colonists, Rwanda had been ruled by a Tutsi-dominated monarchy after mid-1600. Beginning in about 1880, Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in the Great Lakes region.
When German forces occupied the area during World War I, the conflict and efforts for Catholic conversion became more pronounced. As the Tutsi resisted conversion, missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes. In Burundi, Tutsi domination was more entrenched. A ruling faction, the Ganwa, soon emerged from amongst the Tutsi and assumed effective control of the country's administration; the area was ruled as a colony by Belgium. Because the Tutsi had been the traditional governing elite, both colonial powers kept this system and allowed only the Tutsi to be educated and to participate in the colonial government; such discriminatory policies engendered resentment. When the Belgians took over, they believed it could be better governed if they continued to identify the different populations. In the 1920s, they required people to identi